xt7n8p5vb73g https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7n8p5vb73g/data/mets.xml Kieffer, Aldine S., 1840-1904 Blake, William B. Unseld, B. C. (Benjamin Carl), 1843-1923 Ruebush & Kieffer (Firm), publisher 1886 1 score (184 pages), 17 x 25 cm. Call Number: M1994 .R690 1886 Provenance: Wilcox, Glenn C scores (documents for music) M1994 .R690 1886 English Ruebush, Kieffer & co Contact the Lucille Little Fine Arts Library for information regarding rights and use of this collection Glenn C. Wilcox collection School songbooks, English Shape-note singing Choruses (Mixed voices, 4 parts), Unaccompanied Hymns, English The Royal Proclamation, 1886 text The Royal Proclamation, 1886 1886 1886 2023 true xt7n8p5vb73g section xt7n8p5vb73g > , 5 , ‘9‘,“ m.m-nu~=.~u .4





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 Copyright, 1886, by ALDINE S. KIEFFER & WM. B. BLAKE.


The marvellous success attending the publication of TEMPLE STAR, which has now reached a sale of over 100,000 copies, has induced the editors
to compile and prepare THE ROYAL PROCLAMATION, a book similar in all respects save the music. ROYAL PROCLAMATION is not designed to supersede
but to succeed TEMPLE STAR. In conformity therewith the same rudimental statements are used, and teachers accustomed to them can use this book
without previous preparation and with the same excellent results. '

Hoping that THE ROYAL PROCLAMATION may prove acceptable to the musical public generally, and advance the cause of Sacred and Social

Music, we subscribe ourselves, , Yours sincerely,




3. ll. ARMSTRONG a (20.,
Mauro Tnoomma,
110 8mm Street. Phfladelphh, Po.



By B. C. UNSELD, Principal Virginia Normal Music School.




THE following elucidation of the Elementary Principles is designed as a sort of catechism for the use of the pupil. The statements
are warded, for the most part, as concisely as possible—in short sentences—and are intended to be committed to memory by the pupil, and
recited at each lesson.

The committing to memory of these statements is not to take the place of the teacher’s regular instructions, blackboard exercises, 850.,
but as an addition to them—something for the pupils to learn between the lessons. Each subject should be taught orally, fully explained,
and illustrated with blackboard exercises, and then (not before) the pupils should be referred to the statements embodying the subject taught,

and be required to memorize them and recite them at the next lesson. Used in this way they will prove to be a valuable review of the les-
sons, and will serve to fix them in the memory of the pupils.

No attempt has been made to arrange the statements in the order of a series of lessons: each teacher will arrange the order of his
lessons to suit himself, or rather to suit the condition of his class.


The Scale, Stafi', Notes. 9. The short lines are. called Added Lines.
1. The SCALE is a series of eight tones. 10. The tones are indicated on the staff by NOTES.

. 11. In the Character-Note System of Notation, the tones are rep-
T‘EE) Trhggggesfié‘ggefiigg aéigdglggEgy fizflmwal Names, ONE’ "resented, and more readily indicated on the stati', by notes of different
) 7 7 2 7 y 5 .

2. Also by the Syllables, Do, RE, MI, FA, SOL, LA, s1, Do. Shapes for the dlfie’ent tones‘

12. The scale is extended upward by considering Eight as One of
Pronounced, Doh, Ray. Mee, Fan, Sole, Lab, See. 0011. an upper scale.
4. The scale is represented by a character called the STAFF. 13. The scale is extended downward by considering One as Eight
5. The Staff consists of Fine Lines and Four Spaces. of' a lower scale.

6. Each line and each space is called a Degiee. QUESTIONS.—1. What is the scale? 2. How are the tones of the scale named? 3. What
7. The staff contalns nine degrees. other names 1? 4. How is the scale represented? 5. Of what does the staff consist? 6. What

. . ‘ is each line and each space called? 7. How many degrees does the staff contain? .8. .When
8. When more than nlne degrees are required, the spaces above and more than nine degrees are requi'. ;d, how are they obtained ? 10. How are tones indicated

- on the staff ? 11. How are the tones re resented in the Character-Note System 0! Notation 1
below may be used, and Short lines may be added above“ and bEIOW- 12. How is the scale extended upward ?p 13. How extended downward?







Absolute Pitch, Letters, Clefs.

