xt7np55ddc74 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7np55ddc74/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1937 journals kaes_circulars_284_02 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 284 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 284 1937 2014 true xt7np55ddc74 section xt7np55ddc74  . Circular N0. 284 (Revised) Lexington, February, 1937
‘ University of Kentucky
`:  College of Agriculture, Extension Division
l. Published in connection with the agricultural extension work carried on by coopera-
>· tion of the College of Agriculture, Univ;rsity of Kentucky, with the U. S. Department of
= Agriculture, and distributed in furtherance of the work provided for in the Act of Congress
, of May 8. 1914.
By T. P. POLK and L. A. BROWN
, Certain diseases of animals may be transmitted to the human.
· One of these, rabies or hydrophobia, affects warnrblooded animals
· generally. Tho of infrequent occurrence it is dreaded because no
cure is known. The frequency of the disease seems to be increasing,
inasmuch as a larger number of cases is reported each succeeding
year. In 1936, six persons died from the disease, and reports from
j county agents in 105 counties show that the loss of livestock, from
rabies, was $65.000. in the state.
Rabies is one of the oldest diseases known. lt was described by ,
» .-lristotle in his writings, in the fourth century, B. C. In 1881-89,
y Pasteur and his collaborators solved the problem of vaccination
  against the disease. In 1903, Adelchi Negri. an Italian physician.
showed that certain microscopic objects. called Negri bodies, are
present in the brain of a rabid animal.
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V m tgchfrdcg Suddéllly became highly nervous and vicious and bit its child owner severely
* uf dlscasembu few h0_UIs ibefore this picture was taken, To the eye he sh0\Ved H0 evidence
». . ut examination of the brain next day proved that he had rabies.

 2 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 284
l Pasteur’s discover su J lied the n1eans of ureventin the disease 1*
' .
' 111 perso11s who have been exposed to mfection, and tl1at of Negri majc
i " supplied a way to ascertain whether or not a suspected animal really _ bare
· ~ » into
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This sheep developed rabies after a mad dog had attacked the flock. Excitabi1ity,1m· llOlS
rest, and stamping the feet were characteristic symptoms. The head is swollen and scarred _ V l
from butting against a wall, trees and other objects. Slllll
‘ , salix
had rabies. No cure is known; alter rabies has developed, 110 I1`Ui¤l‘ bgq
ment is known by which the disease can be arrested or clianged 111 :11101
its course. · this
The saliva of a rabid animal carries tl1e infection. 1[ the snliril Lru
gGtS into a wound or an abrasion of the skin, in any way, it is lilicll C
to 1¤U`OClL\C€ the miection. An animal with rabies S1)1Cil(l$ [lll . ‘lnd
. . . . . . ’ ~ [ ]]·
disease by biting other animals or persons, thus introducing 5:1111.1 I <
IUKO the WOuh(l. The dog is the chief offender in spreadmg lTll)“`· lm
. . . . . . _ _: [IQ
Tl1€ Sal1Va of a dog WVll.l1 rabies is infectious even belole €l€¢~(lC‘l , S
. ·. -· ~ 011
symptoms appear. I`I()\V€V»Cl`, a dog 1H the early Stages of the disenst
usually is not inclined to bite. the

