xt7np55dfr2s https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7np55dfr2s/data/mets.xml Florence County, South Carolina South Carolina Historical Records Survey 1938 Prepared by the Historical Records Survey, Division of Women's and Professional Projects, Works Progress Administration; 106 leaves: illustrations, maps, charts, plans, diagrams 28 cm; Includes bibliographical references and indexes; UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries; Call number Y 3.W 89/2:43/So8c/no.21 books English Columbia, South Carolina: Historical Records Survey This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. South Carolina Works Progress Administration Publications Inventory of the County Archives of South Carolina, Number 21 Florence County (Florence) text Inventory of the County Archives of South Carolina, Number 21 Florence County (Florence) 1938 1938 2015 true xt7np55dfr2s section xt7np55dfr2s      ¤é~¢ nmmnm¤¤ H

E . 31% aéi h . if ` A ~ xi 5. ad fl? *1, . A Q J; {1* I , yy . 1 ¢. 5 . ,11 . . 1R` ;,i_ ‘ . k sg . {F ` Z\Z ` ‘_ : . {2 _. FE ii", —`» 5 · . 4v — ' h q · ‘ eh in 1. ? tx; .F.Z é kx mk A /, `T- » :;—‘??*ii= Z `} ‘ °E¤é€*i?1‘¢?¤iEc¢’§· */féw ' . `i>¢“ 4 J ¥ :2 ; @??i\\§§*}\ 'gi AW °%——"° . o if JA? I E " ·’ ·‘ 2- 2 W EM UU` .q¢·:= Y` EE I v' r· ·'€‘Qi:L' E {P ·;·£;! ·· Q I I A · " ” :;E ;;’g‘:¤ ., Y " I Eg ·' H % · 1 Z :!·I_C·` ,· 5+;. ··; ._'j.;'. . Jan: > m =??*= .;A• ni ;¤F*‘:5= E- . zmgnn ¤\¤, M W no Q r -- ‘ . . *i;F¥¥¤ ,_.___.._.,==; . Qé" * . . ggw »fi- la " ·-—— — .z-a ·· . .·.· ________ FIRST commons}: Fmxmxcx commr Cornerstone laid August 22, 1889; rabu:l.1·b’*19$5• ‘ INVENTORY OF THE COUNTY ARCHIVES OF SOUTH CAROLINA l Prepared by _ The Historical Records Survey Division of Women's and Professional Projects Works Progress Administration _ _ No. 21. FLORENCE COUNTY (FLORENCE) # * * * * * * * * Columbia, S. C. The Historical Records Survey August 1938 V The Historical Records Survey _ Luther H. Evans, National Director I Anne K. Gregorio, State Director Division of Women's and Professional Projects Ellen S. Woodward, Assistant Administrator Margaret D. Davies, State Director WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION Harry L. Hopkins, Administrator _ , Lawrence M. Pinclmey, State Administrator 2 FOREWORD . The Inventory pf County Archives gf South Carolina is one of a number of bibliographies of historical materials prepared throughout the United States by workers on the Historical Records Survey of the Works Progress Administration. The publication herewith presented, an inventory of the archives of Florence County, is number 21 of the South Carolina se- I`l€S• The Historical Records Survey was undertaken in the winter of 1935-36 for the purpose of providing useful employment to needy unemployed historians, lawyers, teachers, and research and clerical workers. In carry- ing out this objective, the project was organized to compile inventories of historical materials, particularly the unpublished government documents and records which are basic in the administration of local government, and which provide invaluable data for students of political, economic, and social his- tory. The archival guide herewith presented is intended to meet the require- i ments of day—to—day administration by the officials of the county, and also the needs of lawyers, business men and other citizens who require facts from the public records for the proper conduct of their affairs. The volume is so designed that it can be used by the historian in his research in unprinted sources in the same way he uses the library card catalog for printed sources. The inventories produced by the Historical Records Survey attempt to do more than give merely a list of records - they attempt further to sketch in the historical background of the county or other unit of govern- ment, and to describe precisely and in detail the organization and functions of the government agencies whose records they list. The county, town, and other local inventories for the entire country will, when completed, consti- tute an encyclopedia of local government as well as a bibliography of local . archives. The successful conclusion