xt7n2z12rr9m https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7n2z12rr9m/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1949-01 bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "A Handbook for Attendance Officers", vol. XVI, no. 11, January 1949 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "A Handbook for Attendance Officers", vol. XVI, no. 11, January 1949 1949 1949-01 2022 true xt7n2z12rr9m section xt7n2z12rr9m ;_. . ‘:_,.‘,,,.._.,._., 7-.:.,;,« ........

0 Commonwealth of Kentucky 0










Published by

Superintendent of Public Instruction


Entered as second- class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24,1912.

Vol. XVI January, 1949 No. 11











This handbook has been prepared to serve as a guide. 1111)::
further development of the attendance and. census program 11131e gm-
tuckv. Since the beginning of the program in 1934 the Stage]- held in
ment has prepared and distributed two bulletins, one p11 .18 H and
1934. entitled, “School Census and Attendance Arliniiiristiatiml book
a ret'ision of the same bulletin, published in 1.942. l‘lnsh lanfcieldS
represents an effort to bring together the best thinking in t ‘esearatimlv
A great many people have contributed and assisted in the p10? census
of this material. Much of the material relating: to the 50-100] 7 11b.
has been taken from the two bulletins which were p1‘ev10u's3 “1:31;-
lished. It is hoped that this bulletin will serve as a guide f01bnek for
tendanee officers and, at the same time, serve as a reference 00
those who have been working in this field.

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it Introduction

Many problems l'aee attendz'uiee personnel in Kentucky. One of

' the most important is enrolling and keeping in attendance hundreds

01‘ children of school age, If we believe that: the schools have been and
must ren'iain institutions for the education ot,’ boys and girls, which
extend to each individual as Illll(‘ll op}_)ortunity as possible to develop
his own talents, to acquire. those skills: attitudes and understandings
which will enable him to preserve our representative form of govern-
ment and to make his eontrilnuion toward the extension and enrich-
ment of the opportunities of all men, then we must insist that all of
our children attend school. If these ideals are worth while, then they
must not be limited to any segment of our population.

in order that all our children may share in the education that the
State provides, the Legislature enacted a hill into law which provides
for a. full time attendance worker in every district. It is the job of
this worker not only to see that children are kept in regular attend-
ance but to serve as a broad personnel worker.

ll. Training of Attendance Officers

When the present school code was passed in 1934, it provided that
0V91‘3‘ school district must employ a. full time Attendance Officer.
The law gave the State toard of Education. authority to set up stand—
ards for the issuance of Attendance Officers" Certificates. One of the
first certificates was issued on the basis of a t\vo»year curriculum for
The training of teachers. which included three semester hours in pupil
accounting or the, completion of a two-year standard college curricu—
lum which included 12 semester hours in education courses with three
semester hours in pupil pCrsonuel. Practically the same requirements
Were in effect until the State Board of Education adopted, June 20,
1947, new rules for the issuance of this type of certificate. During the
Years the thinking regarding attendance had changed. Formerly the
(’mlfllasis was placed on enforcement. The tendency today is to place
ihe major emphasis on the adjustn'icnt of children to the school. \Vith
this in mind, the State Board of Education provided that the follow-
1“t2,"regulation go into effect July 1, 1048:

A- The Provisional Certificate for Attendance Officers shall be

lFisued to a college graduate who holds a legal teaching certificate
01‘ meets the requirements for such certificate, who has had two





years of recent experience as a teacher or experience as an Attend-
ance Officer, and Who has completed the following minimum
essential courses:

(1) A course or courses in Pupil Accounting (Mechanics in
keeping records) and Pupil Personnel (child growth and
development guidance e, connseline with emphasis upon de-
\elopmenl of a guidance piomam in the sdiool s1sten1.)—
4 semester hours.

(‘2) 1\ course or courses in Norm/r ("use 5/11qu (study ol,‘ various
approaches to uiulerstanding' of the pupil with an educa—

tional setting as the basis of study) and (llnnmunity 0r?

