xt7n5t3g203s https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7n5t3g203s/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1957-06 bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Planning and Developing the Elementary Physical Education Program", vol. XXV, no. 6, June 1957 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Planning and Developing the Elementary Physical Education Program", vol. XXV, no. 6, June 1957 1957 1957-06 2022 true xt7n5t3g203s section xt7n5t3g203s y 0 Commonwealth of Kentucky 0












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Published by


Superintendent of Public Instruction

Frankfort, Kentucky









‘ Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
I Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

VOL. XXV JUNE 1957 NO. 6













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The State Board of Education by authority granted under Ken-
tucky Revised Statutes requires that Health and Physical Education
shall be included in each pupil’s program of daily learning and liv-
ing in the school.

One of the functions of the Department of Education is to ad-
minister the physical education program from the state level. It is
also the responsibility of the Department to provide leadership in
helping develop improved programs at the local level. It is our hope
that every school child in our state will have the privilege of par-
tmpating in a well-balanced program of physical education. This
bulletin has been developed to help achieve this goal.

Many persons have given generously of their time and efforts

H.1the Preparation of this bulletin and their work is deeply appre-

Robert R. Martin
Superintendent of Public Instruction












There have been many requests for more information concern-
ing a good elementary school physical education program. The
foundation program by placing emphasis on providing improved
services for the boys and girls of Kentucky has helped to point—up
the need for a bulletin on elementary physical education. In re-
sponse to these needs, the State Department of Education set up a
steering committee to work with Mr. Claude Taylor, Supervisor of
Curriculum Development, Mr. Earl Adams, Supervisor of Elemen-
tary Education, and Mr. Richard Lee Gentry, Supervisor of Health
and Physical Education in the development of this bulletin. The
steering committee was composed of representatives of Kentucky
colleges and representatives of the Kentucky Association for Health,
Physical Education and Recreation.

At the first meeting of this committee it was decided to enlarge
into a state-Wide committee to include representatives from class-
room teachers, special physical education teachers, elementary prin-
cipals, twelve-grade principals, supervisors, superintendents, and
college physical education teachers. This enlarged state-Wide com-
mittee, meeting in Frankfort, decided that this bulletin should be a
guide for planning and developing desirable physical education pro-
grams rather than a course of study publication.

It is not practical to expect that a single course of study would
be entirely adaptable to variations in local conditions, facilitlesz
needs and interests, or be acceptable to all teachers, administrators
and school boards. However, it is possible to set forth some gen-
eral principles Which should undergird a satisfactory program and
to suggest activities and procedures which can be adapted to 10Cal
conditions. It is intended that this material serve as a guide for
initiating and upgrading an acceptable program of physical edu-
cation in each of the Kentucky elementary schools. These guidelfnes
can help determine the structure of a curriculum, yet Permlt a
“grassroots” approach to its development.

After deciding on the table of contents, the committee divided
itself into sub-committees to prepare the several sections 0f the
guide. Final approval of sub-committee reports was made by the
entire committee.

D. E. Elswick, Director

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The following persons served on either the Steering Committee

or on the State-wide Work Committee:

Mr. Earl Adams, Supervisor, Elementary Education, State Depart-
ment of Education, Frankfort

Miss Ruth Albright, Classroom Teacher, Filson School, Louisville

Mr. Rex Alexander, Basketball Coach, Murray State College, Murray

Mr. Charles Barrett, General Supervisor, Franklin County Schools,

Mr. J. M. Burkich, Twelve-grade Principal, Bardstown Schools,

Dr. Martha G. Carr, Chairman, Women’s Division, Physical Educa-
tion Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington

Mr. Fred Darling, ASSistant Professor, Physical Education Depart-
ment, Eastern State College, Richmond

Mr. Erwin W. Detjen, Principal, Gavin H. Cochran School, Louisville

Mr. D. E. Elswick, Director, Division of Instructional Services, State
Department of Education, Frankfort

Mr. Richard Lee Gentry, Supervisor, Health, Safety and Physical
Education, State Department of Education, Frankfort

Mr. J. W. Gregory, Superintendent, Lancaster City Schools,
Lancaster ,

Mrs. Stella Gilb, Critic Teacher, Department of Physical Education,
University of Kentucky, Lexington

Mr. 0. H. Gunkler, Head, Physical Education Department, Berea
College, Berea

Dr- Sue M. Hall, Professor, Department of Health, Physical Educa-
thn and Recreation, University of Louisville, Louisville