of the work of the Historical Records Survey, even in a single county, would not be possible without the support of public officials, historical and legal specialists, and many other groups in the community. Their cooperation is gratefully acknowledged. The Survey was organized and has been directed by Luther H. Evans, and operates as a nation-wide project in the Division of Wcmen's and Profes- sional Projects, of which Mrs. Ellen S. Woodward, Assistant Administrator, is in charge. - ‘ HARRY L. HOPKINS — Administrator PREFACE The Historical Records Survey began on a nation~wide scale as a part of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration, and became in October 1936 an independent part of Federal Project No. 1. Under the na- tional leadership of Dr. luther H. Evans, formerly of Princeton, the Survey has inventoried state, county, city, church, and, to a limited extent, private records. At present, it is preparing for publication in a condensed form, de- scriptive lists of public records of the local units of government. In each state the counties are numbered in alphabetical order, and treated as separate units, each with an introductory section giving the historical background and a description of the present government and records system. All records are referred to the office of origin, which is carefully described as to history, functions, and required records. Each type of record is given a numbered entry showing the comprehensive eases for which it is extant, the quantity, an interpretation of contents, and details as to nature of recording, indexing and location. State, municipal, church, and other records will be described V in separate publications. In South Carolina the Historical Records Survey was begun on March l, 1936. Through Professor R. L. Meriwether, head of the department of history, it has enjoyed the active aid of the University of South Carolina, which, ts co—sponsor of the project, is contributing the offices of state headquarters. The officials of the Works Progress Administration in South Carolina have al- so given every cooperation in the administration of the project. The survey of Florence County records was begun on April 27, 1936, by Mrs. Mae Higginbotham, who completed the first listing on July 15. She then took charge of the field work in the eastern counties of the state as dis- trict supervisor, and later made a complete recheck of the work on Florence. The inventory has been prepared for publication by Robert W. Barnwell, edito- rial supervisor, who wrote the historical and governmental essays, and took the inventory back to the courthouse for a final check, which was completed on February 12, 1938. The index was prepared by Miss Martha W. Hellams. All stencils for text and illustrations were cut by Paul Jordan. The scope of the survey and the pattern of the inventory are the work of the national of- fice. The forty—six separate units of the Inventory of County Archives of South Carolina will be issued in mimeographed form for free distribution to state and local public officials and to a selected group of public and in- stitutional libraries. Requests for information should be addressed to the state director, University of South Carolina, Columbia. ¥_\_VvY`-L March 1, 1938 Anne K. Gregorie State Director Historical Records Survey - 1 - TABlE OF CONTENTS A. Florence County and Its Records System Page .1. Historical Sketch ..... ... .... ......... ........... .......... 4 2. Governmental Organization and Records System. .......... .... 5 legal Status of a County. Administration. Judicial System. Finances. Schools. Elections. Welfare and Conservation Agencies. Roads. Dcfunct Offices. Rec- ord Keeping. 3. Housing, Care, and Accessibility of the Records. .......... . 10 4. list of Abbreviations, Symbols and Explanatory Notes........ 12 B. County Offices and Their Records I. legislative Delegation .... . ...... ..... .... ....... ......... . 15 BoardlliDill}IIOOOIIOIOIOIOIIIOOOOIOIQIOIIIOIIIOI Minutes and Reports. General Accounts. Bonds. _ Poor Farm. Chain Gang. Roads. New Courthouse. Miscellaneous. County Highway Commission. God- frey and Mars Bluff Bridge Com issions. III. Clerk of Court as Register of Mesne Conveyance .... . ........ 