xt7mw669687q https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7mw669687q/data/mets.xml Kentucky Negro Education Association Kentucky Kentucky Negro Education Association 1950 The most complete set of originals are at Kentucky State University Library. Call Number 370.62 K4198k journals  English Kentucky Negro Educational Association: Louisville, Kentucky  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal African Americans -- Education -- Kentucky -- Periodicals The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.21 n.2, March, 1950 text The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.21 n.2, March, 1950 1950 1950 2020 true xt7mw669687q section xt7mw669687q 74.
ll. N. E. ll. Journal

Oflicial Publication of the Kentucky Negro Education Association

VOL. XXI MARCH, 1950 No. 2

Published by the Kentucky Negro Education Asociation
Editorial Ofiice nt 2230 West Chestnut Street
Inuisville 11, Kentucky


w. in. Perry, J12, Executive Secretary. Louisville, Managing Editor
Whitney Mi Young, Lincoln Ridge, President of K. N. E A.


Memneeehip in the K. N. E. A. includes subscription to theJovnNAL.
Rates of advertising mailed on request.

Table of Contents


Editorial Comment. . . ,3


Announcements .............................................. 4

Articulation in a Full Program of Vocational
Guidance, Edgar P. Westmon'eland .......................... 5

Guides For Clear Thinking, J. K. Long ........................ l0

Why Negroes Are Opposed to Segregated Regional
Schools, Charles H. Thompson ............................ 11

K. N . E. A. Honor Roll ..................................... 20

 K. N. E. A. OFFICERS FOR 1949-1950

Whitney M, Young, President ........ .Lincoln 1nd,;E




W. B. Chenault. First Vice-President. . .Stanford

B. G. Patterson, Second VicerPresident .Georgetown

Alice D. Samuels. Historian .Frankfort

W. H. Perry, Jr., Secretary-Treasure .Louisville

Whitney M. Young. President. Lincoln Ridge

Robert L. Dowery. Shelbyvillt

. Louisville
. . Paducah

C. B. Nuckolls.
Victor K. Perry.
E. W. Whitmide.


.Bowiing Green

Edward T. Buford, High School-College Department...
Mnyrne R. Morris, Elementary Education Department
Emma B. Bennett, Rural School Department .........
R. L. Carpenter, Music Department ............








B. w. Browne, Vocational Education Department, .Pnducah
John v. Robinson, prineipalr' Conference. . . . .Elizabethtown
Arline B. Allen, Primary Teachers Department Louisville
Hattie Figg Jackson, Art Teachers' Conference Louisville
H. s. Smith. Social Scienoe Teachers' Conference. Frankfurt
E. T. Woolridge, Science Teachers' Conference. . . .Louisville
Christine 13. Redd, English Teachers' Conierenoe. . .Louisvillo
Mary M, Spradling. Librarians’ Conference.. Louisville
W, L. Kean. physical Education Department. ..I.ouisville
w. H. Craig. Guidance Workezs' Conference ........ .Coyington


Lonisr. i ”I;


A. J. Richards, Foreign Language Teachers‘ Conference.
William T. Davidson, Adult Education Conference, , .



First District Association
Second District Association
.Third District Association
Fourth District Association
, .Fifth District Ass/aviation
Blue Grass District Association
. .Northern District Association
........ Eastern District Association
Upper Cumberland District Association



Bettie C. Cox. Paducnh
Jaeoh Brennugh, Hoplunsvllle,
L. J. Twylnan, Glasgow. .
N. S. Thomas, Horse Cave
w. L. spear-mun, Sn, Loumi e
w. B. Chenault, Staniorrl.
H. R. Merry, Covington. .
Karl Walker, Hazard .....
H. S. Osborne, Middlcsbnm.






 Editorial Comment . . . .

