xt7n8p5v7k3f https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7n8p5v7k3f/data/mets.xml Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station 1904 Title from cover.
Imprint varies. journals English Frankfort, Ky. : Capital Office, E. Polk Johnson, 1890-1948. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Annual report. 1904 text Annual report. 1904 1904 2011 true xt7n8p5v7k3f section xt7n8p5v7k3f     Kentucky Agricultural  
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State Cqllege of Kentucky  
  LEXiNGTON, KY.  
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l l FOR THE YEAR 1904  
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LETTEROF TRANSMITTAL  
. ‘ A l
A T0 Hts Excellency, I i
HoN. J. C. W. BEC`KrHA}[_, - '  
Governor of Kcntuclcy.  
S1R:— , A  W  
Under the authority ofthe Board of Control, and in accordance  
with an act of Congress, approved. M arch 2, 1887, and entitled "An _l
Act to establish Agricultural, Experiment Stations in connection  
with the Agricultural Colleges established in the several States, _
under the provisions of an act approved July 2, 1862, and of the »
acts supplementary thereto,"T and of the act of the Legislature of  
* the State of Kentucky, approved February 20, 1888, and entitled  
. “An Act to accept the provisions of an Act passed by the Congress  
of the United States, approved March 2, 1887, for the establish- li
ment and. maintenance of Agricultural Experiment Stations in  
_' connection with the Agricultural Colleges established by the several  
States and Territories under an Act of Congress, approved July 2,  
1862," I herewith submitythe Seventeenth Annual Report of the  ,
Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station.  
— i . Very respectfully,  
M. A. Soovnmi, Director.  
 
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A ¥     Agricultural and Mechanical College ol Kentucky  
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    BOARD on TRUsTEEs _
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 l‘if{lf?i§ His Excellency, Gov; J. C. W. BECKHAM,_€X—OmC10 Chairman. `
    I JAMES K. PATTERSON, President of the College, ex-Officio.
  JUDGE HENRY S. BARBER, Louisville, J eiferson County.
  HoN. Tinms CARPENTER, Scottsville, Allen County. I R
  HoN. MoDoUGAL FERGUsoN, Paducah, McCracken County.
  HON. JOHN F. HAGER, Ashland, Boyd County.
    HON- ROBERT W. NELSON, Newport, Campbell County.
    JUDGE WVILLIAM C. BELL, Harrodsburg, Meroe1·‘County.o
    HON. CASSIUS M. CLAY, Paris, Bourbon County.
  JUDGE GEO. B. KINKEAD, Lexington, Fayette County. .
—¤ ·-~—~·-     · .
  JUDGE JOHN MCCHORD, Lebanon,-Marion County.
{  ERE? ‘ ` ' '
  HON. WILLIAM R. RAMSEY, London, Laurel County. ~
  BASIL M. BROOKS, Esq., Slaughtersville, Webster County.
  DAVID S. FRAZEE, Esq., Lexington, Fayette County.
  HON. FRANK A. HOPKINS, Prestonsburg, Floyd County.
  CHARLES B. NICHOLS, ESQ., Lexington, Fayette County.
9*-1€‘:.·.f·*·~»’*¤·-»··??·¥. ~52  ,  ‘  ‘-. .
  JUDGE ROBERT L. STOUT, Versailles, Woodford County.
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LIST OF OFFICERS.  
. A . 4
Y I . I
_ Board of Control . I
GEO. B. KINKEAD,. Chairman, Lexington.  
VD. F. FRAZEE, Lexington.  
, C. B. NICHOLS, Lexington.  
JAMES, K. PATTERSON, President of the College.  
`M. A. SCOVELL, Director, Secretary.  
Station Oiiicers.  