Dr. John Heldman, Jr., Head, Department of Health, Physical Edu-

. cation and Recreation, University of Louisville, Louisville

MlSS Ruth Higgins, Principal, George W. Morris School, Louisville

MISS Reva Howard, Fourth Grade Teacher, Central School, Clark
County, Winchester

Mr. E. G. Jones, General Supervisor, Montgomery County 80110015;
Mt. Sterling
MISSLROsallia Kurz, Supervisor, Health and Physical Education,
M. ouisv1lle City Schools, Louisville
lss Betty Langley, Instructor, Training School, Western State Col-
M lege, Bowling Green
1‘. Herb Lewis, Supervisor, Health and Physical Education, J effer-
son County Schools, Louisville














Mrs. Mary Marshall, In—Serviee Consultant, Department of Educa.



tion, Frankfort

Miss Emma Jean Philips, Principal, Lawrenceburg Elementary
School, Lawrenceburg

Dr. Curtis Phipps, Director, Division of Guidance Services, Depart-
ment of Education

Miss Pat Sheley, VVomen’s Physical Education Department, More-
head State College, Morehead

Dr. Paul E. Sparks, Principal, Nannie Lee Frasyer School, Louisville

Miss Maude Snellen, Principal, Benjamin Franklin School, Louisville

Miss Lillian Tapp, First Grade Teacher, Central School, Clark
County, Winchester

Mr. Claude Taylor, Supervisor of Curriculum, State Department of
Education, Frankfort

Mr. Eugene B. \Vhalin, Administrative Assistant, State Department

of Education, Frankfort


>f Educa-
\ Foreword
:, Depart- Introduction
at More- Section 1 Working Together for Curriculum Improvement
’ Local Staff With Principal .................. 321
L . . System—Wide Steering Committee ............ 322
ouisvflle . . .
Louisville Available Consultlve Serv1ces ............... 323
01: Clark Section 2 Foundations for Building Local Programs
‘ Physical Education as an Educative Process . . . 325
rtment 0f Philosophy and Objectives of Physical
Education ............................. 326
apartment i Interest and Characteristics of Elementary
Pupils ................................. 329

Section 3 Provisions of the State Board of Education
for Implementing the Health and Physical
Education Program

Code for Health and Physical Education ...... 332
The Foundation Law and Criteria for Approv-
ing Special Units ....................... 333

Standards for Health and Physical Education. . 333

Section 4 Organization and Administration of a Program

Responsibility of the Administration .......... 335
Scheduling and Time Allotment ............ 335
Equipment and Supplies .................... 336
Facilities .................................. 336

Section 5 Planning and Conducting the Daily
Instructional Program


Setting Up Objectives ...................... 337
Classification of Activities .................. 338
Criteria for Selecting Activities .............. 342
Suggestions for the Teacher ................ 343
Teacher’s and Pupil’s Evaluation of the

Daily Program ........... V .............. 346

Section 6 Related Areas of a Good Program

Play Days and Extra Class Programs ........ 347
Health and Safety Factors .................. 349
Guidance and Physical Education ............ 350

Desirable Athletic Competition for Children .. 352



 Section 7 Total Program Evaluation
Continuous Evaluation ...................... 355

Section 8 Helpful Materials and Publications
Material Available at the State Department... 357
Audio Visual Material ...................... 357
Professional Organizations and their
Publications ........................... 358
Bibliography for Elementary Schools ........ 358
Records Recommended for Rhythmic Activities. 361








. 355

.. 357

ies. 361



Local Staff With the Principal

Before any change in the school curriculum takes place there
must be a realization that a need exists for altering or adding to
the body of experiences that the local school provides for children.
Whether the need is for improvement in types of experiences already
being offered or whether there is a need for experiences that have
not previously been provided, the method of revising or initiating
a program is much the same.

In many of the elementary schools of Kentucky, teachers,
principals, and parents are becoming increasingly aware of the
need to improve or initiate a definite program of physical education
for elementary school children based on a knowledge of the needs
of these children. It is only logical that the classroom teacher is
the first to feel the need for improving the physical education of
the child as it relates to his total development. As the classroom
teacher and the principal discuss this problem it soon becomes
evident that this is a phase of education that affects the total school.
It then becomes imperative that the entire faculty discuss the role

' 0f physical education in the school curriculum. The staff members

involved must recognize that improving the program is desirable
and must be willing to work to effect this improvement.

Let us assume that the physical education program at the local
school level then becomes the subject for a faculty study. AS the
teachers and principal discuss a better program 0f PhySical education
for elementary school boys and girls some 0f the fOHOWing questions
no doubt will arise:

1- What should be the objectives of the program at the various
grade levels?