14. The higlmess or lowness of tones is called PITCH.

15. Pitch is both Relative and Absolute.

16. Relative pitch is the position a tone occupies in the scale.

17. Absolute pitch is the fixed, unchangeable position of a tone,
independent of scale relation.

18. In relative pitch, tones are named by the numeral names, One,
Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight.

19. In absolute pitch, tones are named by the first seven letters of
the alphabet, A, B, C, D, E, F, G.

20. In the Model, or Standard Scale, the pitch C is taken as One.

21. The order of the pitches in the standard scale is as follows ; C is
One, D is Two, E is Three, F is Four, G is Five, A is Six, B is
Seven, C is Eight.

0 is again taken for Eight, because the same tone which is Eight to the tones below it, is
also One to the tones above it.

22. Absolute pitch is represented on the staff by the application of
one Of the letters to one of the degrees.

23. When a letter is thus used it is called a CLEF.

24. The letters commonly used as clefs are G and F.

25. The G clef is placed on the second line.

26. The F clef is placed on the fourth line.





27. The G clef is used mostly for. ladies’ voices.
28. The F clef is used exclusively for gentlemen’s voices.

QUESTIONS—14. What is the highness or lowness of tones called? 15. Pitch is both?
16. What 15 Relative itch? 17. What is Absolute pitch? 18. How are tones named in Rela-
tive itch ‘I 19. In A solute itch how named ? 20. What pitch is taken as One in the Stand-
ard cale‘? 21. Name the or er of pitches in the Standard Scale ‘1 why is C taken again for
Eight}? 2. How is Absolute pitch represented on the staff ‘I 23. When a letteris thus used
what 13 It called ‘2 24. What letters are commonly used as clefs ? 25. Upon which degree is




the G clef placed ‘I 26. The F clef ‘3 What are the letters upon the lines of the G stair ‘l What
age :I‘lllle lrettelarppn the spaces, &c. 7 Teacher will multiply questions. 27. The G clef is used-‘I
e c e


Classification of Voices.

29. The usual vocal compass, including both the male and female
voices, is about three octaves.

30. The tones of the different octaves, denoted by the same letters,
are designated by capitals and small letters, together with marks above
or below them.

.I‘emale Voice.


GABcdcfg.a beggiglafl

The letters in the above example are read thus: Great G, great A, great B, small 0. small
(1, small e, small f, small g, small a, small b, once marked small g, once marked small g, once
marked small e and so on through this octave, and we have then t w ic e m a r k e d small
0, twice marked small (1, and so on.

This once marked small c, being the central tone of the vocal and also of. the great, or in-
strumental scale, is called MIDDLE C. '

The Fclef, it will be seen, indicates small f g the G clef indicates once marked small .

The difference of pitch between the male and female voices, should be clearly ex-
plalned and illustrated 1n this connection.

31. The voice is naturally divided into four classes:
Low male voice—BASE.
High male voice—TENOR.
Low female voice—ALTO.
High female voice—SOPRANO, OR TREBLE.
32. The parts to be sung by the different voices are designated by
33. The F clef, also called Base clef, is used for Base, and often
for the Tenor. ' ‘

It is used for the Tenor when the Tenor and Base parts are written on the same stafi.








34. The G clef, also called Treble clef, is used for Soprano and
Alto, and often for Tenor. When used for Tenor it denotes small g
-——an octave lower than when used for Soprano or Alto.

The use of the G clef for Tenor (always incorrect,) is being gradually abandoned, and the
C clef, (called also, Tenor clef,) adopted 111 its place. The C clef fixes the letters upon the staff
in the same order as the G clef, hut indicates the tones an octave lower, and enables the Tenor
part to be more readily distinguished.

QUESTIONS—29. What is the usualivocal compass ? How are the tones of the different oc-
taves designated? Read the letters'ln the example—what is the once marked small c also
called ? What pitch does the F clef indicate ‘2 The G clef? 31. The voice is divided ‘ into
how many classes ‘I _ Name them. 32. How are the parts for the difierent voices designated ‘1
33. For What vorces is the F clef used? 34. The G clef ?