M. A. SCOVELL, Director and Chemist. ¤. _
I A. M. PETER, Chemist. L
H. E. CURTIS, Chemist, Fertilizers. —  
H. GARMAN, Entomol-ogist and Botanist. .
J. N. HARPER, Agriculturist. , I
W. H. SCHERFFIUS, Chemist.  
· R. M. ALLEN,.Secreta.ry, Food Division. `
J. D. TURNER, Secretary to the Director. I
J. O. LA BACH, Chemist, Food Division. `
MISS M. L. DIDLAKE, Ass’t Entomologist and Botanist.  
· S. D. AVERITT, Ass’t Chemist.  
G. N. KELLER, Ass"t Entomologist and Botanist. E
‘ “ Address of the Station,  
  ` _ I LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY.  
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  The Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station
  » s   1
    In Account with. the United_States Appropriation.
    To receipts from the Treasurer of the UnitedStates as per ·_
    . appropriation for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, as per Act
  of Congress, approved March ,2; 1887. $15,000.00
  By Salaries ..................... $11,961.67
  Labor : ............ . ........... 738.09
  Publications Q ........ . .... . ..... 444.87
  Postage and stationery ........... 183.40
  Freight and express .............. 46.73
  Heatjlight and water ............ 401.20
  Chemical supplies ........... . .... 70.71
    Seed, plants and sundry supplies. . . 296.84
  Feeding stuffs . . ................. 64.00
  Library ....... I ...... . .......... 1 474.40
    Tools, implements and machinery. . . 43.05
  Scientiiic apparatus .............. 149.56 ·
 3  Traveling expenses ............... 6.29
  Contingent expenses ....... . ...... 117.39
  Building and repairs ............. 1.80
  —~—-—$15,000.00
  5 T
  We, the undersigned, duly appointed Auditors of the Corpora-
    tion, do hereby certify that we have examined the books and ac-
  counts of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station for the
  fiscal year ending June 30, 1904 g that we found the same well kept
  and classified as above,_and that the receipts for the year from the
    . Treasurer of the United States are shown to have been $15,000.00 ·
    and the corresponding disbursements $15,000.00, for all of which
  J  

 Kcntwsky ;lgr»icuZtu*raZ Ercpcriment Station vii I
I proper vouchers are on file and have been by us examined and
found correct. . . “ _
And we further certify that the expenditures have been solely
for the purposes set forth in the Act of Congress, approved March
2, 1887. `
(Signed)
' V D. F. Fnxznn,
(SEAL) » D E Gno. B. Kruirnan, .
er » - - .
Ct _ » _ / Auditors.
)0 Attest: `
D. C. FRAZE12. ·
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T     ANNUAL REPORT OF THE. ' _
  '’‘A Z§·¥’F;;_é};.;l-_ ii" _» » A _ _
    _,___ ¤i‘ Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station J
. ..1-i~i;‘ ATR é   .   ;-R ‘ ‘ · - y 1 ,  
  “ Fon me YEAR 1904 `T
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    RE_PORT OF T_I—IE DIRECTOR. .
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  " The Station is divided into the following divisions: `
 ‘:  Division of Chemistry. · .
  Division of Entomology and' Botany. .
  ._·'`   Division of Agriculture. » -
    Division of Horticulture.
    Division of Animal` Husbandry. .
    Division of Fertilizer Control Work. .
  Division of Food Control Work. `
      .
  DIVISION OF oHEM1sTRY. · - ·
    During the year the general work ofthe Chemical Division has
  Q   been under the immediate charge of Dr. Peter, assisted by Mr. ‘
  Averitt, and at times by Mr.  ScherH:ius and Mr. O. M. Shedd. ·
    The analyses made m this division are classified as follows:
      Soils .................. . ........................ 71
  Corn and wheat ................... ‘ ...` . ........... 4; 5
  Potable waters · ............. . ...................... 43
  Mineral waters . . ._ .......... . ....... . ............. 37
  A. O. A. C. samples in studying methods .............. 9
    Kg ? Examinations in cases of supposed poisonings .......... 4
ti;  Sugar beets .................. . . .» ...... . .......... 2
  Butter in churn tests of cows ........... .. .· .......... 2
    Clay and marl .................................... 6
 QQ?  `   we .

