xt7n8p5vb475 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7n8p5vb475/data/mets.xml Kentucky Negro Education Association Kentucky Kentucky Negro Education Association 1940 The most complete set of originals are at Kentucky State University Library. Call Number 370.62 K4198k journals  English Kentucky Negro Educational Association: Louisville, Kentucky  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal African Americans -- Education -- Kentucky -- Periodicals The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.10 n.2, January-February, 1940 text The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.10 n.2, January-February, 1940 1940 1940 2020 true xt7n8p5vb475 section xt7n8p5vb475  

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Volume X januaIy-Febmary 1940 Na. 2






A $1



Kentucky Sm, College. Frankforl, Ky.
Rufuu B. Amnd, Pmidem

“An Equal Educational Opportunity for Every Kentucky Child“











A fully uncredited VOCA-
for young people of Ken-
tucky who desire an equal
educational opportunity.
A qualified faculty. . . . .
College preparatory calm-

Accredited by the South-
ern Association of Col-
leges and Secondary
Schools and the State De-
partment of Education, as
an A-class school.
Vocational courses under
State regulations and
adequately equipped. An»
plied Electricity, lenb-
iug, Steam Boiler Opera»
timi, Janitorial Service,
Agriculture, Dairying,
Building Trades, Home
Economics, Music
Boarding Department with
reasonable rates.

A well regulated program
for the all-around develop-
ment of the student.


Whitney M. Young, Director






 The K. N. E. A. Journal

Official Organ of the Kentucky Negro Education Assodatjun


Vol. X January-February, 1940 No. 2


Published by the Kentucky Negro Education Association
Editorial Ofiice at 1925 W. Madison Street
Louisville, Kentucky


Atwood S. Wilson, Executive Secretary, Louisville, Managing Editor.
S. L. Barker, Owensboro, President of K. N. E. A.
Lyle Hawkins, Louisville Whitney M. Young, Lincoln Ridge
Victor K. Perry, Louisville E. Poston, Paducah
Published Bimonthly during the school year: October, December,
February and April
Membership in the K. N . E. A. (One Dollar) includes subscription
to the Journal

Rates tor Advertising space mailed on request
Present Circulation, 2260 Copies. 1939 K. N. E. A. Membership 1469


K. N. E. A. lCommitteee for 1939-40.. .......... . 2
EditorinlComment 5
Financing Schools for Name Children from State Sahuei Fund in
Kentucky—Kyla. B. Atwood. . . . . . . . . .. .10
The K. N. E. A. (A Poem)—-By E. Poston. .
The Negro in Kentucky—By G. W. Jackson
The Negro m America—«By John Wesley Dobbs
Right of Negro to Enter Univemity of Kentucky Recognized
The Present. Thanksgiving (A Foam—By Marie S. Brown . . .
Superintendent Sponsors Democratic Ideals ...... . ..
The Teaching of a. Science Unit—By C. E. Nichols
K...NEA.Kullth-....................... .
Tentative Outline of 194.0 K. N. E A. Convention. . . . .
K. N. E A. Announcements. . . . . . .
Youth Council Plans Conference. .
The 1940 K. N. E. A. Honor 3011.. .
K. N. E A. Directors Adopt FivePoint Pro am . . .
Budget for the K. N. E. A. for 1939 40.
Lincoln Institute Key Award. .
Map of District. Ares ..... . . .





 K. N. E. A. Committees For 1939-40

A. E. Meyzeek, Louisville, Chairman


J. B. Caulder, Lexington Dr. E. F. Underwood, Frankfort
c. E. cahell, Henderson R. B. Atwood, Frankiort
G. w. Adams, Winchester M. H. Gritiin, Fadueah
.l. H. Ingram, Frankfort W. H. Humphrey, Maysville
M. J sleet Badueah A. L. Garvin, Louisville

. Nuekolls, Providence H. E. Goodloe, Danville
D. H. Anderson, Padueah W. L. Shobe, Lynch