{/mnlz'ations and ’l‘hcir Wor/r (understanding of actual phys-
ical set-up of a community with all the social organizations
and an understanding of the social and economic problems
of the com1111111ity)~—4 semester hours.

The Standard Certificate for Attendance Officers shall be issued

to a person who meets the requirements for a Provisional Cer-

tificate for Attendance Officers, and meets the requirements for

a. Masters degree with a major in Pupil Personnel, and presents

credit in one or more courses in each of five of the following:


(1) Mental hygiene or educational psychiatry

(2) Case work

(3) Medical and health resources

(4) Legal information with special reference to domestic rela-

(5) Techniques in guidance and counseling

(6) Individual. measurements and evaluation

The. Standard Certificate for Attendance, Officers shall be valid

for five years and may be renewed upon three years experience,

or six semester hours of approved graduate work.

III Types of Behavior Problems That Contribute to Poor

One of the great problems of the Attendance Officer is to prevent

and treat behavior problems of children. \Vorkms in the field of at
tendanee have erouped these problems as follows:

School Adjustment Ploblems (attendance, unfavorable classmol:
attitudes, unsuitable curricula, poor scholarship, lack of intel‘e
in school )

Home Adjustment Problems (adverse home conditions, “duff:
conflicts, neglect, lack of supervision, burdensome home U 1
economic inadequacies)





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Personal Adjustment Problems (aggressive tendencies, day-dream-
ing, emotional immaturity, fears, nervousness, unhappiness, with-
drawing behavior.)

Physical Problems (problems of general health, physical handi-
caps, pecularities causing a feeling of rejection! or ridicule.)

IV. Suggestions for Carrying Out a Good Attendance Program

A thorough knowledge of case work is recognized today as essen-
tial to a good program of attendance. The term “case work” is very
generally applied to a systematic study of a social problem. In order
to understand the cause of any difficulty concerning him, the at-
tendance supervisor must:

A. Gather information concerning (1) family background, (2)
school background, (3) community background and (4) the per—
sonal. history of the child concerned.

B. This information must be studiedobjectively in order to decide
upon a course of action. This study involves (1) a thorough
knowledge of child life. behavior and growth through educational
training and professional readings. (2) thorough understanding
of the entire school program, (3) thorough sensitiveness to com—
munity relations and conferences with such special service groups
as are available for physical, social, economic, educational and
emotional diagnosis.

0. The action decided upon as suited to meet the problem relative
to the child involves (l) clearing up home difficulties, (2) meet—
ing health needs. (3) changing the child ’s own attitudes, (4) use
Of all community facilities, (5) school adjustment to needs of
individual child.

V. Relationships With Other Agencies

Because the attendance officer acts as liaison to co-ordinatc all
Community resources in the effective attendance and school-adjust—
ment Dl‘Ogram, it is important that he be acquainted with all resources
HVailable to him—the agencies upon which he may call, the types of
flSsistance rendered by these agencies: and the methods of referral.
ADplication of this knowledge will eliminate duplication of effort. and
secure for the attendance officers sources of specialized services.
3- Clear welfare cases with the Department of Public Welfare and,
Wherever possible, use information which they may be able to
give. In case of special aid confer and write for information
Which might be helpful to your program.

Use the facilities available through the County Department of





Work actively with Parent-'l‘eaeher Association as a special
agency designed to promote better relationship between the
school and the home, and to build up concern for school attend-
ance of all children in a community

Red Cross

Secure special emergency services and assistance from the local
chapter of the American Red Cross. Services and financial aid
are limited to chapter and national organization policies and
regulations. Application, with case history, should be made to
chapter chairman, chapter secretary, or community board mem-

Civic, Religious, and I'lraternol Organizations

Establish good working relationship with all civic, religious and
fraternal organizations. The chief resourse available through
these is community interpretation and education. Arrangements
should be made for the attendance officer to discuss the program
with the membership in regular meeting. \Yhere the organization
has a child-welfare board or committee, close contact should be
established. Assistance for dental work and vision correction may
be secured from some of these organizatical










VI. Skills Useful to a Good. Attendance Program

In order to carry forward the service described it is necessary
for the school attendance supervisor to have sufficient training and
experience to develop special skills. Here are some of the skills:

Insight into the Elementary School Program. A knowledge of
the elementary school program is an essentilal for the Attendance
Officer. It: is well, indeed that they know something of the elementary
reading program. Many ol‘ our school attendance problems originate
with beginners, who have poor teachers. An Attendance Officer, when
a supervisor is not employed, should be able to offer some advice
where failures are occurring due to a lack of knowledge of the ele-
mentary program.