 ·» Kentucky Agricultural,E0;pev·imcnt Station ix  
Coal ............ . . .. ............   ............... 7 3
Iron, steel and alloysfor the Department of Meehan-  
ical Engineering ................,.............. 11  
Miscellaneous A ............... . ........... . ........ 18 i
- ( rmi .............,.i . .................... 255  
. . Il V 
A large number of minerals, ores and other materials have been  
examined and classified for persons ·in’all parts of the State and  
reported upon without making a complete analysis. These are in I
addition to the samples above enumerated. f
The Chemical Division is making an exhaustive study of the i
soils of the State. This work has been occupying most of the time L
of Dr. Peter. It will be noted that 71 soil analyses have been made. E
In many instances these analyses have enabled us to make valuable I
suggestions for the improvement of the soils by the right use of {
fertilizers and other means.   series of soil analyses was planned
in connection with held experiments on the farm. Numerous sam- _
ples were collected duringrthe past year, but our chemical force has  
not been sufficient to enable us to complete this work. 1
There is also a constantdeniand for analysis of waters, both  
potable and 'mineral, minerals, ores and other materials from indi- i
viduals and I rom the Boards of, I·Iealth,from various parts of the I
State. This work is increasing. It is now becoming a burden on I
the Chemical Division of the Station. Some action should be taken
V in regard to this matter. If the analyses are to be made free of
r charge. we will be compelled either to neglect more important work
or another assistant must be employed. I believe a small fee for
this work perhaps would be the best way to control it. Where
minerals are sent in for determination, it is often found unneces- i
sary to make an analysis. and all such work could be done without [
charge ; but a quantitative analysis of a mineral water takes several  
days and such work usually benefits the person having it done only.  
ENTOMOLOGICAL AND BOTANICAL DIVISION. i
Prof. Garnian has charge of both Entomology and Botany in the  
Station, assisted by Miss Mary L. Didlake and Mr. G. N. Keller.  

 t ’ · ., 4
»   , - x Seventeenth Annual Report of the . g
  j C   j I In co—ope1·ation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Prof.
  ~_  j   Garman has been conducting some experiments on forage plants.
A. _` _.`·     jg; For this purpose the United States Government furnishes $600.00 _
Q _:_if »`’- rixi;  ;~ .i.- — to pay for actual labor expended on the work. This test will be .
.. if  p ~f· [_ .; completed July 1, 1905. .
. `;. `-`,i¤..`* »? . . x · · , .
  _ · j_   ja 1 3 Nursery inspection has as usual been very largely done during
53*.} 5 ,—__     Q   July_and August, and has since 1897, when the inspection law was g
.7-;·§;_1`i4 "`Z;`k,>ji’l V   enacted, been done almost single handed by the Entomologist and  
I   §»;»j»;;-Q‘;Q_   -·rg   Botanist. . ‘
j   .{i.i`g**;j—Z_f'§    _ During the past year for-ty—nurseries were examined and received
~ T" :,.2 1’·“.;.»Tj5 —·'   - V · · ~’
_;;;s;,»-_;;;  ,-,·   certificates. Several others were examined, but could not be cer-
  .:‘t·.~;r*;··‘;.r;;·_L - rvyr l °· . . ‘ ’ . . .
V :..·:·.;.:·; qs.-; ·.·’- |. ; ;.., tificated because of diseased condition of the stock. Prof. Garman
" r{·‘·;·;{ii;Z;} IT * Y .. y ·
` A j has already called attent on to tl e eed _f an amendment of the
. ·.·s;~:;:;T.;:.£.:$·_   » j V 1 1 D 0
i`.`jTQ;Q—Q§iifTQQfjg;i{;_  {* inspection law, so as to give the inspector some help in making `
  j_ inspections. · ` ·
  _,‘_ T  if  Under the seed law passed by the last Legislature, the examina-
  ’·’.zy# tion of samples of seed has been turned .0ver to Prof. Garnian.