0. R. Bland, Paris
Rep. C. W. Anderson, Jr., Louisville
S. L. Barker, President of K. N. E. A., Ex—Ol‘ficio Member

H. C. Russell, Louisville, Chairman

E. W. Glass, Hopkinsville W. S. wheatlev, Owensbora

J. E. Kuvkendall, Bowling Green Rev. W. 1-1. Ballew, Louisville
J. A. Thomas, Louisville Benjamin F. Spencer, Frankfort
W. N. Johnson, Lancaster 0. N. Travis, Monticello

c. A. Alexander, Covington Rev. G. H. Jenkins, Louisville

Rev. L. R. Stewart, Hopkinsville Rev. Homer Nutter, Lexington



J. H. Ingram, Chairman, Frankfort
W. H. Ferry, Jr., Louisville Carl Walker, Hazard
W. 0. Nuokolls, Providence P. Moore, Hopkinsville
William Wood, Harlan L. R. Johnson, Princeton


Dr. G. D. Wilson, Louisville, Chairman
Miss Maude Brown, Louisville L. N. Taylor, Frankfort
Dr. H. B. Crouch, Frankfort T. R. Bailey, Franldort
H. R. Merry, Covington R. L. Dowery. Columbia
P. L. Guthrie, Lexington, Chairman

J. D. Steward, Frankfort M. J. Sleet, Padueah


Amos Lasley, Hodgenvfllé, Chaiman
J. W. Waddell, Elkton Mrs. V. B. Alexander, Louisville


Miss Eunice B. Singleton Louisville, Chairman
Mrs. Blanche Elliott, Greenville Mrs. Ann J. Hertwell. Frankfort
Miss F. Yolanda Barnett, Louis— W. J. christy Versailles
ville Mrs Loovll Smith Lexington
C. L. Harris, Newport Miss Lillian Carpenter, Louisville
Miss Emma Edwards, Owensboro



Frank Orndorfi, Russellville, Chairman

A. J. Pinkney, Lincoln Ridge M. H. Griffin, Psdoesli .
Miss L. A, Anderson, Frankfort Miss A. M. Peyton, Louisville




Miss Estella M. Kennedy, Louisville, Chairman
H. s. Osborne, Middlesboro F. L. Baker, Lexington
Miss Aliee Nugent, Louisville Mrs. Bettie Davis, Georgetown
Secretaryr'l‘reasurer A. s. Wilson, Ex—Ofiicio Member


Mrs. M. L. Copeland, Frankfort, Chairman
Mrs. Cornelia Weston, Pembroke Mrs. A. L. simms, Mayslick
w. R. Cummings, Pikesville w. M. Smith, Dnvistown
E. L. Poole, Bowling Green Polk Grimm, Guthrie


Dri J. T. Williams, Frankfort. Chairman
E. W. Whitesides, Paducah Dean David A. Lane, Jr.,Lonis-

E. T. Buford, Bowling Green ville
W. W. Maddox, Paducah



L. W. Gee, Hopkinsville, Chairman
F. A. Taylor, Louisville Helen Noel, Madisonville
Sadie M. Yancey, Lexington Atwood S. Wilson, Louisville

Privileges of Active Membership
in the K. N. E. A.

1. The privilege of attending all general sessions of the Association.

2. ’er privilege of participating in the departmental sessions.

3. The privilege of speaking and holding office in the Kentucky Negro
Education Association.

4. Mia privilege of voting and participating in the business affairs of
the Association.

6. The privilege of receiving all literature of the Association includ-
ing the Official publication, The K. N. E. A. Journal.

No Kentucky Teacher Should Fail to Enroll
Send One Dollar

To A. S. WILSON, Secretaryfll‘easurer
1925 W. Madison Street, Louisville, Ky.




The Kentucky
State College

Established 1886


A Progressive State Supported Institution


Arts and Science
Agriculture Home Economics
Mechanic Arts


Well Trained Faculty
Adequate Library and Laboratory Facilities,
Comfortable, Modern Dormitories
Full Program of Student Activities

Class A Four Year
Accredited by the
University of Kentucky
and the
Southern Association of Colleges
and Secondary Schools




R. B. ATWOOD, President




Editorial Comment


This issue of the K. N. E. A. Journal reviews the history of
the Negro in Kentucky, particularly in the field at education. The
editor of the Journal dedicates this issue of the Journal to those
Negro leaders in Kentucky who have contributed to the unusual
progress made by the Negroes in Kentucky.