 Rabies 3 5
CM Not all animals bitten by a rabid animal develop rabies, tho a
egyj i majority do. A bite thru clothing is less dangerous than one thru
rally bare skin because the fabric may prevent saliva from being carried
» A I into the wound.
· _ The incubation period of a disease is the time that elapses be-
tween infection and the appearance of symptoms. In most infec-
§  tious diseases this period is rather dehnite. In rabies, however, the
  period is not at all uniform and seems to vary according to condi-
  tions. A person or animal bitten on or near the head develops
  symptoms sooner than one bitten on a hand or foot. Most animals
  show evidence of the disease in 15 to 30 days. tho appearance of
  symptoms may be delayed longer. Dogs, cats, swine, sheep and
  goats, on the whole, show symptoms earlier than do horses and
  cattle. lnasmuch as many cases are on record in which the disease
  did not develop for several months, one cannot be reasonably sure.
  until at least 6 months after exposure to infection, that rabies will
  not develop.
  ln the dog the disease may be manifested in one of two forms:
  furious rabies, and dumb rabies. In furious rabies the dog may Hrst
j i · hc noticed to seek the company of its master, hunt dark, secluded
if [)lilC€S and make sudden starts towards objects and from unusual
Qujjté lwises. He also has a tendency not to obey orders. These are early
' L symptoms and may last for two or three days. There is excessive
j saliva but not necessarily foaming at the mouth. The saliva usually
-*`“*l" bttomes thick and stringy, The dog becomes more restless, wanders
id lll ?il>0l1t, and often leaves home and travels a long distance. During
· this wandering he is likely to be irritable and vicious, to bite other
dogs and to attack any kind of domestic animal, and also man. As
alirzt Pi rule the dog returns home and appears to be completely tired out.
{kth He refuses to eat or drink, is irritable and has a tendency to chew
s tht _ and swallow foreign objects. Usually there is some paralysis of the
nliut ¥ throat causing the voice to be changed. Not infrequently the dog
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This pig developed rabies eight wesks after being bitten by a. rabid dog. Soon after I ttm
the disease developed he showed paralysis of the legs, nervousness, marked excitabilttr , r
when touched, champing of the jaws, and salivation. Note the pool of saliva near the hand. as  
_ _ _ _ het
may extend to other parts ol the body, following which death otVtut~ [OH
in a few days. The paralysis of the jaw may make the dog look as il . the
· hc had a bone stuck in his mouth. Um.
The symptoms of rabies in other domestic animals are not uuliktr _ liar
those in the dog. Pigs have a marked tendency to chew and guaw pee
foreign objects. Often they bite the feed trough, the fence or otlio dog
solid objects, even tearing out their front teeth. l.ike the dog tho j rab
refuse to eat or drink and have the same tendency to swallow foreigtt ‘_ han
matter such as bones, pieces of wood straw, or any object whitli will Iwo
be gotten into the mouth. Horses with rabies are often vicious and the
have been known to injure people seriously by biting. They arr
irritable, excitable and difhcult to control. ln cattle and sheep thetr _
is nOt this lCn(l€llCy tO attempt to bite but they charge at :1 pCl`>¤>|l "" V ml
III TCIICC IJOSLS Ol` Zllly Ol)jCCt, the tentlenev in (fQll,[_l(] being to l10t>ls Jllll V if
. . . ’ _ ` ._ , is
in sheep to butt, both very viciously. In all annuals there 1> ll“·
drooling of saliva, there may be paralysis of the lower jaw, a rhaugt ,
lll Kll€ [ONG of lllC voice 2lI1(l frtiqnently, hefm-C (lQ;ith_ paralysis of lllf  V

 Rabies 5 ·
1 a  ` hind quarters. Cases of rabies have been observed in which all the
the symptoms mentioned were present. On the other hand it can be
`ht· A said that animals have been sick and died of rabies without showing
·at, at any time during the course of the disease symptoms that suggested
usis 1 rabies.
_ Cases of rabies in cattle have been treated for indigestion, paraly-
_ sis, and other forms of sickness, those administering the treatment
, never suspecting rabies. However, following the death of the animal
(usually the second or third one) examination of the brain showed
. that the disease was rabies. It is thus evident that in every doubtful
i case which possibly may be rabies. the brain should be examined.
» This is particularly important with dogs that have bitten other dogs
 · or persons, and with other animals if they have been handled or
given medicine by the mouth, thus exposing persons to possible
lf a person has been bitten by an animal that shows unmistakable
  ¤}mptoms of rabies, the Pasteur treatment should be taken as soon
Md- as possible. A physician or the city or county health oflicer should
‘ he consulted. Vaccination must not be delayed more than five days
  i following exposure. If possible, the animal should be killed and
il ‘ the brain examined, tho if the animal has not shown positive SYIIIP-
toms, it should not be killed immediately but should be conlined
and watched. An animal killed in the early stages of rabies may not
like _ have Negri bodies in the brain; therefore it is best to confine a sus-
raxr pected animal three or four days and observe developments. If a
het ` dog remains normal and shows no further symptoms to indicate
h<‘¥ l`T*l>lCS. probably it will not be necessary to kill him. On the other
ign [ hand, if he really has rabies, pronounced symptoms should appear in
ran two to five days. Immediately on the appearance of such symptoms.
and the dog should be killed and the brain examined.
lm.  y \\v?|Sl1 il Wound with water and apply tincture of iodine Ul` SONIC
my A f"ll€*` good clisintectant, Do not try to stop bleeding at once, unless
[hu , 1llS profuse.
tht i  ·'\ >¥ill$filCt0ry examination cannot be made of a britill Lllill l1&l>

 6 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 284
, been damaged by a bullet, crushed by a blow, or that is in a state ol
l decomposition.- Therefore the following procedure 1S suggested; the
e · K1ll the animal in a way that does not injure the brain; by a °
’ 1 shot thru the heart, for example.
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This cow developed rabies six weeks after being bitten by a rabid dog. She was
aggressive, excitable, gritted her teeth, was unable to eat or drink and bellowed at ire-
quent intervals.
Remove the head by severing the neck a short distance from thc
skull, preferably with :1 saw to avoid spattering blood.
Apply formaldehyde solution, or mercury bichloride solution wt Ch,
borax powder or solution to the c11t surface, the mouth, eyes and lt,
ears, to retard decomposition. t De
Enclose the head in a suitable container, sucl1 as a metal can with If
il tight-htting or soldered cover. In warm weather, pack the UNF A So-
tainer in another vessel, with suilicient ice to last until the pat‘l<:t£<’ no
reaches the laboratory. \
Send the head to the nearest laborator i, as >rom atl i as iossiblt.
Prepay transportation charges. . lh]
Heads may be sent to: Va
The l)Ul3liC SC1`VlCC Lttboratories, Experiment Station BUll(lillii‘ Im
(_Scovell Hall) Lexington, Ky., or to
The State Department of Health, 6th and Main Streets, L0u1>· tht
ville, Ky. Wi