I i   L.   · · < · = ·
{;; _——_ -_A-$3-r;~;-ye;   ;, This has measurably increased the work of the division, since the
* ··z‘·:··`:1§:?€·x;_7C j     . . . . .
 ji _ examinations are exeeedmly laborous and time consuming. Four
  '_   hundred and seven samples have been collected in different parts
    of the State and are being examined as rapidlv as possible. As
....·:i;Y.¤;..ras`;; 1;;;- I. . . . . I . .
      psig; soon as completed a bulletin will be issued on this subject. ~
·   .l.L.’i`;.`1k;I‘;Ti;   Ei? . .
L,.  Numerous expernnents were undertaken during _the year, among
. I .1..;..ZT·2I;;;,;_ ·; _~. _—  _ _ - _ _ _ _
 el;§‘*:_jL1j;,;,;;;gggtE.:   which may be mentioned experiments with a view to showing the
  effect of shade in checking certain fungus diseases of vegetables;
I .. . 3’¥;ggj_;•_g$;£;l;;g agi .... . .
  field experiments in checking the injuries of broom-rape of hemp
  f§`:::;f‘$..":;;§F;z;   . . . .
  and tobacco, spraying experiments on cabbage; expernnents with
  Hessian fly in Christian County, where a number of wheat plots
    were planted in the fall of 1904 for the purpose ; experiments with
  U;  . . . . . . .
  clover seed from various countries in conjunction with the United
s¤&=m~;:.z··:¤:;i    . · .
  States Department of Agriculture, for which purpose a number
‘=** ·—.. ·‘=.·;r **~¢ ’.¤:1.Z‘;‘ . . . .
  of plantings have been made in Christian County.
i-,:;;·1·$·g; gw   T 5*  V . ` . . . . I
    A study of the different varieties of bees and methods of hand-
 ggy . . . . . .
  ling them have also been undertaken by this division.
F;  ji.   AGRICULTURAL DIVISION.
§`~:~.< _   · -·¤ _
    Under this head Prof. Harper reports as follows: "The work
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y ]\rL’7Lii’l(l'd';I] .-’lgz·_1Yr~uZt2z1·aZ‘ EQJ[}07"I)7ZrU}i~t Station xiv  
)f_ I of this division during the past year has been mainly a continuation  
»[S_ of the work begun in former years. Much of the Work of this  
OO division must necessarily extend througlia number of years before ?
be U I definite results can be obtained.  
“The test of connnercial fertilizers and other experiments on ,
ng our leading crops, as planned by yourself, has been continued.  
HS "'l`he work of this division has included experiments with varie- ` 
nd ties and multifarious field tests of corn, wheat, tobacco, and hemp.  
Experiments with cow peas, alfalfa, oats and co-operative experi-  
Gd ments with sugar ,beets and wheat.  
H, "During the year the writer has attended a number of Farmers’  
an Institutes held in the State by the Commissioner of Agriculture, ;
he and also had charge of the installation of the Kentucky Agricultural A
Hg Exhibit at the St. Louis Fair,"  
13,- UDIVISION OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY.  
m' Prof. May, in charge of Animal{Husbandry, resigned in June.
he His place has not yet been filled. The work, however, in the dairy .
mi line has been continued directly under my charge by Mr. Nutter, I
[its the assistant in dairying. .  
AS ‘ — _ g
Hg y FERTILIZER CONTROL VVOEK.
zhe During the year 630 analyses of fertilizers were made. Forty-
as, four manul'a<·turers were authorized to sell fertilizers in the State V
np and tags for 366 brands were issued. There were 636.281 tags I
ith printed and sent to the various firms during the year. The fer-
Jts tilizer fees for the year amounted to $17,535.80, being at little less
ith than for 1903, which amounted to $17.782.50. For 1902 we col-
ied lected $95.3:%1.50 for fertilizer fees. This makes a shortage of ,
Jer `over $15.(l00.00 in the last two years, a shortage which was not  
expected at the time the Experiment Station was planned and ap-  
1d- I propriatious were made for its erection. Up to Hay 1 of this year,  
$8.615.00 have been collected for such fees. This is a little in g
excess of last year’s fees up to that time, which amounted to E
$8,514.00, but considerably short of the spring trade two years  
wk previous. which amounted to $11267.50.  