35. The first tone of the scale—One or Do—is called the KEYNOTE.



36. In the Model or Standard Scale the pitch C is the Keynote.

37. Any other pitch than C may be taken as the Keynote.

38. Changing the pitch is called TRANSPOSITION.

39. The tones of a scale are also called 21. KEY.

40. The word “Key”, in this sense, means a family of tones, or

41. The tones of a key make the scale only when they occur in

42. A key or scale is named from the letter that is taken as the

43. The different keys, except the key of C, are indicated by SHARPS
(g) or FLATS (12) placed on the stafi“. .

44. Such sharps or flats are called the SIGNATURE (sign) of the key.







NOTE To THE TEACHER—It is not necessary, at this point, to explain the theoryr of the
trans osition of the scale. All that the pupils need to know are the names of the Keys and
their ignatures. The different Keys may be introduced somewhat in the followmg manner.

Write the scale of C on the board, and question the class as to what Scale, Key, Keynote,
&c. “We will now take Five of this key for the keynote of a new key. What p1tcl1 _(1etter) 1s
Five in this key ‘3” G. “What, then, is the pitch of the new keynote ?” G. Write the G
scale, the board appearing thus :


KEY Gb Same Pitch as F#


KEY A. fir KEY E.





Explain that when G is the keynote, a sharp is placed on F, and that that degree is then
called F sharp, and that one sharp thus becomes the Sign (signature) of the keyof G, &e.'The
teacher will new drill the class on these two keys, by having them sing as he points to the
notes. After some practice in this way. he will say, ‘ We will now take Five of this key (G)
for the keynote of a new key. “Print is Five rwhat letter) in this key ‘2” I). Write the 1) scale.
explain the signature, and exercise by pointing. Then, in the same manner, (taking Five of
the old key for a keynote of a new key,) introduce the keys of A, three sharps; E, four sharps;
B, five, and F sharp, six sharps.

The flat keys may be taught in the same way, by taking Four of the 01d key for the key.
note of a new key.

The object in presenting the keys in this way, is to give the class practice in the different
keys, giving greater variety in the exercises. The Theory- 0 the Transpositlon of the Scale
may be taken up later in the course.




ans'rross.—35. What is the first tone of the scale called? 36. What itch is the keynote
in the model scale ? 37. May any other pitch be taken as the ke note ? . What IS changing
the pitch called ? 39. The tones of a scale are called a—? 40. hat does the word ‘ .key' in
this sense mean? 41. When do the tones of a key make the scale ? 42. From what is a key
or scale named ? 43. How are the difierent keys Indicated? 44. What aresuch sharps or
flats called ? What is the signature of the key of G ‘2 0f D ? &c. Teacher Will multiply sun-
ilar questions.

Intervals—Steps and Half Steps.

45. The difference of pitch between two tones is called an INTERVAL.

46. There are two kinds of intervals in the scale, the larger called
STEPS ; .the smaller called HALF STEPS.

47. The Half-steps occur between Three and Four, and Seven and

QUESTIONs.—45. What is the difference of pitch between two tones called? 46. How many
kinds of intervals in the scale, and what are they ‘I 47. Where do the halt—steps occur ? What
is the interval from one to two ? Five to Six? Sac. Multiply similar questions.


The Chromatic Scale as a Whole need not be introduced just yet, but there is one
of its tones, Sharp Four, which is so common, and, in its proper connection, so nat-
ural, that it may be here taken up

48. Between the tones Four and Five an intermediate tone may be

49. The name of this intermediate tone is SHARP FOUR.

50. The syllable for Sharp Four is FI (Fee).

51. Sharp Four is represented on the staff by the same degree that
represents Four, modified by a sharp.

52. The influence of the sharp extends through the remainder of
the measure in which it ocCurs.

The additional clause of this rule, namely, “ And through succeeding measures
until cancelled by a note on some other degree of the staff,” is gradually being dis-
continued, as it is of no benefit, and causes great confusion. In some books this rule
is still in force, and the teacher should be able to explain it.

53. The influence of the sharp is cancelled by the NATURAL (ll).

It has been suggested that this character be called a CANCEL, since it is never
used except to cancel the effect of some previous sharp or flat. The term “ natural’ ’
certainly has a tendency to mislead the pupil,—to convey the idea that some tones
are more natural than others.


54. In the sharp keys, Sharp Four is indicated by a sharp, and

cancelled by a natural. . . _
55, In the flat keys, Sharp Four 13 indicated by a natural, and

cancelled by a flat. _ . .
56. The sharps, flats, or naturals, that occur incidentally In a tune,

are called ACCIDENTALS.

