xt7nzs2k708m https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7nzs2k708m/data/mets.xml Kentucky. State Geologist. 1887  books b97-21-37317403 English J.D. Woods, Public Printer and Binder, : Frankfort, Ky.: Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Geology Kentucky.Linney, W. M. (William M.) Reports on the geology of Henry, Shelby and Oldham Counties  / by W.M. Linney. text Reports on the geology of Henry, Shelby and Oldham Counties  / by W.M. Linney. 1887 2002 true xt7nzs2k708m section xt7nzs2k708m 






     BY W. M. LINNEY.



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             OF KENTUCKY,



                ON  T H I:





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             Director of the Kentucky Geological Survey:
 DEAR SIR: I herewith submit to you my reports and map
 on the Geology of Henry, Shelby and Okdham counties. As
 the three counties are represented on one map, it seems fit that
the three reports should be printed under one cover.
                              Yours respectf Lilly,
                                      W. M. LINNEY.
 HARRODSBURG, KY., January, 1887.

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                    GENERAL NOTES.

  In 1798 the Legislature of Kentucky created the county of
Henry from a portion of Shelby. It has, since, lost portions
of its original territory in the formation of Trimble and Carroll.
It was named in honor of Virginia's Governor and celebrated
orator, Patrick Henry. Situated to the north of the central
portion of the State, it is included in the district generally
known as the blue limestone region, and l)ounded by Carroll
on the north; Owen on the north-east, separated by thee Ken-
tucky river; Franklin on the south-east; Shelby on the south.
and Oldham and Trimble on the west and north-west. In 1880
its total population was 14,492.  Its area comprises about
175,000 acres of land. NEwV CASTLE, the county seat, is pleas-
antly situated, and surrounded by rich grazing and agricultural
lands. Eminence, Pleasureville, Smithfield, Jericho, Pendleton,
Sulphur, Campbellsburg and Turner's Station, are points on the
railroads, the first mentioned being the largest and most impor-
tant place.  Guestville and Lockport are on the Kentucky
river, and Port Royal, Franklinton. Bethlehemi and Harper's
Ferry, are small villages of the county.
  The Kentucky river flows along the entire length of the
county on its north-eastern border, where navigation for steam-
boats is continuous through the entire year. There are locks
and dams at Guestville and Lockport, and a number of
landings on the river which add much to the convenience of
travel-and shipping. The Louisville, Cincinnati and Lexington
Railroad passes through the county, the Lexington division
through the south-western and the Cincinnati division through



the western part. The county has two hundred miles of turn-
pike, and more will be constructed in the near future, as some
parts of the county are greatly in need of improved roads.
There are three chartered colleges located, respectively, at
Eminence, Sulphur and Campbellsburg, while at New Castle,
an University for Colored Youths has been organized. The
common school system in the county is in about an average
  The elevation of pool No. 3 on the Kentucky river is 455i
feet above sea level, and the highest points in the county
are about 00 feet higher still. These higher points are along
the southern border, and form the water-shed between the
waters flowing into the Kentucky and the Salt river, respect-
ively. Nearly all the drainage is into the former, through
Flat, Sand Ripple, Stevens, Pot Ripple, Six-mile, Drennon
and Cane creeks, strictly within the county, and through
Mill creek and the Little Kentucky river, which reach Henry
through Carroll and Trimble counties. Harrod's creek heads
in the western part, and reaches the Ohio through Oldham
and Jefferson, while some small branches, heading in Henry,
reach Salt river through Floyd's Fork and Brashear's creek.
The whole surface of the county is well drained, the larger
part having deep lines, which have been excavated several
hundreds of feet beneath the general surface.

                   GENERAL GEOLOGY.

  A connected section of the various divisions of the rocks
in the county gives a total of nearly 900 feet. With an actual
elevation of less than 500 feet, it must be seen at a glance that
the formations are not horizontal, but must have a considerable
dip. The rocky floor of the county has a strong dip towards
the north-west. This can be easily seen along the Kentucky
river, where nearly 400 feet of strata, exposed at the southern
edge of the county, have disappeared under the river, when
reaching its northern line. The greater dip is west of the
trend of the river here, and can not be seen, but may be esti-
mated from the elevation of Smithfield, Jericho and other
points, and from the thickness of the different divisions. The




following table shows these divisions with their approximate
relative thickness:

      Age.          Period.         Group.       Feet.   Feet.