 · -· : I . \
»     `’ »‘‘ I.     , xii Seventeenth Annual Report of the  
  ‘··`~     an  Mr. H. E. Curtis isfin charge of the Fertilizer Control Work, C
    and assisted by Mr. W. H. Scherffius and Mr. O. M. Shedd. ,
» is ``.` · <;»iE{.¥e?Yi,{if   V_.i   . » · O
  .e..>   A FOOO OONTROL WORK- 0
  The work of this division is under the charge of Mr, R,
· _·’V t     M. Allen, and Mr. J. O. LaBachhas,chargeof the chemical inves-
    tigations. Themicroscopical examinations have been under Prof.
yi ·,.·     Garman’s supervision; V _ l · . V » .
  During the year 628 official samples have been collected for
  analysis. Thorough inspections. have been made in Louisville,
iv  Covington, Newport, Lexington, Paducah, Henderson, Owensboro,
  Ashland, Catlettsburg, Shelbyville, Falmouth, Millersburg, Dan-
    " ville, Richmond, Mt. Sterling, Versailles, Georgetown, Cynthiana,
  , Hopkinsville, Bowling Green, Elizabethtown and in smaller towns '
    W in all parts of the State. A systematic inspection of the milk sup-
  ply has been made. Special attention has been given to feed stuffs,
  especially bran. A number of samples of bran have been found to
  be adulterated with corn cob meal: The dairyinen around Louis-
  ville and Elizabethtown have co—operated with us in this work.
    One hundred and fo_rty—four violations have been reported to
    the County and Commonwealth Attorneys ; 33 warrants were issued
  and 14 indictments were returned., Out of 47 prosecutions, 46 fines l
  were imposed. ` O t
  During the year over 1,000 letters have been written, as shown
    by the letter hle, in regard to the execution of the pure food law.
    When the law first went into elfeet, we had‘much difficulty in en-
  forcing it, but the grocers, jobbers and the manufacturers who
  opposed it at the beginning, are co-operating with us.
  The Station receives the analysis fee from the State in this
  work,. but out of such fee the chemist and laboratory expenses must
      be paid. The State pays directly the other employes m this depart-
  ment, and necessary expenses, and attorney fees, provided that the
  total expense, including the analysis, does not amount, in any one ·
      year, to over $10,500.00.
      The Station force, and especially Prof. Garman and Mr. Harper,
  spent some time in the preparation of an exhibit for the St. Louis
  World’s Fair; Mr. Harper taking charge of the installation of the
  ¤.»·-¥7`?’1"f? ’; `. g  
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." "7,  tx; . E? _

 Kentucky-AgricuZtumZ Experiment Station Xiu  
ik¤ 4 State’s exhibit in agriculture and Mr. Keller placing the Station’s  
exhibit in position. Mr.- Shobe, a graduate of the College, took  
. charge of the State’s-exhibit after Mr. Harper came home. The  
a ricultural art of the S.tate’s exhibit was sent to the Station after ,
E P
R. the close of the fair and this makes a beginning for our museum. i
as- The Station has been active lin, assisting the Commissioner of 3
yf. Agriculture in institute work, one or more of the Station’s staff l
being present at the institutes held. Mr. Harper attended every  
?or institute held, while Prof. Garman rand the,Director were resent l
le, at many of the meetings. _ T ;
V0; — · i_ i i
Il- T A CO-OPERATION WITH THE COLLEGE. T
1; . The Station has assisted. the Agricultural Department of the l
P_ College in teaching some of the more technical studies. Prof. Gar- Y
B man is teaching all classes-in Entomology, giving an hour a day ` i
JM; for two terms in each year. Mr. Harper taught agronomy during I
iS_ the winter term, one hour per day, and the Director of the Station  
gave lectures on the use of fertilizers and on animal husbandry.
