xt7n028pdp2j https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7n028pdp2j/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1897 journals kaes_bulletins_067 English Lexington, Ky. : The Station, 1885- Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin n.67. text Bulletin n.67. 1897 2014 true xt7n028pdp2j section xt7n028pdp2j KENTUCKY A L I
  AGRICULTURAL LXPLRLAALNL SLALLUN   ; A
STATE COLLEGE CE KENTUCKY. “
BULLETIN N0. 67.  
. -_- A A *
THE SAN JOSE SCALE IN KENTUCKY. ’ _
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  Q - KENT [J CK Y _
* l BOARD OF CONTROL. `
I ` A. P. GOODING. Chairman, Mayslick, Ky. `
T l ]. B. KENNEDY, Paris, Ky.
: `../. 3 _ HART BOSWELL, Lexington, Ky. I .
' j. K. PATTERSON, President of the College.
S M. A. SCOVELL, Director, Secretary.
· STATION OFFICERS.
I M. A. SCOVELL, Director.
I , A. l\I. PETER, I
`I Chemists. `
,3   _ H. E. CURTIS, I A
` ix ` , H. GARMAN, Entoznologist and Botauist.
C. \\`. I\IATHE\VS, Horticulturist.
_ R. ]. SPURRF Superintendent of Field Experiments.
,` _ ]. N. HARPER, Dairynian.
Q V. E. MUNCY, Weather Observer.
' MISS ALICE M. SHELBY, Stenographer.
I Address of the Station—LEXINGTON, KY.
  - NOTICE.
  The Bulletins of the Station will he mailed free to any citizen of
. Kentucky who sends his nanie and address to the Station for that purpose.
. Correspondents will please notify the Director of changes in their
_ post-oiiice address, or any failure to receive the Bulletins.
Annaicssz
KI2N'PUCK\' A(§RICUL'I`lTR.-\L Exi·1~1RIAr121I.ANTs. i
lit
in San jose scale attacks most, or all of the deciduous
Ut fruit trees and shrubs. It spreads from them at times to
i¤ , other plants, such as linden, elm, osage orange, etc., but
Nl is preeminently a fruit pest, and as such has no equal at
id j present in this country.
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    · , _ 46 Bulletin N0. 67. V
  f I THE NATURE OF ITS 1N]URY.
  4 Insects might be arranged in two groups, according
  to their manner of attacking plants. Such as the army
T worm, tobacco worm and potato beetle gnaw away and de-
` i vour the substance of plants, and can generally be de- .
2 — ; stroyed by putting poisons like Paris green on the plants T -
  they attack. But a more troublesome group is composed
_   Q of insects that are provided with piercing beaks by means
Z l V ` of which they suck up the sap of plants, Because of
their manner of feeding they cannot be readily killed
. unless some preparation with corrosive or other destruc-
. tive properties can be brought in contact with their
`· bodies. t
, ‘ The San jose scale is one of these puncturing in-
i   sects, and if one of the scales is removed and the insect
"».. ‘ll i beneath is carefully detached from the bark, the slender
V   i · beak, consisting of several very fine threads, will by the
procedure be withdrawn from the bark and may be seen .
__ . under the microscope arising from the mouth near the
ii g front end of the body.
  Now a single scale insect such as this, or even a hun-
’ ‘· dred, would do no serious harm to a thrifty tree, but the
San jose scale increases at so rapid a rate that the bark ‘
of infested trees soon becomes thickly covered, and the
insects may spread thence to leaves and fruit. It has
been stated that the offspring of a single female during
` ` one season would if all the eggs produced young and
  these matured, reach the astonishing number of three
· thousand millions. The rate of increase is undoubtedly
l extraordinary, and the figures given serve in a general
‘ way to explain why so small an insect can quickly be-
; come so very destructive. The millions of minute mouths
I constantly engaged in pumping out the sap drain infested ~
l plants of the materials they elaborate for their own
i   growth and sustenance, and the result is a gradual de-
cline and ultimate death. The injury may not be ac- .

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The San Jose Scale in Kentucky. 47 ,
companied by any unusual growth, though badly infested i
T twigs and fruit are sometimes deformed, but the tissue of . .
g ‘ both bark and fruit about the attacked scales often as- t ·
3;   sumes a quite characteristic reddish color.   , ,
  L SAN ]OSE SCALE ESPECIALLY LIABLE TO BE DISTRIB- ,  
td V UTED 1·`RoM NURSERIES. = '
is Unlike many other insect pests which frequent nur- i   _
nf series, this scale insect remains on the trees all the year
ed A round. It is present on the twigs of young trees when
c- these are shipped in the'fall and spring. Otherwise
ir than by this means it does not spread very rapidly,
and hence it is believed that a rigid inspection of nur- ._
n- sery stock will in great measure restrict it to localities in
ct; which it is now established.
ig THE DETECTION OF SAN ]0sE SCALE. ·
` (
*¤ WVhile the San jose scale may be recognized with a , `{
1€ useful degree of certainty by any intelligent man who is l
. provided with a good hand magnifier and has a definite .
¤· ` idea of its appearance, it is a rather diliicult matter to I
Je decide positively the question of species, because of the il
rk ` presence on certain fruits of scale insects belonging to · V
le the Same genus (Aspidiotns), and of very similar appear- i
3$ ance. Some little familiarity with the use of the com-
lg pound microscope is necessary, as well as a knowledge of E l
id methods of preparing small objects for miscroscopic ex- i _
€€ aniination. It is best for the practical man when in doubt ~
lY to submit the question for definite determination to ,`
al S0me one who has at hand conveniences for doing this 1
>€· kind of work. The Experiment Station at Lexington
h5 will make such examinations free of charge. Those send-
lid ing us infected twigs for examination are requested to
VB enclose them carefully in tight boxes. A small piece of
l€- infested twig which can be sent through the mail will be
.c·- sufhcient for the purpose.