QUESTIONS—48. Between which tones ma an intermediate tone be introduced ? 49. What
is the name of this intermediate tone? 5Q. hat syllable? 51. How 15 Sharp hour repl‘esen-
ted on the stafi ‘I 52. How far does the influence of the sharp extend I 53. By what is the
influence of a shar cancelled? 54. How 15 Sharp Four indicated in sharp keys, and 110W
cancelled? 55. In tkeys l 56. What are the sharps, flats, or naturals, occurring incident-

ally. called ?

Chromatic Scale.

57. Betweenwthose tones of the scale which form the interval of a
step, an intermediate tone may be introduced, viz: between One and
Two; Two and Three; Four and Five; Five and Six, and Six and

58. An intermediate tone is named from either of the two scale-
tones between which it occurs.

Thus the intermediate tone between One and Two is called Sharp One, or F lat
Two. Sharp, in music, means higher, Flat means lower.

59. The absolute pitch names of the intermediate tones are govern-
ed by the same rule. Thus the intermediate tone between C and D
is called C sharp, or D flat.

60. An intermediate tone is represented on the staff by a degree
modified by a sharp, flat, or natural.

61. A sharp makes a degree represent a tone a half-step higher than
it does without the sharp.

62. A flat makes a degree represent a tone a half-step lower, than
it does without the flat.

63. A natural is used to cancel the influence of a previous sharp
or flat.

If used to cancel a sharp, its effect is that of a flat; to cancel a flat, its effect is
that of a sharp. A Double Sharp (X) is used on a degree that is already under the
influence of a single sharp. .




To cancel the double sharp, and restore the degree to the influence of a single
sharp, this character (

A double flat (tzlz), and its cancel (fill), are used in a similar manner.

w) is used.

64. The intermediate tones are called CHROMATIC TONES.
65. The other tones are called DIATONIC TONEs.

Diatonic tones may be further defined as those tones that necessarily belong to a
key,——the regular members; Chromatic tones, those that are occasionally introduced.

66. The scale composed of the diatonic tones only, is called the

67. The scale composed of all the tones, both diatonic and chro—
matic, is called the CHROMATIC SCALE.

68. The Chromatic Scale consists of thirteen tones, with twelve
intervals of a half—step each.

QUESTIONS—57. Between which tones of the scale may an intermediate tone be intro:
duced? 58. From What is an intermediate tone named ‘3 59. How are they named as to
absolute pitch? 60. HOW IS an intermediate tone represented on the staff? 61. What is the
effect of a sharp ‘? 62. Of a flat? 63. What is a natural used for? 64. What are the inter-
mediate tones called‘? 65. The other tones ‘3 66. What is the scale composed of diatonic

tones called ? 67. What is the scale composed of all the tones called? 68. Of what does the
chromatic scale constst ‘I

Intervals—Seconds, Thirds—Major and Minor.

The teacher may give such instruction in the Major and Minor intervals as he
deems expedient, or may omit it entirely, as it is not absolutely necessary in element-
ary practice. The following is a synopsis of the subject.

69. In addition to the names Step and Half—step, intervals receive
other names, such as Seconds, Thirds, Fourths, &c.

70. These names are derived from the manner in which the inter-
vals are represented on the stafi'.

71. An interval that embraces in its representation two adjoining
degrees of the staff is called a Second. An interval that embraces
three degrees, a Third ; four degrees, a Fourth ; five degrees, a Fifth ,-
six degrees, a Sixth ; seven degrees, a Seventh ; eight degrees, an
Octave. '

72. Although all intervals of the same name look alike on the staff,
yet, when considered in reference to the scale, they do not sound alike;
ageiggifl'erence in sound being caused by the steps and half~steps of

e e.



A second that is equal to a half-step iS'aDMINOR SECOND.

A second that is equal to a step is a MAJOR SECOND.

A third that is equal to one step and one half-step is a MINOR THIRD.

A third that is equal to two steps is a MAJOR THIRD.

A fourth that is equal to two steps and one half-step is a PERFECT

A fourth that is equal to three steps is a SHARP FOURTH.