The .«mion/i/‘ic t/p/H’OI/(‘iL \Velcome new impressions, avoid bias,
search for truth. be ready to discard old beliefs and theories when
they have been disproved.

Alertness. As each new situation develops be alert to observe
the individual to identify yourself sympathetically with a client, yet
maintain your own integrity and critical capacities.

Conroy/r. Awept truth though it be new and strange, admit
errors of judgment, and deal honestly with individuals.

Allah/81's of (at/maroon. liy study Of- ‘rmeis own and others be—
havior, the ini’lt’tence of? physical euviromllellh emotional and economic
factors influencing behavior, the attendance supf‘l'ViSOl' endeavors to
trace cause and effect.

Lire and lot-(x Iii/'0. Know how other people feel. through proper
use ot.‘ imagination. shared experience, careful observation and re-

flection, study and experience. Keep a sound and healthy mind and
hodv i

Jv’rriendly ”MI/UMM-p. Like peoplt‘i sensitively consider others.
A friendly and courteous act promotes smoothness in relationship
with people. Readiness to use small talk and to listen establishes rap-
port. 1““)me coldnegx‘ and .l'ormality shut, off social relationships
and mutual 1mderstalldl-“g‘ Doing: thing‘s with people promotes basic

. x’lclepz’nrss in commnuiention. \Yords, tone of VOice and tempo
m use of languagt‘ are important. The attendance supervisor needs
acquaintance with the language of all kinds of people so that in con.
versation he may choose words appropriate to the purpose. A tone 0f.
voice and speed ol’ utterallf‘P may indicate inner control and transmit:







its sincerity to the person with whom one is speaking. Behavior and
words need to agree. Appearance contributes to or distracts from the
meeting of personalities.

The attendance supervisor must be alert to the fact that people,
consciously or unconsciously, act in terms of what they believe others
expect of them, Or in terms of their own needs.

VII. Some Major Problems

Children Non-Enrolled, Dropped, or Irregular in Attendance.
Non-enrollment and persistent non-attendance are usually symptoms
that children are being affected by troubles of one kind or another
which interfere with a satisfactory life in school. The attendance
officer may find the root of the trouble in the home, the school, the
community, or within the child himself. As attendance officers work
on problems of non—attendance they fined, in most cases, that at heart
both the parent and the child really want the benefits of school ex-
perience for the child. The difficulties in the way of attendance are
usually too great for them for the time being.

The causes of these problems are. numerous. They may be within
the school itself. The child may be faced day after day with a school
situation which is either not challenging enough for him or which is
so far beyond what he is able to achieve that he simply runs away
from it. Again, the difficulty may be in the economic status of the
home. The child may not have adequate food, clothing, or shelter. The
relationships in the home may be of such a disturbing nature ’60 the
child that he is not able to face school life. There are timesy too, where
parents are indifferent about school for their children and the child
has absorbed this attitude of indifference. There are instances when
such things as lack of necessary routine in the home regarding hours
for eating, sleeping, dressing, studying, and the like create a kind of
indifference which results in poor attendance at school for children.
Some children have already gone further in their school experiences
than the parents themselves. In such cases, parents sometimes do 110t
see the need for children to stay in school. Sometimes the people in
the community are responsible. A child may be employed at work
with attractive pay and he is tempted to give up school for ready
cash. Sometimes parents may feel that they need the additional income
from the child’s labor or that the child is needed to help harvest
perishable crops. The parents and/or the employer may not see that
this is really depriving the child of opportunities which Will have
greater value for him. The difficulty may be within the child himself.
It may be a health condition which saps his energy. He may be P05"
sessed with fears, worries, feelings, or attitudes which stand in the



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way of school attei'idance. Sometimes a child may have built up a. feel—
ing of resentment toward adult authority which has grown out of a
feeling of being unloved at home. Occasionally a child may be over-
indulged at. home that he does not grow up and he cannot face the
demands of group life in school.