Announcement has just been made, as we go to press, that the
Kentucky House of Representatives has amended the Day Law by
a vote of 50-16. The Senate had previously approved the amend-
ment by a 23-3 vote. The Day Law, drafted over forty years ago
by Representative Day and passed by a Legislature of that period,
made it illegal to instruct Negro and white people in the same class,
and has been the biggest obstacle faced by those working for the
education of Negroes.

The amended bill provides that Negroes may attend any insti-
tution of higher learning in Kentucky if its governing body approves,
and if comparable courses are not offered at Kentucky State College.
The amendment, which had the support of Governor Earl E. Cle-
ments, was introduced by Senator Leon J. Shaikun, of Louisville, after
much of the ground work had been done by Representative Jesse H.
Lawrence, also of that city. The K. N. E. A. commends these
leaders upon the success of their efforts.

Repeal of the Day Law has been a major issue in the legislative
effin’ts of our organization for many years. We are encouraged
that within the last two years so much progress in fair thinking has
been made that the current amendments were possible. We are not
unmindful that Governor Clements gave them his official blessing.
We believe the experience throughout the State wherever integra-
tion may be permitted will be as satisfactory as it has been at the
University of Kentucky.


The idea of regional universities has been widely discussed during
recent years. It has its good points. But having originated in the
extreme South, it includes as a main element the acceptance of
racial segregation. This is the one point that has made it objection»
able to Negro and other progressive leaders. As the movement
progressed, Kentucky, officially, has been in contact, but not in active
participation. The plan, on its presmtation to the Kentucky Legis
Iature, was viewed with concern by our Association, which joined


 with others in ohiecting to any plan which would accept segregation,
and thus offset the gains made elsewhere. At this writing, the matter
is before the Legislature of our Commonwealth An article, present»
ing clearly the attitude of Negro leaders on the out stion. is presented
elsewhere in this issue of the Journal.


Plans for the Seventy-fourth Annual Convention of the K. N.
E. A., April 12-14, are completed, and another intEresting and in-
spiring meeting is assured. Top flight orators whine. thinking
matches their eloquence have been seemed for the public meetings,
and every departmental chairman has arranged a live topic for the
consideration of his department. The convention theme, “Ermloring
New Frontiers in Vocational Training and Vocational Opportunities"
will be well introduced at the opening meeting on Wednesday evening,
April 13, by J. A‘ Thomas, Industrial Relations Secretary of the
National Urban League, who will speak on the subject. “New Fron-
tiers in Vocational Opportunities.”
' ' Dr. Felton G. Clark, Jr., President of Southern University, Baton
Rouge, Louisiana, and Attorney James M. Nabrit, Secretary of
Howard University, Washington, D. C., will address the public
meeting on Thursday evening, April 13.

The annual Principals Banquet will he held at the Brock Building
on Thursday, April 13, at 5:00 RM.

The annual election of officers will be held on Friday, April 144

Social events include the annual K. N. E. A. dance, Wednesday
evening, April 12, at the Brock Building, and the Kentucky State
College Alumni Dance on Thursday evening, April 13.

R. L. Dowery Announces Candidacy for Presidency of K. N. E
A. (see article on page 17).


Address by EDGAR l>. Wns'monELANn, Supervisor at Industrial Arts and Vera
tional Training, Washington, D. c., More Kentucky Negro Education Associa-
tion, Iouisville. Kentucky, April 20, 1949

It is a great honor to he asked to participate in this public meeting of the
Kentucky Negro Education Association. _

In coming to you from the nation's capitol, 1 bring greetings iron: the Wash—
ington School Club, the Oolurnbian Education Association, and from our First
Assistant Superintendent of Schools, in charge or Divisions 10—13, Dr. Garnet C.
Wilkinson. He heartily indorses the principle of mutual exchanges of ideas
and opinions. We, too, in the District of Columbia. are very much interested
in the theme of this convention-“Education for a fuller realization of democracy]!
That this theme also has a national and international interest is evidenced by
the liberations now going on in Congress; the development or the Atlantic Pact,
the crisis in China, the work of the United Nations. and such far-reaching problems
whose final solutions will depend upon the direction and leadership of an edu-
cated people.