A fifth that is equal to two steps and two half—steps is a FLAT
F A fifth that is equal to three steps and one half-step is a PERFECT


A sixth that is equal to three steps and two half-steps is a MINOR

A sixth that is equal to four steps and one half-step is a MAJOR

A seventh that is equal to four steps and two half-steps is a MINOR

A seventh that is equal to five steps and one half—step is a MAJOR

An OCTAVE is equal to five steps and two half—steps.

The intervals here mentioned are called Diatonic intervals, because they are pro—
duced by skips in the diatonic scale. There are others arising out of the chromatic
scale, but they need not be mentioned here.

QUESTIONS—~69. In addition to the names step and half-step, what other names do intervals
receive? 70. From what are these names derlved‘?~ 71. An interval embracing two degrees
is a what ? 8m. 72. Do all intervals that look alike sound alike ? Teacher Wlll supply other
questions. .


Further instruction may now be given in the transposition of the scale, that is, the
theory of transposition may now be taught. For methods of doing this the teacher
is referred to The Pestalozzz'an JIIusic Teacher, by Dr. Lowell Mason and Theo. F.
Seward. Every teacher should have a copy of that work, for reference and for guid-
ance in all matters of elementary instruction.

73. The scale of C is adopted as the Model or Standard Scale.

74. When any other pitch than C is taken as the keynote, the scale
is said to be transposed.

75. In transposing the scale the proper order of intervals must be



76. This is done-by omitting certain tones from the old key and
adopting in their place certain intermediate tones as members of the
new key.

77. The most natural order of transposing the scale is that which
requires the change of but one tone with each transposition.

78. There are two methods by which this is done. F irst—by Fifths,
that is, by taking Five of the old key for the keynote of the new key.

79. Second—by Fourths, that is, by taking Four of the old key
for the keynote of the new key.

80. In transposing by fifths, Four of the old key is omitted and
Sharp Four adopted in its place; Sharp Four becoming Seven of the
new key.

81. In transposing by fourths, Seven of the old key is omitted and
Flat Seven adopted in its place; Flat Seven becoming Four of the
new key.

In transposing by fifths, Sharp Four is the tone of transposition; hence the follow-
ing rule: “Sharp Four transposes the scale a fifth.”

In transposing by fourths, Flat Seven is the tone of transposition ; hence the follow-
ing rule: “Flat Seven tranSposes the scale a fourth.”

82. The intermediate tone required in transposition is called THE

Transposing by fifths is also called transposing by sharps; transposing by fourths
is also called transposing by flats.

83. The sharps and flats necessary in the difi'erent keys are placed
at the beginning, and are called the Signature.

The signature may be changed wherever, in the course of a tune, there is a decided
and prolonged change of key.

84. A sharp or flat, when used in the signature, has a more extended
influence than when it merely occurs as an accidental.

For instance, in the signature of G, the sharp afl‘ects the degree on which it is
placed throughout the tune, unless temporarily cancelled by a natural, and also all rits
octaves. The teacher may also explain that every tone in music is sometimes diatonic
and sometimes chromatic. F Sharp in the key of G is diatonic, because it belongs to
that key. It is chromatic in the key of 0, because it is not a regular member of that
key. F1? is chromatic in G, but is diatonic in C.

QUESTIONS.—73. Which scale is adopted as the model scale ? 74. When is the scale said to






be transposed? 75. In ttransposing the scale what must be preserved? 76. How is this
done ‘I 77. What 1s the most natural order of transposing the scale ? 78. How many methods
arethere by wlnch this is done ? What is the first way ? 79. The second way 1’ 80. In trans-
poslng by fifths what tone of the old key is omitted, and what intermediate tone is adopted
111 its place? What does Sharp Four become in the new key ? 81. In transposing by fourths,
what changes take place ‘3 82. What is the intermediate tone required in transposition
called ? 83. Where are the sharps and flats necessary in the different keys placed, and what
are they called? 84. What is the unnuence of a sharp or flat in a signature? Give an
exainp e.

Relationship of Keys.

85. Keys that have a great many tones in common are said to be
closely related.

86. Keys, are related in the first degree—they are but one remove .
from each other—when there is a difference of but one tone between

EXAMPLE—In the key of G there is but one tone that is not in the key of C,
viz: Ffi; and the key of C has but one tone that is not in the key of G, viz., F accord-

ingly, these two keys have the greatest number of tones in common that it is possible
for two keys to have, and are, therefore, said to be related in the first degree—they
are but one remove from each other.