to Mr. May last year gave one hour peri day to students in the Agri-
ed cultural Course for at least one term.
ies — The students have the opportunity also for studying field and
feeding experiments and dairying, etc. Some of the students are
NH taking advantage of this. 1 have two seniors engaged in thesis
W work under my direction now. i
» •  
an- I P l
ho i PUBLICATIONS.
`We have published- during the year the following bulletins:
iis Bulletin No. 113. V
Ist Protein Content of the Wheat Kernel.  
.t_
gw · Bulletin No. 114.  
CD8 _ _ lnsects lnjurious to Cabbage. P  
Bulletin No. 115. g
er, wheat- ·  
uis · Field Tests of Varieties.  
zhe l

   till-.~ . V ‘
if   · · xw Seventeenth Annual Report of the
    Bulletin No. 116. A ·
I     1. On an Injury to Fruits by Insects and Birds.
    _ 2. The_Apple-tree Measuring Worm. .
Ai  3. The Fall Beauty, a new Apple. - -
jg  Bulletin N0. 117. . _ . . »
    Commercial Fertilizers.
  The bulletins published during the year are appended herewith •
  and then follow the analyses ef .tl1e general work of the Station
  that are deemed of most interest. ~ After this the meteorological
    data will be found. · 1
 ’ 
QQ  ‘ M. A. Soovnnn, Director.
  a.a:i.;:>; ’ -
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 . KE1\|#|'»UCKY — `  
AGHIEULTUHM EXPEHI|\/IENT STATIUN  
'ith ‘   i · 1 /  
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1 State Gelelegeet Kentucky.  
  BULLETIN N0. 113. L 
I 1 Protein-contene ofthe Wheat Kernel.
L !
    t

    K" P    .. K _ .
i i { . *
  ·’»_ j KENT ( J CKY
A    Agricultural Experiment Station.
  ,`‘· W   . . .
.,' l'- BOARD OF CONTROL.
  _   GEO. B. KINKEAD, Chairman, Lexington, Ky -
or L`   D. F. FRAZEE, Lexington, Ky. l
  f gi; RNC. STOLL, Lexington, Ky. .
Q    W. C. BELL, Harrodsburg, Ky.
    j. K. PATTERSON, President of the College .
  M. A. SCOVELL, Director, Secretary.
Z};Iij`i·€$,_;Y ~ » i I srnrnon orricsns. .
   ij M. A. SCOVELL, Director and Chemist.
 Q;   , _ i A. M. PETER, cneniis:.
  H. E. CURTIS, Chemist, Fertilizers.
    H. GARMAN, Entomologist and Botanist. _ _
;i _i€g?:;~ ]. N. HARPER, Agriculturist.
  1:1 Q li;.   SCHERFFIUS, Chemist.
  jj., R. M. ALLEN, Secretary, Food Division.
    J. D. TURNER, Secretary to the Director.
Q    J. O. LABACH, Chemist, Food Division.
    MISS M. L. DIDLAKE, Ass’t Entomologist and Botanist.
  S. D. AVERITT, Ass’t Chemist. V V
  D. W. MAY, Animal Husbandman.
  W. G. CAMPBELL, Ass’t Co-operative Experiments.
    » O. M. SHEDD, Ass’t Chemist.
  G. N. KELLER, Ass’t Entomologist and Botanist.
 " xx. it".;
  Address of the Station——LEXINGTON, KY.
 1535%**
  ··_. is  
 4 ,, NOTICE.
    an; The Bulletins of the Station will be mailed free to any citizen of Ken
 _  tucky who sends his name and address to the Station for that purpose.
i    Correspondents will please notif the Director of changes in their post-
   @2. Y
 C   oliice address, or of any failure to receive the bulletins.