1. On the national level we are now making some headway. According to

Dr. Earl J. McGrath, recently appointed Commissioner of Education,
“It has been the view of the large majority of Americans that all children.
regardless of their origins or social status. should have the chance to de~
velop their abilities to the fullest."

2. Federal Administrator Oscar R. Ewing recently expressed this opinion.
“We in America have something unique. I don't mean wealth or power,
or any material thing. I mean the part or our democracy that is still
largely a dreamihut a very, very real one. I mean the ideal of equal
opportunity. . . . We all know it hasn‘t been achieved Millions
of children have the cards stacked against them merely because their
parents happen to be poor or because they happen to helium in the wrong
part at the country. Millions more are denied equality of opportunity
(or purely arbitrary reasons—race or color or religion."

3. Vice President Barkley, speaking last mum}: to the National Conference
of Christians and Jews, challenged the American people to form a united
Vl‘rant against inwleranoe and bigotry. The theme of this convention is,
therefore, very timely.

The history of education in Amerim presents a panorama of emphasis in the
educational process. In the earlier years, the focal points were the mastery of
skills and the memorization of facts. There was little else. Little, it any,
attention was given to the student as a personality. to his moral, social, and civic
Consciousness, to his health, or his use of leisure time. Little. if any, attention
was given to the development of the students’ judgment, discernment, initiative.
and ability to analyze and solve basic problems of living. In short, little, if
any, attention was given to Ayticulatiow—the process of relating the use of
skills to life, and of the inter—relationships among the facts learned as between
those facts and lite. (For example, the oilrerenee between 11,0 and Rise.)


 We then mine to a realization that something was wrong; we found a.
were failing too many children We discovered that schools were losing their
holding power, and that dropouts were far too numerous. Truancy WAS a recur.
ring and rather general problem. Then, very belatedly, individual diueronm
were discovered. We were shocked to learn of the spread in the range of the
i. Q. at any grade level. We discovered sigaifiointly that the mental age range
showed in homogeniety whatever in terms of the memal development ofstudenu
who were working together. Finally. convinced that children actually an
din'mnt, we came to three very important conclusions: (1) that we must dis
continue our former unsumessiul eli‘orts to make the students conform to a rigid
highly mechanized school program; (2) that we must instead adjust the school
program to the varying ahllitim and interests of students; and (3) that since the
student is a complete and complex mechanism, and since he must live in a
highly complex world, we must respect the wholeness of the individual student
hy broadening the school program far beyond the drilling check-filing procedures
oi the port _

Taking a paint of departure from this briefly stated panoramic background cl
educational development, I shall attempt to briefly outline some of the basic
principles involved in articulating a full program of vocational guidance. I agree
with the thesis that “Vocational Guidance is the full promss of amusinling the
individual with the various ways in which he may discover and use his natural
endowments, in addition to special training from any source, so that he may live
and make a living to the best advantage to himself and country; that this process
hegins with life and continues lhmufllout its duration."

Atlithwtbe process of J g together the elements or such a program,
is necessary, therefore, if the objectives of self-realization, human relationships
civic m ' ility, and economic efiuiency are to he realized Articulation, 1
repeat, is necessary in a full program of vocational guidance if we are to he
complish a continuous process designed to help the individual to choose to plan
(or, I» enter upon, and to make progress in any occupation.

It is commonly agreed that public education should prepare for life as well
.a for entrance into collage; and that the standard three or tour year high school
curriculum does not satisfy all needs. In our democracy the education of the
child will eventually continue through high school and prohahly through tech-
nical institutes as well. There must he a reorganization of the high school to
accommodate its curricula to these needs,

Also, there is common recognition of the need for the mastery of basic infiel-
lectual skills—reading, writing, arithmetic, and perforce thinking. You might
add an additional B—Respectr—respect lcr constituted authority and the right
of others In fact, educational trends seem to have taken a decided shift toward
a mmicnlum which will actually prepare all students for society. and for economic
eiiinienty in an American industrial Democracy.