Pres. R. B. Atwood of. Kentucky State College has reviewed
the legislative enactments of the Kentucky General Assembly as
they pertain to the education of the Negro. It is to be noted in this
arficle that gradually the white population of Kentucky has come
to recognize the obligation to the' Negro as a citizen of the commun-
ity. Kentucky now leads the southern states in providing educa-
tional facilities for its colored children and recently has gone on
record as recognizing its obligation to provide equal educational
opportunities for every Kentucky child regardless of race or creed.


Prof. G. W. Jackson of Louisville has given a historical sketch
of the Negro in Kentucky along lines other than in the field oi edu-
cation. He has pointed out their progress in business, in civic life,
in ms field of religion, and along many other lines. His article in
dimtes that the Negro has made rapid progress in every phase of
Kentucky lite and that moreover, he has contributed nationally to
the fame of Kentucky.

An article by J. W. Dobhs, “The Negro in America," reviews
the history of the Negro in the United States and vividly outlines
their progress. Concluding, he points out that the Negro today
only seeks mainly those rights which are guaranteed him as a citi-
zen by the Constitution of the United States,

other poems, editorials and articles in this issue of the Journal
help to mphasim the present tendency on the part of the white
population in Kentudky and elsewhere to give to the Negro Child 8M
to the Negro teacher those opportunities which rightfully helonz
to them. We pause to glance badrward at the progress which we
have made, but take pride, renewed energy, enthusiasm and.’ up-
timism as we look forward to the future. We rejoice that America
in this time of world strife is at home as well as abroad bringing
into a. fuller realization the fact that democracy means “a govern-
ment oi the people, for the people, and by the people,” a government
in which each citizen has an equal opportunity to develop his tal-
ents and ability.



Recently, there appeared in the retogravure section of the LOUIS-
ville Courier-Journal an account of the public school system at Bowl-
ing Greenl Among the pictures which appeared was that oi Super-in-
tendent L‘ C. Curry and the paragraph following:

“Mainspring of the Park City school organization is L. C.
Curry, superintendent, who maintains contact with teachers as W911
as principals The system pays Negro teachers at the same rate as
white teachers. New construction has been without Federal aid, the
treasury has plenty of cash for current expenses, educational
standards have been raised by added laboratory equipment, With
it all Bowling Green’s $1.10 school tax rate is the lowest for any
Kentucky city of the third class, 23 cents below the average rate.”

Pursuant to this the K, N.El A. wishes to congratulate Superln.
mndent Curry and the Board of Education of Bowling Green for
this splendid report. Elsewhere in the Journal is a report concern-
ing the public schools of Bowling Green under the title, “Super-in»
tendent Sponsors Democratic Ideals.”


In the Louisville Times of November 24, there appeared the fol.
lowing editorial under the caption, “Equal Qualifications Deserve
Equal Pay Regardless of Teachers’ Color."

“The Maryland case will revive discussion of equal pay for
teachers of equal qualifications in Louisville public schools.
_ It cannot be maintained that Negro school children must be
prepared for their tussle for bread and meat under teachers interior
to those under whom white children are prepared, when taxpayers
foot bath bills.

Therefore it is the duty of school authorities to procure com-
petent Negro teachers.

No law can successfully direct a school government to deal
justly as between teachers of two colors 1f qualifications ofindividuals
are decided and declared arbitrarily,

The best basis of decision as to qualifications is the prepared.
ness record of the individual.

Undoubtedly two teachers equally prepared so far as edumtion
is concerned might be widely different in capacity

That would not be true of 100 Negro teachers and 100 white

Negroes as well educated as whites, and accepted as teachers:
are entitled to pay, in public schools upon a basis of preparation, it
that rule applies to white teachers, without discrimination as to
color, and without subterfuge."


Recently, President S. L, Barker and the secretary-treasurer
of the K. N. E. A. bad a conference relative to the financial stab
us of the K, N. E. A, It was decided that the teachers of Kentucky
be allowed to vote on an amendment to raise the membership fee
from $1.00 to $1.50. This fee is similar to that! of the K. E. A. and
rca" ing that we are seeking equal educational cpportunities and
equality of opportunity in general, it is logical that we assume the
same obligation as other “teachers in Kentucky Moreover, the in-
creasing demands made upon the treasury to finance departmental
programs of the K. N. E. Ar and to increase the number of K, N.
E. A. Journals each year would make imperative the increasing of
the membership fee. Our financial record lndiCPteS for the year
culling 1939 that the K. N. E. A. received $1,453.00 in membership
fees and had expenditures totaling $2,242.32. This expenditure was
made possible mainly by entertainments sponsored by the secretary-
treasurer to make extra mcney for the organization. The K N. E.
A. should get on a safe has-Ls through its membership fees and the
only solution lies in the increased membership tee,