In the key of F there is but one tone that is not in the key of C, viz., Eb; and
the key of C has but one tone that does not belong to F, viz., B; accordingly, these
two keys are related in the first degree. Thus it may be said that the key of C has
two keys that are related to it in the first degree, viz., the key of G and the key of F.

87. Each key has two keys that are related to it in the first degree,
viz., the key founded upon its Fifth, and the key founded upon its

88. The Central or Chief Key, is called the K29 of the Tonic ; the
key founded upon its fifth is called the Key of the Dominant ; the key
founded upon its fourth is called the Key of the Sub—Dominant.

89. The distinguishing tone between the Key of the Tonic and the
Key of the Dominant is Sharp Four. .

90. The distinguishing tone between the Key of the Tonic and the
Key of the Sub-Dominant is Flat Seven.

'This relationship of the three keys is shown in the following diagrams. It will
be of advantage to the singer to know of this relation, and to observe the use of the
related keys, and the effect of their connection.








a an


[006 -


f C,


f F.
























Key of the Dominant.



Key of the Tonic.
ti v 9 .-. o '3: a
Iltcnb .-. o "3‘ a H ”3‘5 D a
G17 V 1:. A
d V ”—9- V 073.
Key of the Sub-Dominant.
tr" 3 a:
(:3 3&2 $3
90 =0 '0
El.“ 3"” 3'”
=3 ' Er" 3";-
:0 ca - :9
-Sol5- —-—Do8—
—4#— —Si7—
-D084 -Fa4-
—Si'Z— -Mi3- —La6—
—La6— -Re2- —-Sol 5——
——Re2——Sol5—~—Do 1——
#4 sm-
—D01—-—Fa 4—
Si7- —Mi3—— -La6-
La 6- ——Re 2— -Sol5-
8015- —D01—

QUESTIONS—85. Keys that have tones in common are said to be what ? 86. When are keys
87. Each key has how man keys related to it in

related in the first de. ree ?

theafirst degree? W at are they? 88. What is the Central or Chief ey called? The key

Give examples.




founded upon its fifth ? The key founded 11 on Its fourth? 89. What 5 h ' ' ' '
tone between the key of the tonic and the dolininant? 90. The distinguishtmegdisldiild1 Idisvl‘egxgr
tome and subzdommant ?


Modulation. ,

91. A piece of music during its progress may pass into other keys
besides the one in which it begins.

92. This passing over of the music into other keys is called MODU-

93. By Modulation, then, is meant a change of key during the pro-
gress of a piece of music.

94. Modulation is effected, or produced by the introduction of the
distinguishing tone of the new key.

For instance, if, during the progress of a tune beginning in C the tone F# is

introduced, in a prescribed way, it will cause a modulation into the key G. To return.

from G to C the tone F must be used.

Again, if the tone Bb is introduced in a tune during its progress in C it Will
produce a modulation into the key of F. To return from F to C the tone B must be

95. Sharp four occurring in a tune in a certain manner will pro-
duce a modulation into the key of the Dominant.

96. Flat seven occurring in a certain way will cause a modulation
into the key of the Sub-Dominant.

Although modulation produced by the use of intermediate tones is the most
decided, yet a change of key may take place without the use of intermediate tones;
and, on the other hand, the introduction of intermediate tones does not always pro-
duce modulation.

97. The modulations that have just been studied are called modu-
lations of one remove, because only one change is made in the pitch of
the tones used. -

98. , When Sol becomes Do the music is said to go into the key 0
the Dominant, or first sharp key.

99. When Fa becomes Do the music is said to go into the key of

. the Sub-Dominant, or first flat key.

Eighty per cent of all the modulations in music are into one or the other of
these two keys, and the modulation into the key of the Dominant is theone most used.

But the music often passes over the key of the first remove to the key of its first
remove,—-this is called a modulation of two names. Modulations of threeoremoves
sometimes occur, and also of still further removes, but as they seldom occur» in Simple
music, they need not be explained here.

wwmw may w— MM..-


-.. a...“


5,?)- “mw-wfi'





(daemons—91. Must a piece of music stay in the key in which it begins ? 92. What is
assin over into other keys called ? 93. What does modulation mean? .94. _How is_modula-
ion e ected ‘? Give an example. 95. Sharp four will producea modulation into which .key ‘I

96. Flat seven ? May a change of key occur without the use of intermediate tones '3. Do inter—
mediate tones always groduce modulation ? 97. What are the modulations Just studied called?
Why? 98. When Sol ecomes Do where does the muSic go ? 99. When Fa becomes Do ?