2‘ Who Participates in the program? How do we provide for
the physically handicapped?
3- What facilities for a program do we have? Are they ade-
, 4- What equipment should be available for the immediate
5 Program? For the long range program?

What activities should be selected? What activities can be
conducted with little or no equipment?


















What part of the school day should be devoted to physical
education activities in relation to the time devoted to

other school activities?
7. How is the program to be financed? School Board, P. T. A.

Local School?

8. Is it better for the classroom teacher or a special teacher to
direct the physical education program? Should it be the
responsibility of both?

9. How can the physical education activities be geared to the
needs of students as individuals and as members of the


It soon becomes apparent from some of the questions asked that
special help will be needed in deciding what is the best program the
local school can offer. It is also apparent that in order to answer
some of the questions arising, the system supervisor, superintendent,
and lay people must be asked to participate.

\Vhen the central office staff of most school systems realize the
need felt by the local school staffs for curriculum improvement, they
are Willing to cooperate. Not only must they be willing to cooperate
and assist the local school in identifying needs, but When called
upon they must furnish active cooperative leadership in carrying on
improvements. If it is decided that a program is to be initiated at the
system-Wide level, it is a must that the facts concerning child growth
and development be explored, with particular emphasis on the role
of physical education in this development.

System-wide Steering Committee

If the program for curriculum improvement relative to the area
of physical education is to be carried out through the system—WMe
approach, the next logical step, it would seem, would be the selection
by the superintendent of a system-Wide steering committee composed
of staff members from each school, members of the central office
staff, and representatives of other interested profeSSional and
lay people.

The purpose of this committee, and local school subcommittees
also formed, would be a complete study Of the characteristics Of a
good physical education program for the system, with emphasis up?“
finding answers to some of the questions raised by local staffs-

The steering committees, both system-Wide and local, would he”)
in guiding and developing objectives and also in determi
scope and content of the total physical education program-

Time must be given in this portion of the planning to deCidmg
which of the various suitable activities are to be used and When’

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how much actual instruction each child should have, and if there
should be a special physical education teacher. In most of the ele-
mentary schools of the state the primary responsibility for physical
education instruction still rests with the classroom teacher, although
some systems are moving toward special personnel for children at the
elementary level.

The system-wide steering committee would serve as a co-
ordinating agency and establish ways of cooperative action between
the various local schools and the community. Through its work with
other agencies in the community that foster and promote physical
education programs, such as county-wide or city-wide recreation
departments, the system-wide steering committee would help the
entire community become more familiar with physical education and
its purposes. Through the committee’s work, school—community re-
lations could be improved by the fostering of community-wide
Participation in physical activities, both at the child and adult level,
and the efforts and facilities of both school and community could be
directed toward the formation of a year—round physical activities

Another of the important services a committee of this nature
could perform would be that of insuring the utilization of the avail-
able consultative services that can contribute much to the program
0f. Physical education. \Vith the help of these consultants the com-
mittee would evolve the final over-all physical education program
and insure the proper balance in the complete program by planning
In addition to the regular class activities, intramural sports, recrea-
tional activities, play days, community recreation nights and various
other phySical and recreational activities.

AS a part of this program and as a culminating activity of its
Workithe System-wide steering committee, with the aid of the local
committees, might well formulate a teaching guide for physical
education instruction adapted to the needs of the school system. In
thls gUide the questions raised by local staff members should be
answered. The objectives to be attained by physical education in the
:Erlous grades would be determined. The activities to be taught and

e leyel at which they should appear would be defined. Various
Speculed questions would be explained in detail.

Available Consultative Services

Sch There are a number of consultant services available to local
thefms 01: school systems interested in getting help in improving
1r Curriculum by improving their physical education program:













Physical Education Teachers and Supervisors

Many systems with existing programs in physical education
have trained personnel who are willing and able to assist others in
getting better programs initiated.

College Personnel

Many colleges have available consultants in the area of physical
education who are willing to assist interested school systems by
conducting workshops and demonstrations.

In-Service Consultants

The Division of Teacher Education and Certification of the
Department of Education in cooperation with the state colleges has
in-service consultants in various areas of the state who will assist
in planning and setting up in—service activities devoted to physical

Supervisors of Instruction, State Department of Education

The Division of Instructional Services has available area super-
visors of instruction who work with the total school program. They
may be called upon to plan and work with school systems in the
development of the physical education program as it relates to the
total curriculum.