 Rabies 7 ,
Ol · Shipment of the entire body is not desirable, tho permissible if
the animal is small, such as a cat or small dog.
‘ After a case of rabies, the place where the animal was kept
should be thoroly cleaned and disinfected. Mlhile cleaning the
premises wear rubber gloves to protect the hands against infection.
` Burn the carcass or bury it as directed by the law governing the
_ disposal of the bodies of animals dead from infectious diseases.
Burn bedding and rubbish which the animal may have infected.
Scrape the floors and walls and scrub them with strong lye water:
then thoroly disinfect by spraying or otherwise applying a disin-
lectant to all the surfaces. Some readily available desinfectants are:
. Compound cresol (or sheep dip)
4 parts in 96 parts of water.
Bichloride of mercury
One 7% grain tablet in one pint of water.
Any amount of solution may be made in this proportion.
Chloride of lime (dry powder) also called bleaching powder
if ounces to 3 gallons of water.
ffii Especial care should be taken in the use of bichloride of iner-
ttury, as it is very poisonous.
mf GENERAL sUGc.Es·r1oNs
Avoid handling sick animals with the bare hands. Take no
lm Chances; wear rubber gloves when there is any possibility of rabies.
ml lf an outbreak of rabies occurs in the neighborhood, tie up all dogs.
~  Destroy stray dogs. Call a veterinarian if the animal has symptoms.
ritlt lf a person is bitten call a doctor. Do not resort to a mad stone.
im- A S0-called mad stones have no value whatever in preventing rabies,
agv notwithstanding the popular belief in their efficacy.
‘ i~\s a protection of animals against rabies, it is suggested that
three injections of antirabic vaccine be used on unexposed animals.
I Vaccination should be repeated every 12 months as the immunity
mg` Pl`0dl1C€d by vaccination does not last lTlllCh lOl1g€1` tllflll [hilt-
' Six or more injections should be given to exposed animals. In
>U1"  i lh? ?iI`l[i1`2lbi(j t1‘@3[mCn[ Of gninialg [hc most (if`f€C[lVC 1`CSUHS HTC Ob"
j tamed if the treatment is started at once, after exposure. If {ive days

 8 Kentucky Extension Circular N0. 281 L
have elapsed after dehnite exposure before it is possible to start r
using antirabic vaccine, there is little or no chance of its being ·
effective. 0
Consult a physician about the antirabic treatment. This treat- .
ment should be started immediately or as soon as a positive diag-
nosis of the diseased animal can be made and in no case should it be ·
delayed for more than hve days following exposure. The antirabit 0
treatment for man requires from fourteen to twcnty—one injections.
Vaccination of dogs, while 110l 100 percent effective, seems to be
the means of combating the disease most effectively when combinetl
with the following control measures: °
Since stray dogs are cornrnon spreaders of rabies, the dog law y
should be rigidly enforced.
Confirre all dogs exposed to rabies for observation for sixty days
or longer, even if treated.  
The heads of all dogs that have bitten hunrans or anrrnals arttl  
which show symptoms of rabies should be sent to the laboratory for  
Results of the examination of heads for rabies by the l)lll)lll` , gs
— Service Laboratories, Experiment Station, Lexington, and Thu °  
State Board of Health Laboratories, Louisville, Ky., drrring 1936. Q
. P0sitive* Negative** Total  
Dog ...................,...........,................ 389 225 614  
Cat ....,.........,..,.. . .......,.................. 14 37 51 Q
Cow ............... , .,....,.....,................. 17 10 27  
Steer ...,...r..,....,......,..................,.... 1 1 2 ,  
Calf .........,.........................,.......... 4 11 15
Sheep .,.,...................................,., 1 7 8 Yi
Horse .................. . ......................... 1 1 2
Mule ......,....................................... 0 3 3 .
Hog ................................................ 9 7 16
Pig ................................................ 1 2 3 ~
Rabbit ......................................,... 0 1 1 -
Rat ..........................,....,................ 0 1 I
Squirrel ........................,............... 0 4 4
Chicken ...................................... 0 1 I
—_ _, *48
437 311 7 . Pub
7 illiolr 0;
‘=Positive means showing evidence of the disease. of Agri,
=*Negative means showing no evidence of the disease. C°“¥T€5