Quaternary..      Recent.        AllLvium.                    30

                                 N i agara.         10
Upper Silurian..   Niagara..      Clinton.           15
                                 Medina.            12       37

                                 Upper beds.       300
Lo,,wer Silurian or  Hudson river.  Middle beds.   150
Cambrian  .                    Lower beds.       200       650

                  Trenton.       Trenton.      .....        165
   Total.  . . .. . .. .   . . . . . .. .. . .. .    .      8i2

                    TRENTON PERIOD.

  TRENTON LIMESTONE.-The Trenton limestone is the only
division of the period to be seen in the county. The others,
which are exposed higher up the river, have been carried
beneath the water before the Henry line is reached.         On
Flat Lick creek, and on the river, near the former's mouth,
about 165 feet of the rocks which constitute the upper por-
tions of the hills at Frankfort, are exposed above the water.
T1'he top of this section consists of roughly stratified lime-
stones, having a granular structure on exposed portions, and
splitting into thin and often wedge-like fragments when af-
fected by the action of the atmosphere. Something like 100
feet of heavy layers underlie them, with very little shaly
matter between them. Underneath the latter are thinner lay-
ers with shale partings, down to the water's edge.
  Near the top, at nearly every horizon, may be seen, wasted
from the layers, small fragments of white flinty chert, while,
at or above the same horizon, the following fossils are found:
]Rhynchonella increbescens, Orthis borealis, Orthis lynx (small
form), A2iirchisonia bicincta, Mqirchisonia gracilis and Zygos-




pira modesta. Lower down, near the river, the orthis bed of
Safford is plainly visible with its multitudes of Orthis testu-
  The soils derived from these rocks are excellent, but of lim-
ited extent. There are coves at the mouth of the branches,
where the action of the currents has cut down the shales, and
some of these are desirable lands. The dip down the river to
Lockport seems to be over seven feet to the mile; below, in
about the same distance, it is over twenty, but it is probable
that the latter is partly produced by a line of fault which could
not be seen on the river. Some quarrying has been done near
Lockport in the Trenton, where it exhibits the same character
as at Frankfort, but there are no layers which work easily,
though containing some good stones. Some of the fossil lavers
are quite handsome when polished.  The outcrop of this for-
mation may be readily seen by reference to the map.

                    HUDSON PERIOD.
  LOWER HUDSON BEDS. -Overlying the rocks of the Trenton
are two hundred feet of hard limestone, between nearly every
layer of which there is more or less shale, which shale appears
frequently as a blue mud, and is locally known as soapstone.
These rocks rise to the top of the hills, along the river, in the
south-eastern part of the county, and extend up the creeks,
for considerable distances. They, like the Trenton limestones,
dip down the river, and are lost to view near the Carroll county
line. The soils on these beds are, in part, warm and dry. This
condition applies to thoce near the upper part, where there is
not much stiff clay, but the soils derived from the layers near
the base, where the shale deposits are heavy, are stiff and cold,
and on level surfaces they are wet and difficult to cultivate.
These wet portions, though very small, make excellent mead-
ows and pastures if properly treated. The limestones, while
very durable in some of the layers, are seldom evenly bedded.
They furnish stones for local use in building foundations and
pikes. The fielde3 on this formation are usually covered with
loose blocks of stone, which seriously interfere with good cul-
tivation. Nearly all the exposures are on hill-sides, and owing




to their natural character, and the little care given them, there
is much worn land on them. Most of these lands should be in
grass, being well suited for pastures. The trees upon them
were largely white oak, not much of which is left at this time.