Supervisor of Health and Physical Education

The Department of Education, in addition to the above services,
has a special supervisor in this area whose services are available 011
a state-wide basis. Various materials relative to desirable thSlcal
education programs may be obtained through this office.

Kentucky Association for Health, Physical Education and


This professional association publishes a quarterly newsletter
containing pertinent information concerning the field of physical
education. The Association will assist in securing and utilizing O'llt'
standing professional personnel to aid local systems in implementing
their program.

American Association for Health, Physical Education (“”1


Professional materials may be secured from this national OT‘
ganization. Available reports resulting from research in the field")f
physical education may be obtained by writing the executhe



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Physical Education as an Educative Process

It is the purpose of this section to present from the writings of a,
number of accepted authorities the present day thinking concerning
the aims of education and the contributions which can be made by
physical education as a phase of education. The contributions of
physical education to the total growth and development of the
child will also be pointed out. It is hoped that local committees
attempting to set up local programs for physical education in their
schools will study their local situations in light of the ideas gained
from this presentation, to discover the needs and interests of the
parents and children of that community. With these as a starting
point, and awareness of the values or contributions which can be
expected from a well organized and conducted program of physical
education, we should be able to develop throughout the state of
Kentucky many fine programs of physical education. Those pro-
grams which are already established should find some ideas for
Improvement through re-evaluation of the present programs.

The statements of the Educational Policies Commission have
set forth the best thinking of both civic and education leaders on the
structure and purposes of education. These statements make physical
education a very vital part of the educational pattern. The structure
of the school system in the United States is largely determined by
the Ideal 0f E3Qluality of opportunity through education. The purposes
0f education, as set forth in these statements, recognize the rights
0f llfe, liberty, property, work and the pursuit of happiness.

E Briefly stated the objectives for education as formulated by the
ducational Policies Commission are:

1- ObJGCtives of self-realization, which are concerned with
developing the individual to his fullest capacity in respect
to such things as health, recreation and philosophy of life.

2. ObJectives of human relationship, which refer to relation-
Shlps among people on the family, group and society levels.

3' QbJectives of economic efficiency, which are interested in

4 the indiVidual as a producer, a consumer, and an investor.

Obj’ectives'of civic responsibility, which stress the individ-
Uals relationship to his local, state, national and inter-
national forms of government.













Physical education as a phase of the total educational process can
contribute to each of these objectives.

The function of physical education in the modern school cur-
riculum depends upon several associated factors. Among the most
significant might be listed the nature and nurture of our youth, and
the purposes of education in the American Democracy. Physical
education can and must contribute to the purposes of education
before it can expect to be admitted into the curriculum of the school.
Physical education can make its best contribution to the education
of the child as it considers ways and means of improving the nurture
of all children.

The school child is an active being. He possesses capacities for
movement. He has all the necessary neuromuscular mechanism which
make movement possible. From infancy through childhood into adult
life this capacity to move about is a significant factor in maintaining
integrated development both as an individual and as an interacting
social being.

The ability to crawl, walk, run, climb, throw, swim, manipulate
the fingers and to play basketball or other complex activities is all
evolutionary process. Movement has, in this sense, been the means
of advancement; for growth and development; for education as the
child went from place to place, always increasing his repertoire 0f
movements. Movement can thus be considered a phenomenon Of all
animal life. Some of it may be random, Some planned. “Thatever the
movement, either random or planned the child must learn through
each experience more about his world, himself and the people of M
world. Thus was born the modern concept of physical education. It
is by means of the physical that he is assisted in his education. The
ultimate aim for physical education might then be to develop and
educate the individual through the medium of wholesome and 111'
teresting physical activities that will promote optimum growth and

Philosophy and. Objectives of Physical Education
The objectives of physical education may be classified as:
1. Objectives related to the development of phySical fitneSS

2. Objectives related to the development of social and mom

3. Objectives related to the development of knowledges and

4. Objectives related to the development of habits, attitudes
and appreciations



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The American Association for Health, Physical Education and
Recreation, a department of the National Education Association, has
prepared a statement of beliefs which may serve local committees to
establish well accepted objectives for their own programs. Titled
“Platform for Physical Education” it states:

Its place —

Physical education helps people satisfy age-old needs—physical
and social—in present day living.

In earlier and perhaps simpler times, our forefathers’ needs for
physical activity were met to a great extent in everyday living.
Today, many of us, because of progress in science and social organi-
zation, perform our daily tasks and earn a livelihood with little
expenditure of physical energy. Yet ,everyone needs physical activity
to grow properly or keep healthy. A person develops as he exercises
his body and mind, as he gains new ideas and skills and as he applies
his knowledge and skill effectively.