The president of the K. N. E. A. and directors on December
16, 1939, decided that it would be a good idea if school officials
would ask their teachers to volunteer to pay a. $1.50 membership fee
for this year. We realize that this matter must be voted on officiaL
1y at the next K. N. E A. convention, but we are thinking that
there might be some teachers who are interested enough to volun~
leer an extra fifty cents to help the association} These teachers
would receiVe an enrollment card designated “Honor Member," and
the names of such teachers would appear in our next Annual Pro~
ceedings. This extra donation is, of course, optional to teachers.
but We Wish that it would be stressed in order that we night be
able to carry on some of the activities that have been planned, For
example the K. N, E. A. voted last year to raise $5,000.00 for the
purpose of removing inequalities in the education of Negro and
white children in Kentucky.
We hope that teachers will come to the next annual meeting pre—
pared tnamendthle constitution so that the membership fee might be
an official one for 1940-41.

Under any cicumstances principals and school officials are
urged to send in their membership fees as soon as possible. Our
honor roll indicates the schools that have already enrolled up to this
time, It is hoped that we shall exceed our membership of 1939 and
that no less than 1.600 teachers will enrol1 in the 193940 convention.

No colored teacher in Kentucky should fail to have a membership
in the Kentucky Negro Education Association.



In the December 14th, 1939, issue of the [nuisvflle Times
there appeared the following article:

Knoxville today was believed to be me first city in Dixie to
pay Negro school teachers the some salary as white instructors for
the same work

Negro teachers will draw salaries equal to those of white
teachers where they show equal preparation effective as of Decem-
ber 1. The city silhOfl board adopted unianhnouslyaresolution to this
effect after hearing a petition fr ... the Negro Teachers League for
Equalization The petition had been presented repeatedly for sev-
elal years. '

Negro teachers’ pay had been apprmdmately 10 per cert lower
than white teachers."




The new dsrmitoxy for Women at the Kentucky State College
was completed on schedule in December of this year at a cost of
$105,504. This Was the first of. the three buildings under construe
t‘on on the campus to be finished. The others are a power plant to
accommodate the increased number of buildings and a dining hall
and kitchen to take care of the increased enrollment of the last few
years. The building program was financed by the Public Works Ad-
m'nistration, the sale of bonds. and appropriations of the state leg<
islature, and will be completed during the first half of 1940.

When furnished the new dormitory will provide accommodzh
tions for approximately 94 students and an apartment for the
faculty director. Absolutely fireproof throughout, the structure
has every modern convenience for the health, comfort, and social
education of the residents

On the ‘first floor is a foyer running from the front to the
rear of the building and providing from the large bay windows at
theI rear a View of the city of Frankfort. The lounge doors at the
back of the building open on a convenient concrete patio whichwil!
be provided with porch furniture where the girls may sit in the
afternoon sun away from the campus road which runs in front or
the building. Adjoining the lounge is the serving room and a
modern kitchen for the convenience of the residents of the dormitory
when entertaining and where meals for patients in the infirmary
may be prepared.

A private lounge opening upon a sun deck enclosed by an
ornamental iron railing is locatedon the second floorl Off of this

lounge :1 reading room has been included to encourage study. Also
on this floor for the con’enience of the residents are the pressing


 and drying room and the beauty parlor. The former is Provided
with six electrical outlets and hot and cold water, while the latter
is already equipped with two of the Latest type of hairdryers and
shampoo facilities,

0n the third floor there is located a sixAbed infirmary equipped
with individual bed lights and signals for the nurse in charge, private
bath (or pitients, and an adjoining room for the nurse. Patients
mm the infirmary may take advantage of the porch roof to obtain
t benefit of the sun’s rays shielded from observation from below
by the concrete wall surrounding the roof. A dimming arrangement
on the lights makes it possible to adjust them to the desirable in—
tensity in various parts of the infin'nai'y.