23 Real Property: Deeds and Plats; Mortgages. Per- sonal Property. Statutory liens. Attachments of Real Estate. Business Registrations. Surety Bonds. File Books. Miscellaneous Papers. . IV- Cour-b•|O•IOiOOOOIl||IOIOIOIIIOIIl••••••••IIOII•IlO County Officers. Registrations and licenses. Military Records. Voters and Elections. Re- ceipts and Accounts. Vital Statistics. Maps. V. Circuit Court of General Sessions. ..... ..... ............ ... 33 Sessions Cases. Dockets. Minutes. Record of l Clemency. Jurors and Court Costs. Forfeitures. Unarranged Records. VI. SO1j•OitOrIIOOIIOlIIOO|OIIIIOCOUIIIOIOIGIOQIOIOUIOII VII. Grand Jury. ............................. . ................. . 37 VIII. Board of Jury Commissioners. ........ .. .................... . 38 X. Circuit Court of Common Pleas ............. . .............. .. 38 Judgments. Dockets. Minutes. legal Notices. Attachments. Referee Records. Miscellaneous. - g - Table of Contents ‘ Page X. Civil Court of Florence ................ . ....... . ...... 42 HQ t¢rIOOIOIIOOOIOOIIIOIOIIIIIIIOIIIOIIIOIOIOIOQIIOlil I P}Obat600|Il|llnlilottltllllllllhlllllltlltll Transmission of Property: Papers of Record and In- dices; Transcripts; Estates less than $500. Court Procedure. Lunacy. Juvenile Cases. Marriages. Pensions. liquor Permits. XIII. Magistrates. .................. . .... . .................. 51 XIV. Sheriff. ................ . ............................. 53 Writs, Warrants and Executions. Sales. Claim and Delivery Proceedings. Criminal Records. Corre- spondence. XVO J&j.16r•••••••••••••••·••••••••••••••••¤••••••••••••••• . XVI. Rural Police Commission (inactive) ...... .. ............ 57 CorcnarllllllOIIIIIIUIIIOQOUIIIOOIII•O•|•Q•••III•I•••• _ AuditOr••••••¤•••••••••••••••••·•••••••••..••••·.....• Taxation. Settlement. Correspondence. Map. XIX. Board of Equalization. ................................ Gl XX. Treasurer ............................................ . Sl Taxation. Account Books: Current System; Former System; Special. Drainage Districts: Burnt Branch; Coward; High Hill; Kingstree. Reports and Corre- _ spondence. ‘ COl]·GctOrIQIIIIIIIUIIIOCOOOOIIO•I•|•|||IIl•O•||III _ XXII. Forfeited land Commissioner .......................... . 69 XXIII. Superintendent of Education... ................ . ....... 70 , Minutes. Accounts. Teachers. School Census. Reports and Correspondence. Rental Testbooks. XXIV. Board of Registration. .......... . ........ . ........... . 73 XXV. Commissioners of Election. ...... . ..................... 74 XXVI. County Dispensary Board (defunct). .................. .. 75 XXVII. Board of Honor (inactive). .... . ....................... 75 XXVIII. Service Officer ....... . ............. . ..... . ........... 76 XXIX. County Physician... .............. . ................... . 76 @3 Q Table of Contents Page HealthllllllllbltllIIIQIIIQIin••••¤•••n•r••¤•••••l Reports and Correspondence. Clinics. Inoculutions. Midwives. Vital Statistics Registrars. XXXI. Florence-Darlington Tuberculosis Commission. .......... ..... 80 Commission Records. Senatorium Records. XXXII. Farm and Home Extension Service. ................... . .... ... 82 XXXIII. County Board of Public We1fare........... ............ ...... 85 XXIV. Home for Crippled Chi1dren........... ........ ............. 84 Index Chronologicul.... ................ . .......... .. ....... ... 85 A1phubeticel.. ......... ............ ....... .............. 92 Illustrations First County Courthouse .......................... frontispiece Maps of Circuit Court Districts .................. following 3 Map of Counties and Circuit Court Districts, 1785.fo11owing 4 Chart of County Government. ..... ..... ............ following 8 Present County Courthouse ........................ following 9 i Map of Florence County ........................ ... following 14 Mop of Counties, 1938, showing your of origin .... i ....... end ix \\ g 5.. §\"`-E S2 2 = · 25* •~. ;9° I. `*¤¤,_ cx Q Ci / cw E Q E { " (`U M N`. \ . WI" .- xg ) ··../\’\ A nn gi- 1 A M 3 m ~» ’*·~.. - Q Q F- °m "'—·,_ ·: S¢· Q" gf gg iv ,.. 1; 0 o / *·-- 1 3 { , u " O cc ° / U., Y-) ‘ 6; 1: 'Qé° ~__ U égyfw Ed · y/gg?