Any consideration, thereicre. at some oi the problems mulling irom the
established conception of general education as it exists today. should not be can-
strued as criticism; hut rather as an approach to the process of Articulation—
tha joining together cl theory and practice into a functional program ct educa-
tion for optimum contributions to community life. The recent Prosser Resolu-



 am. has tarnished an acceptable basis for such growth in public education. and
a national mmmitlee is now working on this important problem.

Awarding to Fax-Commissioner Studebaker, data. in 1939. showed that of the
15 million adults in this country. 64 million did not finish high school and 32
million of these did not finish the eighth grade of elementary school. That-
ligures reveal a major educational problem which is not being solved by legisln-
tion nor by establishing cardinal principles—setting up socioeconomic goals and
designating areas of influential experiences as common patterns {or all. The
solution suggests articulation and indicates the need of inauglflafing a policy or
doing in a few years all the practical ‘eduoation poen‘hle in order to arable
andeeprepared students to meet the practical situations of life.

In addition to this major problem or occupational adjustment, which is com-
mon to all groups and communities, including Kentucky and the District of
Columbia. there are additional educational problems which are mmplimted by
social and economic [filficfim over which the school has no direct control.

For example. it is a known tact that any given community draws on nnny
other communities and their educational systems for its workers, and that few
parents work long in the community in which they receive their education. As
far back as 1914, E P. Ayres discovered that in the public schools in 78 cities of
horn 75.000 to 200,000 population, only one {other out or six or thirteen-yesr-clrl
boys was born in the dty in which he was their living. and that thirteen-year-uld
boys were born elsewhere.

In light or these and similar facts. the practical solution of occupational lire
expectancy for that portion or our youth represented in the now larger numbers
than the 64 million adults referred to by Eli-Commissioner Studebaker, suggests.
in amordanee with needs. interests. and abil es. (1) a sound basic preparation
[or the areas of occupational levels where entrance into emphyment is reason-
ably assured; and (2) a sound basic preparation for opportunity—YesE—prepam-
lion {or even such an emergency as was started at Pearl Harbor. and may now he
in the making behind the “Iron Curtain."

let me emphasize this in another way It is now generally accepted that a
definite sociological foundation {or the curriculum minis should always exists In
light at any sane social economic philosophy. the adjustments in curricula otter-
ings in publicly supported schools for our youth should facilitate their prepara-
tion not only for those occupational opportunities that exist. but also tor those
that may be created by the demand {or prepared and competent workers.

1 shall not attempt to indicate in detail the direction of curricula changes
on any edumtionnl level. 1 shall hrielly specily the gennsl trends and areas
involved. The commonly accepted formula for employment is E =MS +RTK+
Sm Where E notes employment in any skilled. technical or professional area.
MS the manipulative skills involved, RTK—the related sciences or technical
knowledgea that condition these skills: and SIB—‘the social industrial relation-
llhips. There you have the hand. the mind, and the heart involveds

Since World War [1, curriculum offerings in secondary vocational education
have been materially increased, but for all groups in mated areas, such de-
velopment has been entirely inadequate, both in the quantity and quality of
Shop ofl'erings. as well as in the areas of organized related technical knowledges,


 Curriculum ofi‘erings on all educational levels should be checked against the
above stated formula. 0n the secondary trade level, curriculum emphasis should
be on basic manipulative skills (shop work) that have broad application in varied
occupational areas in the numerous skilled trades. 0n the intermediate (tech,
niml institute level) and higher (professional and engineering levels), the emphasis
should be on the conditioning sciences. ALL curriculum offerings on all educa-
tional levels, induding teacher college, shmlld contain some provision for develop.
ing sca‘al industrial relationships (the proper attitudes) rdative to vomtionnl
ocwpafional contributions which all studenm will eventually make in saint
degree to community development.