It would be impossible to list here all the numerous causes of non-
attendance in school. Those listed may serve to indicate that persistent
absence from school is the result of one or many pressures affecting
a child. They may come from. without or from within the child him-
self. The atteMlance worker is faced with the problem first of de—
termining the cause and second of working wherever the root is to
correct the cause. If the trouble appears to be the school situation, the
attendance officer should take the information she has gathered to
the school staff. She may work with the principal, the classroom
teacher, or with a group of interested staff members in looking at
factual data assembled. Together they may analyze the data and plan
a course of action at school to correct the trouble.

If the cause lies in the home, the attendance officer should try to
sense the attitudes existing in the home. She should know about the
resources of the home and how the parents feel about using outside
resources. \Vith this background information, she may be ready to
work with parents in bringing about a changed or improved situation
for the child. This may mean helping parents see value in school for
their children. It may mean helping them interpret some ways in
Which home life is affecting children or it may lead to guiding parents

into a wholesome use of services open to them in the community, such
as health and welfare.

If the causes appear to be within the child himself, then the at-
iendance officer looks at the problems with the child. Through inter-
views she may free him to talk about the way he feels. \Vhen he talks
She should not be Shocked by anything he says. She should try very
hard to’understand the ways by which he is attempting to get along
in his world. She should not blame him. She should hold to her belief
that school is or can be good for him. Her whole attitude should be
one Of interest in him as a person and a willingness to help him look
at what he can and must do about a problem which is affecting his
fehool life. She is there because the school has chosen her to represent
”8 interest in him, The attendance officer need have no sense of guilt
01' f@81ng of cliSonalty if she listens while a child vents his wrath on
the school or persons in the school. This is recognized as one way she
flan help him. In the first place, it may help him get his feelings out
in the open where they can be viewed by him and the attendance of-






l'icer. Then it, can help the attendance ol'l'icer learn a great deal about
the child. The principal, the classroom teacher or some other member
of the staff, as well. as the attendance ol'licer, may often serve the
child by listening to his outbursts of feeling. Helping a child work
through his feelings and do something about them is a long-time
process and may require many interriews. The attendance officer
should accept what the child can do each step ot‘ the way and work
l'rom that point on until he can accept l'nll responsibility for himsell‘.

Children Failing in Their 'll'or/i'. Failure in school work is
another symptom olf a, problem in the child‘s exi‘ierience. As school
people give more attention to the study of children ’s failure in school
work, they find that reasons for t'ailurc are more often due to health
conditions or to inadequacies in the home, school. or community than
to the mental ability ot' the child. Some children fail in school tasks
because they are so emotionally disturbed about other things that they
cannot; give their attention to the job at hand. A broken home, eco-
nomic insecurity in the home, l’eclinji's ol’ being unwanted, worry over
illness or death are among the comlitions in a childs lil’o which may
be back of failure, in school. The child may not have found a place with
his peers. He may have a genuine talent l'or some type ol? work which
is not offered him. Some, happening in connection with his el't'orts to
master certain skills may have caused an emotional block which keeps
him from being able to succeed. This has been Found to happen to
children especially with reading and arithmetic. \thn they hate been
pressed too strongly to master these skills bel'ore they had a readiness
to learn them, they had built up certain tears or Feelings of embar-
rassment about; not being able to do them) which blocked l'utul‘c Gt)-
forts to the point, that: children have accepted l'ailure as inevitable in
these areas. In some instances. children have developed certain habit
patterns ove' a long period. Home of these may be poor work habit“.
acceptance of Failure, or too great dependence on others.