} r- Q ·— *r%;e$.¤: 2 gu ’_ my , - u_, O O U .4 C ~,:»,4~Q’~:—\y I m °"" `· '~f· é g gg; A gd: § L) Mb! F 9 5 . §`€ —. rig M A "" V _ 0%* ' . X ` . _ A ~ m *5 _ cg C II >;, GW F vs ~ ·—< .. gu Lg _,_ . _ . 3. cn- ••. -» eg §_ . 2 ‘ A ·•- · g gi ,· . Auwgpmcb , 4 · 6; 5 .V : · ` ` " . ‘ O : ”'¢ *2 E Em Oi -6 -6 gg °£ L2- Q no 2 § x 3 T 0 E L o- O Q . _ •- & 1 G: "‘ 4 D 5 8 " 3* ¤ 3 u O ’£ '~ V7 o B .‘£ 1 •4• I (First entry, p. 17) 1. HISTORICAL SKETCH Florence County is of comparatively recent origin, having been formed in 1888 from portions of four of the historic counties, namely Clarendon, Dar- lington, Marion and Williamsburg (Acts, pp. 168-72). Each of these counties has a long and complicated history, but there is little of note to record relating particularly to those parts that became Florence County. Settle- ment by white inhabitants dates from about 1740 or a little thereafter (Alex- ander Gregg, History of the Old Cheraws, Columbia 1905, p. 77). As the region developed there were plantations and a certain amount of wealth, but since it was the outlying portions of its parent counties it was remote from the court- houses and towns. Development was stim lated in 1854 by the building of the Wilmington and Manchester Railroad. A station was named Florence in honor of the daughter of General Wi11iam`Wa11ace Harllee, a very distinguished citizen who was largely responsible for building the railroad. (James P. McNeill, Jr. and John A. Chase, Jr., "Florence County Economic and Social" University of South Carolina Qglletin No. 105, 1921, pp. 5-G.) This station7deve1oped into a town, which, aided by Ethe;—;ailroad connections, absorbed a large portion A of the trade from its section and outgrew the surrounding courthouse townse This in turn, led to the movement for the establishment of a new county, which was accomplished by an act of the legislature passed in December 1888. Organization of the government was not effected until 1889. Florence County was named after the town which became its county seat, and in return for this advantage the town bore the expenses of building the court- house and jail. The commissioners for superintending the construction of the buildings were: S. A. Gregg, B. B. McWhite, A. A. Myers, John McSween, James Allen, John S. Scott, J. W. Coward and J. M. McKnight (Acts l888g>p. 169-72). The first county officials were: county com issioners, Robertlloel, E. M. Erein, J. C. lynch; treasurer, Thomas E. Greggi auditor, R. B. Hepburn, judge ` of probate, J. P. McNeill; clerk of court, Z. T. Kershaw; sheriff, E. W. Johnston; coroner, S. T. Burch; school commissioner, F. H. Poston (mss. in office of secretary of state, Columbia, S. C. ). Prior to the completion of A I the courthouse·, the clerk of court, the auditor and the sheriff had offices A over a store on Dargan Street, which was burned on Novenmer 20 with a loss of all records except the original papers of the clerk of court (leah Townsend, History of Florence County Court House, Ms.; News and Courier, Charleston, November 21, 1889). The establishing act had providgd that court should begin in November 1889 (Acts 1888, p. 171), but the records show that the first court was heldon January 27, 1890 (General Sessions Journal, see entry 112). , Marion and Darlington originally contributed the major shares of territory and population for Florence County, as an area of only twenty-eight square miles was at first taken from Williamsburg and about the same amount from Clarendon. Subsequently, however, three separate portions of Williamsburg County have been annexed by Florence County, in 1904, 1912 and 1921 (étgt. XXIV, 447-48; XXVII, €17»18; XXXII, 212-15). These are the only boundary changes except for a slight revision of the line with Darlington County in 1889 (Acts, pp. 517-19). Florence County touches eight other counties. On the north it is bounded by Darlington and Marlboro, on the east by Dillon and Marion, on the south by For abbreviations and explanatory notes see pages 12, 15 and 14. 