As interested parties, all'eoted by a dual system of both education and employ~
ment practiws, it is essential, therefore, that we keep abreast of the growth in
American Industrial Practices and Prom. Already, according to the 1946
Year Book of the American Association of Technical High Schools and Institutes,
we are making wool and plastics from milk; rayon from wood; nylon from opal,
water and air; lsstex yarn from cotton und the milk of the nrhher tree; artificial
rubber from petroleum oragrinultural products; using ultra-violet light toteuderiu
the tough cuts of meat; the manufacture oi vitamins; the quick freezing of foods;
the manui‘anture oi vinyl plastic, a new safety glass; the manhiacuue of gloa
fibres and cloth: the making of the preciptmn which electrically removes all dust
from the air; the making of an othniont tluoresoent lamp, the nearest approach
to the cold light of the firefly; the manufacture of the electric eye with its many
uses; the production at airplane wings and hundreds oi other parts from plasma;
and the perfection of television. These are but a few of the products, machines
and processes that have been announced to the public; in addition, many more,
including radar and the industrial application of atomic energy will he made
available to the public in the near future.

The development of Vocational Guidance Programs of Education to meet the
practical situations or such advanced occupational lite odors a definite challenge.
The solution lies dormant in the process of articulation and must, in the main
Conform to the following six formulas of solution:

Flrsté The programs shall have as the primary preparatory objective the
“optimum” occupational adjustment oi the individual—(a) in accordance with
his needs, interests and capacities and (b) for the best interests of society accord
ing to a single standard set-up for American ideals or Damonany.

Here a complete program of guidance, including selection training, placing
and following-up on the job is implied

0n jobs in an Industrial Democracy where employahility involves (1) doing
diversified manipulative skills in designated occupational areas; (2) knowing the
related technical knowledges that condition these skills; and (3) understanding
the social and industrial significance of such jobs. According to Mays, “organ-
ized education meets its greatest opportunity to lead man to understand the
social and spiritual significance of the work at his hands.“

Second: The programs shall oontain provisions for measuring the resultll
at our preparatory training and shall include provisions tor supplementary train-
ing in amrdunce with resulting changes in individuals and in society.

 Here we awed to study and survey what our youth are doing—what adysngws,
stumbling blocks and why—to the end of vitalln‘ng part-time supplementary
programs. is implied. 'Night vocational and veteran training centers [or men
and women are important. Trenda indicate that these and similar training
programs wi'l moreeae in numher and In quality.

Third: The programs shall not remain static. Flexibility, dmigned to
facilitate adjustments to meet changing conditions and to add aontinuoualy tn
the improvement of occupational standards in accordance with recognized ideals
oi democracy, ahall permeate themr

Here continued research, guidance, and enrichment and broadening of courses
or study are implied, As wood became ohaclete, we taught skills in concrete
and metals: when bolting became too slow, we taught welding; and now when
“blitzkrieg" and atomic production became necessary to insure democracy. we
must teach "blitzkrieg“ and utnmic theories, methods, and promsses,

Fourth: The programs shall attempt to determine dropout expectancy
from one to two yeur-a in advance, and shall administer to this group a practical
program at sound basic education ofa semi—skilled nature in trade and industry.
in homemaking, in dis llnltive occupations. or in agriculture, and the liliei
designed to facilitate optimum entrance into gainful and useful employment.
The development of opportunity and aimilar achooh is implied here. The duty
oi any democratic government to provide educational opportunity for all its
people is manifest in the very nature of government. Present limg'slatioo. now
being considered in Congress, is evidence of the trend to equalize educational
opportunities among all States, and for all people within these States.

vFltth: Our programs ahall further operate to prevent premature droplouts
helore the oompletion oi such adequate educational preparation as is necessary
for useful living according to accepted American standards by (a) makiug‘pro-
viaian for individual dlfl'erences and capacities; and (h) developing flexibility
or methods and prowdnree. Here is implied the poeaible development or a
"vastibulbw program that should operate to facilitate transfers w and [rain
opportunity programs. The pooling of acceptable amdcmic and vocational
plineiples to accomplish a hexihle program to take care of the “Forgotten" 60%
of high school students is already in prams.