The student rooms are designed to accommodate two occupants
have composition tile floors, two closets, one window, and electrical
baseboard outlets besides an attractive diffused lighting feature. The
walls are white with cream woodwork and dark brown stained doors
with safety-catch looks. The same color scheme is used i1 the halls
and lounges except that the floors are terrazzo instead of composi-

On each floor of the building are lavatory facilities, both
tubs and showers, and accommodations for light laundry work all
finished with beige tile walls and terrazzo floors. Other features of
the dormitory are: a large club room with composition block tile
floor and a storage room in the basement, ice water in the drinking
fountains on all floors the year around, and an automatic elevator
connecting all floors.

The new dormitory to be seen from U, S highway 60 rising im~
pressively above the lower campus is a definite contribution to the»
beauty of the college environment.






The new Executive Secretary of the American Teachers' Asso-
clation is Pres. H. Council! Trenh'olm of the Alabama: State Teach~
ers’ College at Montgomery, Alabama. This association is under
going a reorganization and plans are being made to continue the
publication of the bulletin—the official organ of that'association,
The membership fee has been reduced from $1.50 to $1.00 per
year in order that more teachers may participate in the national
problems of teachers in the Colored Schools.

The K. N. E A. has continuously affiliated with this organ-
imtion, and again this year pledges its support. To this end Ex»
ecutive Secretary 'l‘renholm has been [invited to be guest speaker
on Friday, April 19th, at the General Session. Immediately after
this session an opportunity will be given our Kentucky teachers
to enrolli in the American Teachers’ Association. The 37th Annual
Meeting is in Pine Bluff, Arkansas July 2326, 1940.

Pres Barker seeks the doopemtion of all Colored Teachers
In Kentucky for the American Teachers’ Association.


 Financing Schools For Negro Children
From State School Funds In Kentucky
R. B. Atwood

Viewed from the standpoint
of the long continued reluctance
of public authorities in Ken-
tucky to provide free public
schools forwhite children of the
state, the progress that has been
made and the financial support
that has been given to public
Schoois for Negroes in Ken-
tucky is little short of remark-
able. For years little or no
thought was given to the idea
of public state support for
schools. The early pioneers in
Kentucky saw little need” to
transfer their churches and
schools as established institutions
to their new names. Consequent»
ly the little formal education
undertaken was done under pri—
vate auspices together with
some few sporadic efforts to es-
tablish publ-‘c schools supported
by the counties.I This latter ef»
fort proved to be ineffective
and education in the state early
came to be regarded as a prl~
vate responsibility and no con-
cern of t h e Coann'ionwetalth.2
Kentucky’s first constitution
was accordingly innocent of any
provision for state support of
public education. The ideal of
free schools was slow to devel-
op and nearly a haltoentury
Would pass in which several fu—
tile: and abortive attempts
would be made to establish 3

”Thomas Dr Gin-k, "A History at Kentucky."

1937. on. 305406.

’Ellwood P. Cuhherly. “Public Education in the United sues“

Hougimm Mifflin. 1934, pp. 22-29.

‘Bal‘ksfll‘e mien, "History of Education in Kentucky."

public system of schools only
to be frustrated before any defl-
nite state action was taken.5

At long last on February 1.6,
1838, greatly stimulated by an
unexpected grant to the state of
well over a million dollars from
the undivided surplus in the fed-
eral treasury, the legislature
established what passed as a
common school system. The old
antipathy towards public educa-
tion was not yet dead, however,
as was evidenced by the fact
that the legislature, pressed by
tho panic of 1837, used part of
the money originally intended
for the schools for other pur-
poses. There followed a period
of stress and strain for the
newly established school system
during which the legislature
was especially niggardly in its
support of the schools. The
system languished and strug-
gled with feet)!“ life and doubt-
Iul success until it was rescued
by the unfit-i ‘ efforts of Robert
J. Breckinridee who came to
the state superintendeney in
1847. It was during the six
years of his administration that
the system was fully establish-
ed and state taxation for school
purposes was initiated, thus
making the schools actually
free! Much of the progress that
was now made would be lost


New vYork: Prentice—Hall:—

I-‘nn‘kxurt, Km.

tncky: Denmment of Education, IESS, pl B.