  Q ‘ .
°  E . ADDRESS:
 ‘   Kwwrncxv AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,
    LEXINGTON, Kv
  3  2
cj,] kw. 
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  '»`e
-  

 )I1.
BULLETIN No. 113. . I
Studies on the Relation between certain Physical Characters =
of the Wheat Kernel and its Chemical Composition,  
and a Proposed Method for Improving Wheat by the 3
, Selection of Seed. i
By ]. N. HARPER and A. M. PETER. V
It is a recognized fact that plants are not absolutely faxed p
in their characteristics, but are subject to more or less pro- I
nounced variations, especially when a change is made in their ‘
environment. Wheat grown in one locality when planted in
another is subject to influences which may produce variations
in the physical and chemical characters of the grain. The
influences believed to be most potent in inducing such changes
are food supply, water, light, temperature, altitude, physical
properties of the soil or growth in maritime or saline regions.
F/inly whcals feud z‘0 Izecame softer. In the series of experi-
ments conducted at this Station during a long term of years  
. with many different varieties of wheat, we have noticed that 1
when seed wheat brought from other parts of the country is
grown in Kentucky, the grain`prod uced contains a larger pro-
portion of mealy-looking_or starchy kernels than the original
’f K"' seed, and this change seems to go on from year to year, to s
P°S°· .some extent. In other words, hard wheats from elsewhere i
1* P0S'· tend to get softer by being grown in our climate, a fact gen- i
erally accepted by our farmers. But in the experiments at
this Station, extending over periods of three to ten years,  
in which the seed grown each season was planted the next, 1
this change has not been complete in any of the varieties ,
planted.  

 ll , _ .
  4 I Bulleiin N0. 113. ·
" l _ S0mej‘li7zzQ1/graz`¢zs always prcse1zZ.—Upon examining any lot T
j   . of any pure variety of wheat that has been grown in Ken- _P!
  tucky, including more particularly those grown at this Station I I-
  5 · with every precaution to keep them pure, we have found that - lf
  the individual kernels are not uniform in color, outline and €f
: 1 general appearance. Some of the kernels will be iiinty, angu— R
_   lar in outline, semi—translucent and of a dark amber color, I
    while others will be plump, starchyin appearance and light in T
E   color. (See Figure 1.) Thae dark, ilinty kernels are distinctly 3
S.   harder than the light, starchy=looking ones and contain more . ¤
  protein, as shown by our analyses. . (See table I.) The pro- C
¥i· l     portion of the hard, flinty kernels to the st_archy ones diEers
 i_ greatly in the different varieties of wheat examined. I
  Fling kernels are the more niz‘r0genaus.—To ascertain the 2
  I exact difference in chemical composition between these two K I
  types of kernels, we selected by their appearance from each i
ii,   I of the varieties of wheat grown at the Station, enough kernels 2
  of each class for chemical analysis. These analyses show C
    ‘ that in every instance the iiinty kernels contained more protein (
  peg.; than the starchy ones._ (Compare columns 5 and 6 in table I.) l
T-,  An examination of table I shows that the variation in the
  percentage of protein between the starchy and iiinty kernels l
  was greatest in the variety Pootung, the difference being 5.88 l
  per cent. This variety has been grown at this Station for .  
  three years. The seed came from Shanghai, China, through i' ·
  the United States Department of Agriculture. There were ‘
  two varieties in the seed received, a bearded and a smooth _ l
  one; the wheat analyzed was the bearded variety. The
  variation in the per cent. of protein was least in the variety
  Rudy which has been grown at the Station for live years, the
  difference being only 1.oo per cent. Of the nineteen varie-
  ties tested, Eve, namely: Beechwood Hybrid, jersey Fultz,
  Pearl Prolific, Improved Rice and Pootung, show a difference ~
  of more than 4 per centj of protein. The Hrst two of these
  have been grown for tive consecutive years at this Station,
  the second two for four and the last one for three years. The
l  highest percentage of protein found was in the flinty kernels
  from the Pootung wheat, which contained 16.55 per cent.
as
i 

 Prafezbzicovzielzi ay' z'/ze Wheel Keryzel. . 5 l
t The Improved Rice ranks next highest, with 15.17 per cent.  