Sinht Finally, the programs shall develop in close cooperation with in.

dustry itself, through apprenticeship, onethejob, and diversified occupational
Mme, functional advisory committees, and through the continual bringing
into the work as inatnmm man and women who themselves have had some
sumaful wage-earning experience in industry.
. Many of our recent college graduates worked in occupations oi the defense
industries, and came in contact with labor unions and other industrial problems
{or the firm. timer Maine and other States are now requiring Vocational Teachers
to spend interval: of time i industry It is through such animal experiences
that we can develop the abilities tn lead others into a clearer understanding of
social-industrial relationships.

In conclusion and briefly, therefore, 1 haw, advocated a philosophy of voca—
unnal education that lies dormant in the principles of the above stated formulas
This philosophy is based on the assumptions that the range and diversity of apti-



 India and capacities are the same in any normal group of Americana; that the
prinm’ples of democnwy, so vital to Elm interests and needs of this chantry, will
increasingly beoorne reoognized and adhered to. in all States, in aoeepting oowpa.
Liana] efficiency measured by a single standard and that entranoe and advnm
ment in any nooupational area in all eommunr es of this oountry will depend
upon, ahilities measured by the American standards oi efliciency and activated
within the framework of fair mplnyment practices.

Finally. this philosnphy implies the administration of rounded curricula that
are daigned to meet the needs of all gmups in the development or suah basic
manipulative skills that are applicable to increasingly large areas of employment;
in the applieation of the nemry related subject matter as fsoilitetes a thorough
understanding of the prooesses involved in these manipulative skills; and in the
accomplishment of the proper attitudm involved in a sound social understanding
al‘ the needs, interests, and preservation of the American way of living. For
American standards, even democracy itseli‘. is at stake unlm all individuals of
all the diversified groups in America, are «wife-ed equal and adequuu educaljnual
opportunities for optimum occupational adjustments and in aaeordanoe with
their apfitndu, their abilities, and their willingnm, to make their mtrlhmiond
to an ever improving civilization.


by Dn. I. K. LONG
1. ln forming opinions, do I recognize tho possible diil'erenoe between those
opinions I prefer personally and those I may reaoh by rational thinkingi
2. When I take part in discussions, am I more ooneerned about carrying my
point or being sure that I am thinking clearly?
3. Do I realize that arguments I develnp in support of my opinions may he false?
4. la the question under onusidmfinn one about whirh I have emmional pro}
5. Am I willing to aeoept conclusions indimted by clear thinking it the san-
dusinns are contrary to my personal preference?
6. Am I as critical of my own opinions as I am or those of other people?
7. When I have reached a wnnluaian. do I have a tendency to close my mind
to Ember consideration of the quwtioni'
8. Am I willing to admit that I‘m wrong? (Not the “I may he wrong, hut"
attitude.) ‘
9. Do I inwardly protest against a challenge to revise my way of thinking?
loo Do I have too many unemmined opinions which no amount ofevidenoo would
incluoc me to change.a
ll. Do I adopt attitudes merely for the sake of differing with others, or do I
agree too readily with others?
12. Am I offended if other people don’t agree with me?
13. Do I reoognize as valuable and worthy to be followed only those ideas and
plans originated by myself?



hy CHARLES H. Tmmon
This is a 7:915»! of on article printed in the Winter, 1949 issue of The Journal of
Negro Education