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J-__·· g Q P 4 __ ‘e¤¤ N 3 »»—··‘‘ y ’ ·· w ·» 8 °° % · <*=‘ $ · .. ‘” W 0 · ¤ _ U D: [D 45 E * .D = -2 s - " u .3 — ¤ E i g A D GZ fg ·~ ¤> C O U $5 — (D 8 - 5 - Governmental Organization and (First entry, p. 17) RecordsSystem Williamsburg and Clarendon and on the west by Sumter, lee, and Darlington. The Peedee River separates Florence County from Marlboro, Dillon and Marion Counties, and Lynches River forms the boundary with Sumter and Lee Counties. The boundaries with Darlington, Clarendon and Williamsburg are either small streams or artificial lines. (Code 2996). Florence County lies entirely within the coastal plain and is in what is known as the Peedee section of the state. It is an agricultural region, the chief products being cotton and tobacco. It has an area of 744 square miles. The population in 1950 was 61,029 for the county and 15,774 for the county seat. » 2. GOVERNM NTAL ORGANIZATION AND RECORDS SYSTEM No rigid line can yet be drawn between state and county government in ` South Carolina, and what is called county government is in fact an extension of a highly centralized state government to forty-six localities, where the details are largely in the hands of the local members of the state legislature, called the legislative delegation. legal Status of a County The state constitution of 1868 was the first which contained regulations f0P county government and the formation of new counties. It standardized the county as a judicial and election unit and limited the minimum area of counties to 625 square miles (art. II, 5), It was under this constitution that Florence County was formed in 1888. An act of 1868 made the county a body politic and corporate (Stat. XIV, 154). The constitution of 1895 went » to greater length in its requirements for the formation of new counties, fixing the size at not less than 400 square miles, the taxable property at not less than $1,500,000 and the population at not less than 1/124 of the total population of the state. Change of boundary lines and the formation of new counties must be approved by two-thirds of the voters of the area to be transferred (art. VII). The territorial additions to Florence County were made in conformity with these requirements. Administration The administrative body has undergone more changes than any other in Florence County. When the county was organized, there were, in accord- ance with the constitution of 1868, three elected county commissioners (art. IV, 19). In 1895 this was changed to a board of commissioners appointed by the governor and a supervisor elected by the voters (1890, Stat. XX, 649-50; 1894, Stat. XXI, 481-91). Since that time there have been several changes in the number of commissioners, the mode of electing them and their official title. Today there is a governing board of six membcrS(sti11 spoken of as commissioners) which appoints a county manager (Acts 1952 pp. 1441-45). Though the governing board is given charge of the "business and financial affairs" of the county (ibid. p. 1441) yet the legislative delegation has For abbreviations and explanatory notes see pages 12-14 , -6- Governmental Organization and Records System (First entry, p. 17) j become the real administrative body, as the tax levy for the county is passed a on by the state legislature. This tendency has been aided by the increasing complexity of government and the matters for which county money must be spent. One need only compare the two lines devoted to Florence ounty in the state appropriation act of 1900 (Acts p. 472) with the minutely itemized Florence County supply acts of 1957 (Acts pp. 1030-37), which cover eight pages, to understand that the governing board has become mainly a body for awarding contracts and issuing warrants in payment of claium within narrow limits prescribed by the delegation. Judicial System The principal courts held at the county courthouse are the state circuit courts of general sessions and com on pleas. The counties are grouped into fourteen judicial circuits. Florence, Georgetown, Horry, and Marion Counties ‘ form the twelfth circuit (Code 50). Each circuit has a solicitor elected by the voters (Const. 1895, art. V, 29) and a resident judge elected by the state legislature. The judge must reside in his circuit but holds court in all parts of the state. (Const. 