- protein. Next this variety·` follow Beechwood Hybrid, with  
1 1 14.95 per cent., Extra Early Oakley, I4.68 per cent. and Q
t · jersey Fultz with 14.66 per cent; The varieties ranking low-  
l est in the per cent. of protein found in the flinty kernels were  
- Rudy, containing 11.63 per cent., Turkish Red, containing  
, 11.85 per cent., and Gold Coin, containing 12.53, per cent.  
1 The widest variation in the percentage of protein between  
y any two samples analyzed was found .bet’ween the fiinty ker- ;
e nels of Pootung a_nd the starchyvkernels of Dawson’s Golden i
— Chaff, namely, 7.44 per cent. . ' 7
s T he large kernels richer in _;5rqiei1z llzan the small 0nes.——Table
III gives analyses of kernelsgraded according to relative size i
a as well as appearance. judging from the results shown in 1
> this table, the_ small, flinty kernels do not contain as much '
1 protein as the large and medium sized flinty ones. This vari- .
s ation inthe per cent. of protein between flinty kernels of E
v different sizes in the same variety probablygdepends upon the {
1 difference in the composition of grains from the middle and
) the ends of individual heads of wheat. `
5 The analyses of grains taken from different parts of a single
5 head of Pootung wheat _‘(see table IV) show that the small Z
3 kernels near the base and tip do not contain/as large a per- £
1- , centage of protein as the larger kernels in the center of the l
1 " head, We also conclude from our observations that polliniza- ,
g tion takes place hrst in the middle of the head, which may  
; _ account for the larger gains beimg in the middle of the head.
B All fhe leewzels cy' my mze head are ey' lhe same lype.——By ex- l
,» amining the kernels from a large number of separate heads,
E we find that there is very little difference in the physical ap- `
- pearance of the individual kernels composing any one head i
Y of any variety examined, except in respect to size. Vile have i
E — observed also that the grains from the several heads of any  
E one stool were sensibly alike in appearance, that is to say they _
l were all either flinty or starchy, but the grains from different
e stools often differed materially, some being fiinty, others 7
S starchy. A »
_ The flingl kewzels are noi wzrzjbe.-The stage of maturity of
l
. 1

 » l iv,. .
[ -`      » ~ u
  V g.   T   6 _' Bulletin Nv. 113.  
° _ ‘ V   _   wheat at the time of harvesting affects the per cent. of protein   Hi,
" `Q T `·V’       in the kernels. Wheat cnt when fully ripe contains more ‘ th
1 _·__     T   protein than that cut while in the milk or dough stage. In i re.
  .·e· ; T1 `ci_ I g  I the course of this investigation the question was raised th
M   i‘'_·ip     ` whether the flinty, nitrogenbus grains were not unripe grains ml
  —.e— gf   { in which the starch`had:not yet fully; developed. To study
    5 this problem, we examined a number of separate heads of p Ot
. ` ` '.:*Q.,]1.:f}i1,t L`   Turkish Red wheat some of which had been gathered on june px
Qi     n 16, 1903,, before it was quite ripe, and others gathered a week E,
    {if    later from the same plot when fully ripe. In the case of some T,
  of these heads, it was idiilicult to decide whether the grain be
V T    3 should be classed under the Hinty or starchy type, but upon P]
  V Q   making the distinction asjcarefully as possible, putting all the ai
  _-‘* ={xf`i;;; ,.,     grains of each head into one or the other class, there was A H,
  , _ obtained from the wheat gathered june 16, 49.4 per cent. of