Sometimes children tail in school work because ot’ a health con-
dition. Unusual growth spurts or some undetected organic trouble
may be using" up a child 's energy. He may be lacking in his source of
energy because of malnutrition. In some cases failure is due to low
mentality. The child is short in the mental equipment necessary to
do the kind of abstract thinking: required of him in most schoOl 03"

The attendance ot'l’iccr may serve as a, valuable resource in find-
ing out which of the many causes are actually contributing to failure
in a particular case. Once the cause is determined the attendance 0f—
ticer may begin work at that source. The home may have to make some





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adjustments, the school may have to adapt its program to the needs
of a. child, the child himself may have to make basic changes, and all
three may have to cooperate in. many instances to correct the failure.

If the problem is recognized and attacked when the child first be-
gins to experience failure in his work. preventive measures can be
taken before the failure becomes so serious that it results in undesir-
able behavior problems ol‘ a social nature.

(Vii/drew l2'..;'/1/'b[/[u(/ Ala/[social Brhari'orwLying. stealing, tat-
tling. fighting. defying authority. swearing, cheating, destroying
property, and committing sex offenses are, like poor attendance,
symptoms of deeper. more serious conditions. The child may lie, not
because, he wishes to deceive. but beea use he, has never learned to face.
reality. He, may lie in an effort to achieve importance in the eyes of
someone he admires, or he may be attempting to protect himself from
scorn, indifference, or punishment. A child who steals may not need
or desire the thing he st ads. but may need the sense of power that
comes from having- done a dangerous thing- or because he wants des—
perately to get something- for someone he Jovcs. The child who defies
the principal, teachers. and parents may not be rebellious or resentful,
but may be protecting' his own or some :lfriend‘s sensitive nature or
injured pride. The child who draws ugly pictures or displays unusual
illtel‘est in sex may. like the tattler or clown, be using the only way
he knows to get attent ion or he may be groping: helplessly for answers
to his own questions about life.

The attendance officer may employ a number of techniques for
discovering: the under-lying- causes ol’ these behavior patterns. Visits
to home and community may reveal the community and family atti-
tudes toward sex, toward lying. and toward stealing. Information con—
t'el'ning' his out—of—school associates and his opptn‘tunities l'or recrea-
tion will often give answers to behavior problems. The economic back—
{l‘l'Ound ol" a child ’s family and the spendng habits of his friends may
t'uruish clues to causes of stealing: bra


a'inn'. lying". and tattlinn'.
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The above paragraphs have intended to show that underlying
causes of undesirable behavior may appear unrelated to the overt act.
The attendance officer should gather much information before decid—
ltlz‘l‘ too definitely on the cause. She may lead parents and teachers to
We that planning a. future that will supply the needs which a child
feels and thus prevent: further undesirable behavior is more important
than providing punishment f0' a past offense.

When analyses of undersirable behavior problems are made it is
Usually found that the individuals involved are trying either to over-

come or to offset some kind of insecurity they are experiencing. They





do not have the security which comes from being accepted in a worthy
social group and from feeling that the contributions they are making
are worthwhile. They need experiences in friendship, work, and play
through which they may express themselves in wholesome ways.

Children Who Are Shy and l’l'ithdmwn. Children who are shy
and who tend to withdraw from the group and find satisfaction in
day dreaming or in being alone most of the time are not so apt to be
referred to the attendance officer as children whose symptoms are
more distracting to the whole group. These children may be in a more
unstable state of mental health, however, than the children whose
behavior is more objectionable. In some cases they may possess the
same kinds of fears, worries, and hates as the rebellious children.
They are not finding wholesome expression for their thoughts and
they are not learning ways of living and working with groups. Their
cases need careful. study in all areas of their experience to determine
what their problems are. If these children are referred for a study
when they are young and before the behavior becomes a habitual pat-
tern for the child it is much easier for the attendance officer to help
discover the causes and effect desirable changes.

VIII. Relationship With Other School Personnel
Board of Education

In Kentucky, the Board of Education of a district represents
the people. It is their duty to elect all school personnel upon the
recommendation of the Superintendent of schools. Since the attend-
ance officer ’s work is with all the people of the district, it Should be
his‘duty to report to the Board of Education at intervals. Most at-
tendance officers find it convenient to submit a monthly report to the
Board of Education containing some of the following items:

(1) Number of pupils of census and school age of the district-

(2) Number of gains and losses from other districts in the state
and outsidethe state.