1895, art. V, 13.) This is essentially the same system provided in the constitution of 1868 (art. IV, 13, 29), and has undergone no important changes since the formation of Florence County, except the rearranger ment of circuits which takes place from time to time. Since 1929 Florence A County has had a court of limited jurisdiction known as the civil court of Florence. It has jurisdiction over only a part of the county and is presided over by a local judge appointed by the governor. (Acts pp. 119-23,) From the standpoint of records, the most important officer in the county is the clerk of the court of common pleas, who is also the clerk of the court of general sessions and of the civil court of Florence (Const. 1895, art. V. 27). He also has charge of the registration of titles to property and other similar records. There have been no essential changes in this office since the formation of the county. The office of master has existed in Florence County since 1910 (Acts p. 641). On the consent of both parties, certain civil cases are referred to the master by the court, thus relieving the docket. The judge of probate presides over a court having original jurisdiction in matters concerning wills, administration of estates, guardianship, and juvenile delinquency. This was a constitutional office (Const. 1868, art. IV, 1, 17) when Florence County was first established but became a statutory one in all counties except Charleston in 1895 (Const. art. V, 19). There has also been a moderate growth in the complexity of the duties. At present Florence County has nine magistrates (Acts_1957 pp. 1052- 53) but the number changes from time to time. Prior to 1895 they were known as justices of the peace or trial justices (Const. 1868, art. IV, 21; Const. 1895, art. V, 20). Constables vary in number: at present there are nine. In 1928 the ru- ral police took over their duties, and in 1931 they took over the duties of the rural police, for in addition to serving the orders of the magistrates For abbreviations and explanatory notes see pages 12-14 L` -7- J Governmental Organization and Records System (First entry, p. 17) L they are charged with enforcing state laws throughout the county, especialhy { those relating to intoxicating liquor and the preservation of game. (Acts i 1928 p. 1870; 1931 p. 32; 1937 p. 1033.) The sheriff enforces the orders of the courts and in this respect his duties have not changed since the formation of Florence County. However, he A has been relieved of tho responsibility for the custody of prisoners in the Y jail (Acts 1934 p. 1219). Also, the office of tax collector has been created to collect delinquent taxes under execution, a duty which the sheriff formerly _ performed (Acts 1929 pp. 17-20). Prior to 1934 the jailer was appointed by the sheriff, but he is now appointed by the governing board,which has the custody of prisoners in jail (Acts 1934 p. 1219). Rural police were established in Florence County in 1911. The organi- zation was subject to repeated changes, as they were successiV€ly under the sheriff (Acts 1911 p. 209), the supervisor (Acts 1913 p. 159), a chief of rural police Técts 1915 p. 454),and a police commission (Acts 1925 p. 722). No appropriations have been made for them since 1928 (See Florence County supply acts for various years in Acts), and since 1931 (Acts p. 32) the con- stables have performed their duties. _· Finances State, county, and school taxes on property assessments are collected by the same officers, so that the state and county governments overlap in finan- cial matters. The two chief officers, the auditor and the treasurer, are ap- pointed by the governor, receive the larger portion of their salary from the state, and must follow the general system of bookkeeping prescribed by the comptroller general. (Qpde 2698, 2789, 2700, 2844.) The auditor receives the returns of taxpayers, and, with the assistance of the town and township boards of assessors, fixes the valuation. There is V also a county board of equalization to whom a taxpayer may appeal if he believes the valuation is fixed too high. Further appeal may be made to