‘Bohert J. BreckinfidKE.“Superinbendent's mm"

Department of Ed‘wttfiun 1850 p. a.

haunt, Kentucky:


 during the Civil War and it may
be said that at the end of that
struggle, though legal prov-is
ions had been made for public
instruction of white children,
in reality the school system in
so far as it was public was little
more than a name.

First state nouns to Educate
The Negroes

Against this background of
general public indifirexence to
the support of education by the
state even for white children un»
til after the Civil War one can
best and mast fully appreciate
what has been done in Kentuo'lw
since the war to educate Ne-
groes Previousto the liberation
of the Negroes in the state
none of the public efforts at ed-
ucation were extended to the
Negroes as it had not been con»
siderell good policy to provide
for their education. Here and
there a few kindrhearted mas-
ters oz- more often mistresses
had given permission for prL
vate instruction for their Ne«
groes and an occasional free Ne-
gro acquired an education by
one means or another. These
cases, however, were highly ex-
ceptional. Only after the Thir-
teenth Amendment had been
added to the Constitution of the
United States freeing the Ne
groes in Kentucky was any con-
sideration given to the question
of establishing schools for Ne-
gro children. The number of
colored school children in the
state at this fimelhas been esti-
mated to have been about 40,»

'Dontel Stevenson, “Swedntendem’c

Pv-rtvmnt of Educlflnn, not w. “—533.

“Acts of Kentucky Gene-n: Ascanblyf

mm or some, 5188‘]. by. 9546‘

They did not have to wait
long before the leglsmture un—
dertook to do something for
them_ The Thirteenth Amend-
ment went into efiect on Decem-
ber 18, 1865, and in the follow-
ing February the legislature
made its first atmptto provide
schools for colored children
On February 16, 1866, the legis~
lature passed a law providing
that all taxes derived from a
five cents levy on property of
“’Mroes and Mulattoes be set
aside to be divided equally for
taking care of Negro paupers
and the education of Negro chil-
dren. The funds provided by the
collection of taxes for a people
so recently freed from slavery
and having title to very little
property would necessarily be
very meager_ The amount col-
lected for the first year was $5,‘
656.01, only onehalf of WhiCh
could be userl for the benefit
of schools, the other half being
set aside for the support of col-
ored owners The state per
capita for each colored child was
six cents while that for the white
child was for the same year
eighty cen'is.5

The law or 1866 was permit»
ted to operate only one year be
fore it was completely repealed
and replaced with another
enacted on March 9, 18677 In ad-
dition to the property tax the
new law levied a capitation tax
of two dollars on every male Ne-
gro over the age of eighteen
and provided that the entire
sum be used for schools and
paupersfl An essential Mer-
ence, however. was that the new
Moi-t." rnnum, Kentucky: oc—

ankl'oxt. Kentucky: Sec.-


 law provided for education first
and that the residue be put in
the pauper fund. In the very
next year this law was so
changed as to destroy all pos-
sibility of any appreciable
amount of state aid being given
to Negro schools, The new law
provided that no part of me
funds authorized to be raised
for the benefit of Negroes and
Mulattoes should ho applied to
school purposes except what-
ever excess there might be af—
ter providing for the Negro
paupers in each county! It
further provided that the mon-
ey already collected under ’the
act of 1867 be spent in accord
ance with this amending pro—
vision, This amendment had the
efiect of almost completely nul-
lifying the development of color-
ed schools, so far as SW action
was concerned. for in most
counties there was no money
left for education after the
needs of paupers were served.
This was certainly the ease in
Franklin county and may be as—
sumed to have been equally true
in most of the other counties of
the state as there must have
been large numbers of paupers
among the newly emancipated
Negroes.a Itmust be remembered
that the institution of slavery
did not develop initiative and
independence among the Ne—
gmes, but ramer the opposites,
dependence and the lack of init-
iative. There is some evidence

Win-{Jr Issa, p, 4.
'z, F. Smith.

man: or Education 1359. w, ‘11—'12.
”TM-1.," 1m 5943‘

“Superintendent‘s Report."

to show that the pauper prams
ion in the law encouraged idle-
ness and knowing that the
money would not go to their
schools colored people used ev-
ery subterfuge to dodge paying
the tax.9 Moreover, the law was
not mandatory