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    Q p 48 Bulletin N0. 67.
  g DESCRIPTION. *
  2 I A The female scale is nearl circular in outline rather
J y )
  I flat, and has a small round nearly central cap. It varies
i _ in diameter from 1-25 to 2-25 inch. It is so closely fas-
I · tened to the bark commonly that its outer margin is not
, _ , clearly apparent even under a hand magnifier. The color I
; varies from gray to reddish brown and dark ash.
A I jb? W. . I
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A 1]%.wrY  —·i~t%C likely to suffer severely from invasion, the basis of which l
is inspection by State Entomologists. In a number of i A
> States such laws have already been adopted, and the
J probability is that in the course of the next three or four
2 years every State in the Union will have such a law in
2 operation. Kentucky should not be behind her sister _
- States in protecting the interests of her fruit growers, and
l it is to be hoped that the resolution adopted by our State
1 · Horticultural Society at its last meeting requesting the r
2 Governor of the Commonwealth to include the consider- p 1
t ation of this subject in his call for a special session of the _ —
2 General Assembly may lead to the passage of an effective ` °
2 law requiring that no infested nursery stock shall be  
1 shipped to buyers in this State. g
) There can be no question about the need of such l
legislation. That is conceded by everybody concerned. ‘ l_
t 4 Nor should there be any concerning the necessity of im-
, mediate action. Professor S. A. Forbes, Chairman of (
- the Committee on Entomology of the American Asso-   `
s — ciation of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, _
t writes in a recent letter: _
"Action cannot be taken too soon in this direction, ll
since danger of the importation, establishnient and
j spread of injurious insects and fungus diseases of fruits
{ increases rapidly with the very great increase in inter-
, state and international commerce in fruits and nursery
l _ stock. The nursery business is being largely revolution-
2 ized by specialization, each kind of stock being grown

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    · .. . 58 A Bzrllcfiit N0. 67. _ A — t
  ·* . most generaly inisome region especially adapted to it and
Q   thence shipped _far and wide on the `orders of nursery-
V _ Itnminent danger of the introduction ofthe San_ ·
. * Jose scale has greatly stimulated this movement, and,
é _ those States that are prompt andeiiergetic are the ones,
; V which are most likely to escapeigreat horticultural losses.,
' . I am glad to see that Kentucky people are moving in S
°   ' · this direction, andiliope that theirefforts to protect them-
' selvesiagaist invasion from without and to prevent the
_ multiplication and spread ot the fruit pests already es-_
V tablished in thatState may be suc`cessful.’.’   ° ` _
2 A State legislation alone cannot beiexpected to protect
e us from the· inroads of pests _1¤gp¤rted— on nursery stock
i Qt ‘ fromf foreign countries A large number of the most
;g,_   , troublesome species"have bee»n_brought.to th_is_ country in
‘   ‘ this manner. It is important that there should be in-
spection,_,under Federal authority at ports of entry; A,
V bill recently framedby a National cOtwe¤t1O’¤t (held at
F Washington, D. C., March 51 and 6, 18g;) _of fruit g'rowers,_
  nurserytnen and Station workers, providing for such in- A
} A. spection, has been presented to Congressf This conven-
A tion made the following recommendationswith reference ·
to State legislation against insect and fungus pests: i
Ist. That each State should provide for the proper
__ inspection of nurseries and other premises for the detec-
" ` tion of the presence of the San ]ose scale, or other dan-
  gerously iniurious insects or plant diseases.
‘ · ‘2d. That each State should provide for the proper
" and timely application of the most approved remedial or  
' preventive treatment when found necessary.  
. gd. That should packages of nursery stock, etc., be l
S _ shipped into a State contrary to law, z". ra, without proper
‘ _ inspection certificates attached, it ought to be so handled ·
, as to receive proper inspection and not be destoyed unless
condetnned by proper and competent authority. A

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The San Jose Scale in Iévztucky. SQ t  
4th. That each State co-operate in securing the 4 ,
passage and enforcement of a National law, providing ~ 4
against the introduction and dissemination of San jose ,
A · scale and other dangerously injurious insects and plant _ j
diseases by means of imports through inter-state com- ¤ i
merce. ¥ '
These recommendations have the endorsement of the k
foremost practical fruit growers in this country, and with l `
intelligent and progressive men such as these earnestly
advocating laws of this character there can be no ex-
cuse for failure to put them on our statute books.
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