xt7ncj87m55t https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7ncj87m55t/data/mets.xml Pennsylvania Museum Extension Project  UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call Number NA 7105 .U5 books  English  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Pennsylvania Works Progress Administration Publications  y WPA Handicraft Project text WPA Handicraft Project   2019 true xt7ncj87m55t section xt7ncj87m55t ;- H'Itg'wi 7‘
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figsgnfig~353~ The 83 photographs this book contains depict
fifi9fififi, .v,, models of human shelter, made on a WPA Museum
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My mét V _. ExtenSion progect in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and
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fivggga ‘.' sent as Visual aids to public schools and Junior
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fl Igfif 7 It project in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Its cloth binding ~
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rééww ,.V - project.
E3?§%§ * 1‘ ; These miniature houses are used in teaching
§U33§9 ‘I-} the history of housing, down the ages. They are
5.fifiT'-I I' used also in art architecture and home—makin
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f fig} . plates; dioramas; and models of famous old forts and
‘ }>%fif ' of modern cities are other visual aids made on WPA
.ykfifii museum Extension projects. These projects for making
?—§%A ‘ I visual aids for education operate in 32 States.
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233% I Assistant Commissioner, who administers all I
fiffifi I professional and service programs of the I
ital , I work Projects Administration, Federal works I
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{jg CAVE DWEllJlNG —7 WELLS, ENGLAND - PREHISTORIC , .9
§ The ancient cave of Wbokey Hole, near wells in Somerset County, ' {1
g{ England, was once the dwelling of pre—historic man. One entrance to - 9},
g; the cave is from the river bank and is nOW'belOW'water level, today an 7 fl
J5 opening from a higher level in the cliff may be used. There are two ; , I?
fl large chambers in the interior. In these, potshards, charcoal, arrow ' T 71
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@- man once lived there. There are also remains of eighteen mammals, in— J
E; cluding the mammoth, wooly rhinoceras, cave bear, cave hyena and Irish 77 ,9
gf elk. It is presumed that bands of hyenas dragged many of these carcases ” _ 1
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3. g , IGLoo, NORTHERN MERICA AND GREENLAND
1 Large snow blocks--about three feet long, 18 inches high, and eight 3 '
3; inches thick-—are cut out with a long knife and laid end to end to fOrm ‘ “
a circle. Upon this foundation row upon row is laid, in spiral and .
sloping slightly inward, with loose snow packed in at the seams, until ,1
the tOp of what has become a dome roof is reached. Then the key block
g is deftly fitted in to close it, a semi-circular opening is cut out for ‘
E5 the doorway, another square opening higher up for a window, and the outer
“'51 ~, wall is complete. The window is covered with thin ice or a strip of 7"
if dried seal intestine pegged down at the corners. A narrow tunnel serves '
- as an entrance. 2 "j!
E; The sleeping bench is a knee-high wall of snow blocks placed side to . E
3} side. The space between this and the igloo walls is filled with rubble-
j? , like snow, which is trampled down until brought to the necessary level. :;
. Side pieces are built out from the sleeping bench to form solid shelves
:3: for the lamps and to serve generally as storage places for oil and blubber. ' a
Finally the inside of the igloo must be glazed. The door and window are 2 _’
sealed and two oil lamps are lighted. The temperature rises and all the
13 surface of the snow is lightly melted. As the lamps die out, the tempera— E
iii . ture falls again and the surface freezes to glasslike Smoothness. Water ‘ '2 92f}
is then thrown on the floor and allowed to freeze to make it as smooth _
, and durable as cement. l
'3; Furnishing the igloo is essentially the women's work. Heather is "
1f . heaped on the sleeping bench and covered with heavy winter skins of deer.
. Soapstone lamps are placed on the stands at each end of the sleeping ; '
:2 bench and a rack is set up for drying clothes. Frequently the inside of l -
‘ , ‘ the snow'house is lined with skins, which become the summer tent when ;
5; spring comes. .

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3 mwa, EASTERN UNITED STATES

é Wigwams were round, oval, or rectangular. Among some tribes

Q; they sheltered a single family; among others they housed several

£5 under a communal arrangement, which assigned to every member of the

3: household his portion of the common task. A large Wigwam at the '
E1 _ center of every village was the council house, in which the leaders

2% deliberated, solving problems of peace and war.

a; ' Among the Ojibwas, or Chippewas, who were a large tribe of

§_ Algonquian Indians occupying the territory round lakes Huron and

%T ‘ Superior, two kinds of wigwams were used. One, lightly constructed

at , and portable, was called the "birch bark camp"; it was a temporary

i; shelter employed on hunting and fishing expeditions. The other

3: Wigwam was fixed and quite substantial.