Summarizing the situation
alter the passage of the law of
1867 and. the amendment of
1868 Wu discern a school system
with practically no promise for
the future In the first place no
money was left {or education
after paupers were cared for;
colored people used every sub-
terfuge to avoid paying the tax,-
idlcness among Negroes tended
to grow to large proportions in
counties where the pauper fund
was liberally administered; and
the law failed to make obliga-
tory that the trustees establish
schools for colored children. In
1870 the legislature repealed all
these acts and levied upon Ne>
groes the same taxes as upon
white people, and made no pro-
visions tor colored schools

Thus after five years of free-
dom, each effort of the Slate to-
ward providing schools for Ne
gross had met with defeat In
each attempt the state had fol-
lowed the policy that Negro cit-
izens should support their own
schools, and what was more,
care for their own paupers.
Each attempt had tailed miser-
ably to accomplish the desired


Frankfort, Kentun'ky: Doon-


 Nothing more of any signifi—
cance in regard to colored
schools was done until 1874 un»
der the administration of Sup»
eriniendent H. A. M. Hender—
son. According to all available
records which the writer has
been able to examine no state
provisions for schools were
made for colored children be-
tween the years 1870 and 1874.
Henderson had very definite
ideas on the whole problem of
state support for Negro schools;
he would (1) provide schools for
Negro children so that the Ne
gro may learn to vote intelli‘
gently; (2) keep the schools
separate; and (3) let Negroes
finance their own schools by
taxing than and using all their
taxes for support of their
schools This plan, fallacious
as it was, was adopted in the
law of 1874.“

This law established a uni-
form system of common schools
for colored children of the
commonwealth. It set up a col-
ored school fund which consist-
ed of a tax of forty-five cents
on each one hundred dollars
in value of taxable property
owned or held by colored peo-

ple, a capitation tax of one dol-
lar on each colored male over
twenty-one years of age, all
taxes levied on dogs owned by
colored people, all state taxes
on deeds, suits or any license
fees collected from colored per-
sons, all fines, penalties or for—
feitures imposed upon and col-

lected from colored people,
and all gifts ‘or grants from
any source whatsoever. Provis-

ion was made for three colored
trustees to each school district,
appointed by the county com-
missioneri Authority was given
to the county commissioners to
certify teachers and to the
state superintendent the power
to organize separate county in»
stitntes and a state teachers'
association. In the State Board
of Education was vested the
control of the whole systeml
The entire set-up, with the ex-
ception of financial provisions
was the same as that for the
white school systsm.

Table I has been constructed
to show the general effective
ness of the separate school sys»
xem during the period in which
it operated 1874-1882. A study

1’“in mam. state Revenue .ml Stale Per cap“; for While uul
Colored Chfldrn- 13744352 Inclusive:


~sme Revennr— 42.03 For Cavita—

Yen wan: Colored White Com-«l White Colored
1374—75 437.an 37,414 s 361.755 $13,735 two ms»
1875—76 443.142 50,602 1,057,513 32.975 1.90 .30
1876—77 459,395 58,126 550.540 50.737 1.90 .55
1877—73 ”7.1% 59,539 823,427 42,913 its .52
1873—79 476,307 62,337 205,976 49,570 1.5» .50
137940 173.554 55,564 590,41“: 49,770 1.25 .45
1530—31 433,4n4 70,23»: 352,112 45,471 m5 ,5;
ism—as $38,315 74332 721.737 zs,no7 1.40 so

that. obtained tram sun Superintendent’s muons.

W‘Aua 04' Kentucky Genenal Assembly."

reinry of State. 12173—74, p. as.

Frankfort, Kentucky 526*


 of the data presented in this
table reveals that the amount
of money which the smte’s
colored school system was able
to make available to each color
ed child over the eight year
period, 1874-1882, ranged from
$030 to $958, while (the amount
made available for each white
child ranged from $1.25 to $1.90.

The colored system during the
first fifteen years of its exist-
ence compares favorably with
the white system during the
first fifteen years of its exist-
ence that is, the period from
1838 to 1852, but falls far short
of reaching the white system
during the. period under consid-
eration, namely 1874-1882.

It is remarkable, however,
how rapidly schools for colored
children were established under
the impetus 0f the law of 1874
By the close of the first year af-
ter the' law beanie effective, 452
d‘stricts in 93 counties reported