the state tax com ission (Code 2780, 2781). The taxes are paid to the county treasurer, who transmits the state's portion to the state treasurer. The county treas- urer is custodian uf the county and school funds, which he disburses only by order of the governing board on the one hand or the school trustees and Superintendent of education on the other, (Eggs 2795, 2799, 2800, 2838.) · The essentials of the above described system were established in 1868 (§§gty XIV, 28-67). There are two financial agencies of recent origin. A forfeited land commission composed of the auditor, treasurer and clerk . of court, was created in 1926 to dispose of land sold under execution for non- I payment of taxes and bid in by the state and county. Formerly this had been ' handled by the state sinking fund commission. (Acts pp. 920-22.) There have A been several subsequent changes: at present the duties are performed by a single forfeited land com issioner (Acts 1938, no. 739, ms. in office of sec- retary of state, Columbia, S. C,). I For abbreviations and explanatory notes see pages JZ-14 • 8 O A Q Governmental Organization and Records System (First entry, p. 17) The office of tax collector was created in 1929 to take over the duty of collecting delinquent taxes under execution (Acts pp. 17-20). The sheriff had performed this duty previously. Schools At the time Florence County was organized there was a county school commissioner, who was a constitutional officer, assisted by a board of ex- aminers (Const. 1868, art. X, 2; Stat. XIV, 545). Today there is a county superintendent of education who is a statutory official, and a county board of education (Acts 1896 pp. 158-59; 1928 p. 1249). However, the change was largely one of names. The real development in school affairs has been a trend towards a centralized state system. Today the state pays the teacher for eight months of the year (Acts 1957 pp. 649-52). While the powers of the county superintendent extend to nearly all school matters his principal duty . is the oversight of expenditures. He keeps an account of available funds and expenditures for each school district, and he must ccuntersign warrants issued by the trustees before the county treasurer may honor them (Code 5582). · Elections U Since 1898 the registration of voters has been handled by the board of ‘ registration consisting of three members appointed by the governor (Stat. XXII, 705-4; Code 2269). Previously there had been a supervisor of regis- tration and two assistants (1882, Stat. XVII, 1111-15). Before elections are held, the governor appoints two sets of com issioners, one for county, district, and state officers and one for federal officers (Code 2299). After the election they become boards of canvassers and decide protested returns subject to appeal to the state board of eanvassers (Code zzio). ""' To understand the government of South Carolina one must realize that the ‘ general election is eclipsed in importance by the Democratic Party primary. A The point of significance is that officers like the auditor, the treasurer and master, though legally and technically appointed by the governor, are, . for all practical purposes, elected since they are nominated in the primary. A A Welfare and Conservation Agencies The care of paupers is one of the duties of the governing board. The g county maintains a poor farm, but it has only a few inmates. There is a county physician who attends the prisoners in the jail and on the chaingang, y the people at the poor farm, and persons unable to employ a doctor (Acts 1951, p. 722). In 1957 a county board of public welfare was set up(inf1a, p.85). , Since 1951 the county has maintained a service officer who assists World War veterans in drawing up the papers for obtaining compensation from the fed- 1 eral government (Acts pp. 751-52). A The health unit was established in 1951 and operates under the bureau of rural sanitation of the state board of health. It is supported in part by the ( For abbreviations and explanatory notes see pages]$5·l4 THE CGUNTY ELEQTORATE " IZHI E GE ~zn1•L · Gnvzaaon JUDICIAL ·— Asssnuy · _ C l Rcu aT I . 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