Our kind of society has brought severe demands upon emotional
and nervous stability. To live fully today, one must be able to get
along with others, control his emotions, and find outlets of self-
eXpression. More people have more leisure today than ever before.
Many need guidance in using their leisure hours constructively.

Individuals who possess Vigor, strength and character are in
normal times the greatest resources of a nation. They are indispens-
able in times of emergency. Physical education contributes to the
total fitness of all citizens who in their accumulated strength
guarantee the security of the United States of America.

Its Meaning and Purpose —

.mlysical education is a way of education through physical
act1v1ties which are selected and carried on with full regard to
Values in human growth, development and behavior. Because it is
:hphase of the total education program, physical education aims for

e Same general goal that gives purpose to all the other learning
Experiences of the school—the well-rounded development of all chil-

ren and youth as responsible citizens in our democratic society.

alo Physical education provides a wealth of experiences which,
‘ Hg With other opportunities in the curriculum, are particularly

1mportant in helping each child and youth:

1- Develop and maintain maximum physical efficiency

f A Physically efficient person enjoys sound functioning
0 the bodily processes, is free of correctable defects,
possesses such qualities as strength, endurance, speed, a












sense of balance, agility, and good posture and efficient
body mechanics, exercises these qualities according to his
age and physical condition, maintaining a balance of ac-
tivity, rest, work and recreation. One who has uncorrectable
defects learns to adjust to and compensate for his infirmitics
and develop his capabilities in order to live a happy use-
ful life.

Develop useful skills

In this sense, a skillful person is proficient in many
fundamental skills such as walking, dodging moving
objects and lifting, which are essential to living safely and
successfully; has abilities in a variety of activities, such as
team sports, individual sports, swimming, and dancing, that
contribute to physical and social efficiency at each stage
of life.

Conducts himself in socially acceptable ways

A person who behaves desirably, among other thingS,
acts in a sportsmanlike manner, works for the common good,
respects the personalities of his fellows. (Team games and
other group activities offer many Opportunities to practice
these qualities.) He enjoys, contributes to, and is at ease
in a variety of wholesome social situations. (Co-educational
sports, dancing, swimming and other such activities help
provide learning experiences for this.) He exercises self-
control in exercises which are mentally stimulating and
often emotionally intense, reacts quickly and wisely under
pressure, is courageous and resourceful. (Games, conte§t5
and other competitive sports help bring out these quahtleS
when there is good leadership.)

Enjoys wholesome recreation

A person Who engages in Wholesome recreation includeS
in his daily living, activities that bring deep satisfactions,
that are often creative, relaxing or stimulating. He draws
upon a fund of recreational interests, knowledgeS, aPPTe'
ciations and skills. _

The intelligent physical educator makes the most of 1115
many opportunities to help boys and girIS, youth and adults
gain these values. As a teacher, his job is to select, O'I‘g'anlze
and guide activities suited to the needs and capacities, an
interests of everyone taking part.

The following ten statements are principles developed
by the American Association of Health, Physical Educlatlofl
and Recreation for the guidance of .those who are inter:
ested in developing good programs for physical educatlon-
For every person there should be opportunity to ga{11.t.he
values of physical education by taking part. in actli’ltles
selected according to interests and according to his 1199 3*
as shown by a medical examination and other ways. .
In every community all possibilities for physical educatlo11
should be developed.



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3. Through the elementary schools, every child in the form-
ative period of his development should have the advantage
of a well-planned, well-conducted physical activity pro-

4. No boy or girl in junior and senior high school should be
deprived of the physical and social development to which
physical education contributes so much.

5. Effectiveness and efficiency of college students should be
developed and maintained through the coordinated and
campus-wide program which includes physical education
experiences for all students.

6. Supplementing instruction in physical activity, there
should be ample opportunities for all boys and girls to
participate in intramural and other recreational activities.

7. So that all the values of interscholastic athletics may be
secured for youth, athletics should be administered and
conducted by school officials and teachers who are pri-
marily concerned about the welfare of the participants.

8. United through professional associations on national, dis-
trict, state and local levels, leadership in physical education
should represent the finest in professional preparation, per-
sonal integrity, and social consciousness.

9. State and local communities, assisted where necessary by
the Federal Government should provide sufficient support
for a quality program in physical education.

10. America must remain strong; all those who live beneath her
flag—all agencies concerned with the health, physical and
social well-being of her people—must work together for
national security and international good will through
citizens who posses total fitness. These can be achieved by