(3) Number of pupils enrolled in school through the efforts of
the attendance officer.

(4) Description of the type of work that is being done by at-
tendance officer.


The Superintendent is the chief administrative officer of the
Board of Education. The success or failure of the school system often
lies in his hands. Since the attendance officer is working directly
under him, no decisions that involve administrative measures and




problems should be made without his consent. All cases involving

hy tuition and residence should he referred to him and no court cases
If: ‘ should be filed Without his approval.
The Principal
by i Since all cases involving children originate in a particular school,
in 1 the attendance officer should confer frequently with the principal.
be j Barring the teacher, the principal is more familiar with the children
ire 4 and their problems than any one connected with the school system.
ire ‘ All contacts with pupils or teachers in a school should be made
so through the principal, who is the head of the school and is responsible
he for its success or failure.
ind , Teacher
in The most important. person to a good attendance program is the
he classroom teacher. Many of our problems are those of the teacher,
iv l rather than those of the pupil. Poor teaching is the basis of most of
1,; Our truancy. The teacher is in daily contact with the pupils, and knows
1p their weaknesses, their failures and ambitions. \Vhen problems arise,
the teacher should call on the attendance officer for help. He should
be able to give help in solving the problems of children. One of the
l first jobs should be to Win the confidence of the teachers.
)f |






Aichhorn, August. “Wayward Youth.” New York: Viking Press, 1936.

Bell, Howard M. “Matching Youth and Jobs.” American Council on
Education, Washington, 1940.

Bowen, Genevieve. “Living and Learning in a Rural School.” MacMillan
Company, New York, 1946.

Cele, Luella, and Morgan, John J. B. “Psychology of Childhood and
Adolescence.” Rinehart and Company, New York, 1947.

Chambers, “The Community and its Young People.” American Council
on Education, Washington.

Cook, Katherine M. “The Place of Visiting Teacher Services in the School
Program.” Washington: Federal Security Agency, 1945.

Crow, Lester D., and Crow, Alice. “Our Teen-age Boys and Girls.”
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1945.

Dept. for Supervision and Curriculum Development of N. E. A., “Large
Was Our Bounty.” Washington, 1948.

Ellenwood, James Lee. “Just and Durable Parents.” Charles Scl‘ibner’s
Sons, New York, 1948. $2.50.

Erickson, Clifford E. and Happ, Marion Crosley. “Practical Guidance
Series. Guidance Practices at Work.” McGraw-Hill Company, New
York, 1947. $3.75.

Federal Security Agency, Social Protection Division. “Challenge to Com-
munity Action.” Washington.

Federal Security Agency, U. S. Children’s Bureau of Publications, No. 319,
“Educational and Employment Opportunities for Youth.” Washington.

Federal Security Agency. “Your Community and Its Young People-”

Federal Security Agency, “Law Enforcement in the Use of Policewomen
With Special Reference to Social Protection.” Washington.

Garrett, Annette. “Interviewings Its Principles and Methods.” NEW
York: Family Welfare Association, 1942.

Gesell, Arnold, and Frances L. “The Child from Five to Teu.”- New
York and London: Harper and Brothers, 1946.

Jessen and Hutchins. “Community Surveys.” U. S. Department of the
Interior, Washington, 1936.

Kelley, Judge Camille. “Delinquent Angels.” Brown-White—Lowe11
Press, Kansas City, Missouri, 1947.

McCaaren. “Improving the Quality of Living.” Peabody College, Nash-

National Society for the Study of Education, 47th Yearbook, Part 1‘
“Juvenile Delinquency and the Schools.” University of Chicago
Press, 1948.

Rogers, Carl R. “Counseling and Psychotherapy.” Houghton—Mifflin
Company, Atlanta, 1942.

State Department of Education, Georgia. “The Community As a Source
of Materials of Instruction.” Atlanta, 1938.











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