%; The framework of the permanent shelter consisted of tall

fig , saplings which, pointed at the base by means of stone hatchet, were

fi‘ fixed in the ground to enclose an oval Space, bent inward until

3? ' they met, and lashed together with rawhide thongs. The framework ~

g, ' was then covered with any of various kinds of bark—~cedar, oak,

g chestnut, elm, pine, or hemlock. Sometimes it was covered with mats ‘
3; made by sewing cat—tail leaves together with hemp. When the pieces

g} ' of bark or the mats were in place, a lighter frame was bent over the

éfi . hut to secure them. In covering the framework, three openings were

ii left: one, at the crossings of the saplings, was for a smoke—holeg.

it and one, in each_side, was for an entrance. These doorways were -
;} three feet high and were closed with large pieces of bark or with

E, s flaps of skin.

t -

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g TIPI, CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA

t The tipi (also spelled "teepee") is a form of shelter used

? by such Indian tribes as the Arapahoes, Amanches, Kiowas, and

E Sioux, who inhabited the central North American plains in the

E early history of our country. The word "tipi” is taken from the

i Siouan language, "ti" meaning "to dwell" and "pi," "used for,"

g thus, "to be used to live in."

a To construct their tipis, the Indians used materials that

é were at hand, and they made these shelters in such a way as to

E be easily moved on to other places. The tipi was a conical tent ’
f, of poles and skins. . '

g A circle about fifteen feet in diameter was marked on the

3 ground; on it poles were planted firmly to form a cone—shaped

f framework. These poles, averaging twenty—five feet in length,

i were cut from saplings, preferably cedar, were trimmed down to

’ the heartwood, and were firmly fastened together with a hide cord

5 * about four feet from their ends. The ends of the poles above the

f lashing projected beyond the skin covering of the finished tipi.

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5 , AFRICAN HUT — BA VENDA TRIBE _ TRAUSVAAL .

By divination the medicine man learns whether the intended site is
fa". good. If it is, he places sticks to relate it to the cardinal points of ‘
the 00mpass and so guard it from evil. Finally, he nails down at the , ,
entrance gate a very special stick. ‘

1 A piece of string, a peg, and a stick-—the primitive compass-—are 5
QI; used to mark the plan on the ground. The men, who do all the skilled -

work of construction and thatching, cut poles for the framework. The ..
if women gather grass for thatch. A trench is dug around the circle and f
stout six—foot stakes are set up close together. At three levels the

uprights are joined inside and out by fleadble sticks lashed in place. ,_
The cylindrical walls are capped with a conical roof.. The lower part of e
if a Space between stakes provides an entrance, closed with a lattice door

E3; of sticks and withes. ' .

{3; The Ba Vendas make the roof-frame on the ground. Four sizable .1
j: poles are lashed together at one end, then raised and Spread far enough ,
apart to let the finished roof have a wall-overhang of three feet. The j
if ' pyramid ,thus formed is made into a cone by laying slighter poles between ‘
the principal ones. This framework, too, is crossed with circles of m
;: boughs; but here they are spaced one foot apart. to give support for the ;

thatch. The roof is not fastened to the walls but to posts spaced three

feet out; thus, with little trouble, the but is provided with a veranda. 3;;
E The thatch is made by tying long grass in bundles to form a long

fr; , curtain. The lowerhalf of the roof-frame is thatched first with very . “
long grass. Shorter finish thatch is then spiraled up from rim to apex.

I; The peak is closed with a bundle of grass lashed about a stick. This is J
pushed down into it, and the grass is pulled out a little, all round, to

overlap the thatch perfectly. . -

g ’While the roof was being made, the women were plastering the walls ' "
F. and surfacing the floor. Their material was anthill—earth and ashes *
mixed with water. If the hut is rated important—for every householder ‘
4. owns several——the veranda is encircled with a mud wall two feet high.

3 Separate huts contain the ldtchen, the sleeping quarters, the stores of ~

I; grain and beer. The kitchen—hut interior shows a central fireplace of

‘1‘ stones, wooden grain—stamping blocks set in the floor, a peg at the door

for the husband's hat, another for a sleeping mat, a rack for food, .

'; baskets for pets, pieces of pottery, and various utensils shaped from

v wood or gourds. The sleeping hut is also the man's armory and shrine:

I there he keeps his weapons and his sacred objects. There, too, on the ,-
Q veranda, are his drums. ~

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g ’BANYANG HUT, CAMEROON-S, WEST AFRICA 3‘
)1 . E, ,
E Beyond its a'mplicity, the Banyang hut has no special character; .
5:3 ’ nor has the Banyang village, apart from complete formal irregularity,

'I‘I) for the placement of the huts depends entirely upon the fancy of the "
:IE builders. The dwelling of the Banyang is a rather low rectangular structure .

4?; with a flat gable roof. Its walls are thick and consist of mud laid over

poles and interlaced branches. Poles also form the frame for the roof of

‘5‘ ' thatch. The wood is supplied by that most valuable of West African trees,

{,4 the raffia palm. In spite of its thickness, the thatch covering leaks

43 badly when the rains commence, but after several days the fibers swell and

§ it becomes waterproof for the duration of the season. A partition divides
the hut. into two rooms. One of these is kitchen and living room combined, '2
if the gathering place for all the family. Its equipment consists mainly of }
:5 cooking utensils, pottery, hanging baskets, and stools. The other room is '
g a bedroom and is furnished with grass mats thrown on platforms of palm

3' leaves. The Banyang embellishes his rude dWelling both inside and out by 2 _
jE- 2 impressing various figures into the walls while the mud is still soft. _ .
4‘ These decorations are geometrical in character, consisting of bands,

zigzags, triangles, and meanders.

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