011 December 13, 1948. it was announced in the daily press that the Regional
Council {or Edumtion. meeting in eonjunction with the Southern Governors‘
Conterense in Savannah, Georgia, had approved plans and alloented funds to
begin regional woperutiou in gradunte and professional education in the South.
This action. the result of a number of preparatory ooniernnots. was taken to
meet a threeiold problem faced by the South. Fir-at, as is mm in many states
of the Union, as well in in adjoining atom in the same region. there are a number
of duplications in plant, equipment and personnel which could be greatly reduced,
ll‘ not eliminated, by greater cooperation among the higher institutions in the
some states or in the several states comprising the region. Seoond, in addition
to this “normal" duplication there is the nhnorrnsl duplioation resulting from
the policy and practise oi rsoiul segregation which theoretically requires the
establishment of two “separate-but-equol“ systems oi schools, thereby further
intensifying the “normal" problem. ThirtL there has been and is inadequate
provision of terrain graduate and professional ineilities. for both racial groups,
because of the inability, in most cases, (and the inndvisahill‘ty. in others) of the
individual states to provide adequate educational servlws in certain areas such
rs forestry, veterinary medicine. and the like.

This recent news release is the announcement of the fact that the South
through the Southern Governora' Conference has taken the first concrete step
in the direction of meeting these problems on a regional basis. The Regional
Council for Education. with former Governor Millard I". Caldwell, of Florida,
rs chairman: Clyde A. Erwin. State Superintmdent of Education in North
Carolina. as vice-chairmln; and H. C. Byrd, President ml“ the University of Mary-
land, as secretary-treasurer. has been set up to work out ways and means of pro-
dding certain graduate and professional adulation on a regional basis.

Unfortunately, the Southern Governors' Conierenoe and the Council iteel!
have decided that such regional cooperation will be set up and administered on
a segregated basis. Thus, regional services will he provided tor Negroes and
whites separately It is this segregated aspect oi the plan to which Negroes
object, and with greater unanimity than I have noted in some time. In an
eh'ort m ascertain the reasons for this near unanimity ofopposition against segre-
BIWI regional cooperation in higher education, I have made some extensive in-
quiries, and have found that the bases of this opposition are not only sound
but persuunve.

The first phase of this opposition appeared at the Hearings, held on March 12
and 13. 1948, by a sub-Committee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, on
5- 1‘ Res. 191. This resolution embodied the request of the governors of 14 South
"n states {or “the consent of Congress to a compact entered into between the
Southern States at Tallahassee, Florida, on February 8, 194.8." In addition to a
number of telegrams and letters, repmentativa of some ten or twelve organiza-
lions appeared in opposition to the granting of Congressional oonsent to this
“mom. because it oomernplated the setting up of segregated regional educa-


 fional services. No one was opposed to the compact on any other grounds. M]
or the opposition was centered around the segregation aspect. It was argued
that Congressional consent was'not necessary to do what was contemplated under
the wmpacl, since the State of Virginia and the Meharry Medical College had
had such an agreement for four years. and the State University of West Virginia
and the University of Virginia had also had a similar contract for an equally long
time. Thus it was insisted that the main purpose (if not purpose certainly the
eflent} of this request was to obtain the implicit consent of Congress to the policy
of separate schools, thereby giving aid and comfort to the proponents of segrego.
tion when that issue came before the Ur S Supreme Court.

Apparently this argument was partially persuasive with the Senate Com-
mittee because it recommended that the compact be approved with the follow-
ing amendment: “Pnovmr-tn, That the consent of Congress to this compact
shall not in any way be construed as an endorsement of segregatinn in educa-
tion." However. when the Compact reached the Senate, some senators thought
that the Committee's amendment did not go far enough, and thus a further
amendment was proposed prohibiting the establishment of segregated schools
or services under the Compact. The Senate, aim several hours of debateV
effected a compromise between denying assent to the compact altogether,'aarl
approving it with an amendment prohibiting segregated schools, by sending it
back to the Committee~thus killing any chance of further consideration hy the
80th Congress.

In addition to the orgammtions (the majority oi which were Negro) which
appeared in cpposit' to s. J. Res. 19], several organisations have recently
reiterated their opposition in resolutions passed at their annual meetings. Just
to me