The Minor Made.

100. Thus far in our studies Do has been our keynote, or point of
Repose. -
' 101. La is sometimes taken as the keynote.

102. The effect of the music in which Do is the keynote is bright
and joyous.

193. When La is the keynote the effect of the music is sad and

104. The Scale with Do as the keynote is called the MAJOR SCALE.

105. The Scale with La as the keynote is called the MINOR SCALE.

.106. The Major and Minor scales have many tones in common,
they are, therefore, said to be related.

107. Each major scale has its relative minor, and each minor scale

its relative major. -

Although the Minor scale is, to some extent, treated as an independent scale, it

is in reality only a peculiar mode of using the tones of the Major scale; hence, the '


108. The Minor scale, unlike the major, has different forms.

109. The forms most commonly used are, the Natural Minor, the
Harmonic .Minor, and the Melodic Minor.

110. These different forms arise from a different arrangement of the
order of intervals.

The following diagrams show the order of intervals in each form:

.. . , . . . . 'mnlvmlw. . m’w‘flwfwfirgr-W . smwn- 4'3‘w" Wain-«law 'r-u ”th',s'< arc-n; “~- - N... . u. . my.
ear .,_ ,.,..1_,.


...D . ~.."K,F.“" M ,1.


Natural Minor. Melodic Minor.

Harmonic Minor.



6--— La———8 6——-La———-8 6—-La-——8F‘5-— La-G
5—— S'——-——7 '5—S'———

5——-Sol-—- 7 # 1 4* 1 77———Sol—— 5

#4—Fi— I
41 Fa 6 4—-—--Fa—-—-6 66—— Fa— 4
3 Mi 5 3 —~—Mi-—- 5 3 —Mi——-5 5—— Mi— 3
2———-Re———4 2———Re—- 4 2—Re—44~—Re—2
8mD0——-3 8——-—D0——~3 8—D0—33— Do——8
7-———Si—~—-2 7~———Si-——2 7—Si—22—Sin7
6——La——-1 6——-La~—1 6—La—-—l 1—La—6








Harmonic Minor.

Natural Minor.


La, Si, D0, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La. La, Si, D0, Re, Mi, Fa, Si, La,
Melodic Minor.

La, S01, Fa, Mi, Re, D0, Si, La.


La, Si, Do, Re, Mi, Fi, Si, La,

111. The distinguishing feature of Major and Minor scales is the

Third. .
112. The Major scale is known by its Major Third.
11.3. The Minor scale is known by its Minor Third.

QUEs'ripNs.—100. Thus far in our studies which tone has been the keynote 7 101. What
other tone is taken as the keynote? 102. What is the eifect of music in which Do is the key-
note ? 103. What IS the effect when La IS the keynote ‘I 104. What is the scale with Do as the
keynote called ? 105. What is the scale with La as the keynote called ? 106. Have the Major
and Minor scale tones in common, and what are they said to be ‘I 107. Each Major scale has
its—‘1 and each Minor ltS—‘f _ Although the Minor is treated as an independent scale, what is
it in reality ? 108. Has the Minor only one form. or different forms ‘I 109. What jorms are most
commonly used ‘1 110. From what do these different forms arise ‘1 Teacher Will supply qnes







questions on the intervals of the different forms. 111. What is the distinguishing ieature 01
Major and Minor scales ‘I 113. How is the Major scale known? The Minor scale is known
by what 'I >

M'easures, Accent, &c.

114. The length of tones is measured by a division of time into
small equal portions. . 1 -

115. These small portions of time are called MEASURES.

116. Measures are subdivided into smaller portions called Parts.
of Measures, or Beats, 07' Pulses.

117. Accent is a greater loudness given to a certain pulse, or part
of a measure.

118. MeaSures and Parts of Measures are indicated to the ear by

119. To the eye by motions of the hand called Beating Time.
Each motion is called a Beat.

120. A Measure is represented by the space between two upright
lines Called Bars.

121. The space between the Bars is called a Measure—that is, a

' written Measure.

122. The end of an exercise is indicated by a Double Bar.

123. A Measur