  MIDDLE HUDSON BEDS.-Lying on the lower beds, and
rising higher over the county, are something over 150 feet of
limestone, sandy-like layers and sandy shales. There is not
so much of the siliceous in the mudstones here as is the case
higher up the river in Garrard, Madison and Clark; and the
heavy layers of concretionery character, so finely exhibited in
those counties, are entirely absent. The general characters are,
however, the same, and the narrow ridges, rounded slopes and
deep cut drainage lines are alike. The tops of the ridges, and
usually the slopes based on this series, have been cleared and
cultivated with but little rest or care. No fertilizers have
been used, and the result is, that much of the land on them
is to-day worn into deep gullies, and the surfaces covered with
the sandy shales.
  Naturally very fertile soils, they should have been kept so,
and with care they might all be in good condition now. Some
of them are being more worn every year, and becoming more
difficult to restore. Restoration, while possible with all of
them, will never be undertaken by their present owners. It
would be very desirable that another class of tenants should
own them, who would give them that care of which they are
so much in need. These lands were originally covered wi-th
a forest of beech, among which white and red oak, hickory,
poplar, walnut and sugar maple grew; but all of them have
been largely destroyed, and many farms which should have
their slopes clothed with forest have not even trees for fencing
or firewood.
  Many of the slopes ought to be kept in grass, and, if culti-
vated at all, should have several belts of grass running around
them, parallel with the cultivated portions. Judging from the
rough character of the surface, the lands in the eastern part of
the county, and along the Kentucky, have not been held in as
high esteem as their real worth would seem to have demanded.
Slanting to the north-west, with the general dip of the rocks,



tLey are but little above the deeper lines along the boundary
of Carroll county.

  UPPER HUDSON BEDS.-The larger part of the surface of the
county is based on the upper division of the Hudson beds.
They comprise the most elevated and the most desirable por-
tions. The rocks of this group are all limestone, having, in
the lower part, but little shale between them, but a large
amount in the upper portion. On the dividing ridge, about
Eminence and other points, no rocks are to be seen, the ex-
posures only exhibiting a loose, friable clay soil. The lime-
stones throughout are filled with fossils, which give them a
shaly and easily disintegrating character, and while some of
the layers have been quarried for local use, they do not rank
well for building purposes, stones for which are mostly brought
from other points. There are often large specimens of Colum-
naria alveolata in the clay beds, which serves to show that the
beds holding them were quite extensive at the top of the Hud-
  The beds of Orthis lynxc are finely exposed at many places,
and great numbers of these fossils, with their associated forms,
may be seen. There are many beautiful and well kept farms
on this division in Henry county, much of the land being in
grass, and the tillable fields, owing to their rather level sur-
faces, are kept more free from the worn and exhausted condi-
tion so often seen in the fields of the other formations. Not
all of the lands, however, have received judicious treatment,
and here and there, what should be fertile farms, are only
wasted and gullied soils.
  The lower part of these beds I found to hold a forest of
blue ash, wild cherry, chinquapin oak, hackberry and the other
trees so peculiar to this group in Kentucky, but with a mix-
ture of beecn, a tather unusual thing. The upper part is,
in many places, a forest of beech alone, while in other places
white oak or sugar tree constitutes the principal growth. All
the soils of the county seem to have had more or less beech
growing over theirs. On the ridge near Eminence I found a
narrow stretch of wet lands, and over them the beeches were
quite thick.  These places are very fine for meadow land




to-day, their level position, clay soils and damp character
making them particularly valuable for the growth of timothy.
Tobacco has, for some years, been the great staple of this
county, the texture of the leaf being very fine. Injury has
resulted to many farms from its cultivation, and from the
manner in which the fields are left when the crop is removed.
  Analyses of Upper Hudson soils of Henry county were made
by Dr. Peter a number of years ago, which are here repro-
duced. These samples were taken from a locality two miles
south of New Castle, and the analyses were first published in
Vol. III, Old Series, of Kentucky Geological Reports. No.
649 is virgin soil; No. 650, old field soil, and No. 651, subsoil:

                                         649     650      651

Organic and volatile matters..... . .. ..    5.180    5.159    4.918
Alumina.. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . ..    2.515    3.915    4.12.5
Oxide of iron..... . ........ .  .   .    3.940    4.115    4.545
Carbonate of lime.... .. . .. .  . ..     . 372    .496     . 396
M agnesia.. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . ..     .503     .-:5.58  .512
Brown oxide of. manganese..... .. . ..     . 170    .220     .160
Phosphoricacid.. .. . .. .. . .. . ..     .615     .407     . 448
Sulphuric acid.  .... .. .  . .. . ..     .101     .101     .085
Potash .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . ..              .298     . 227
Soda           ...... . .  . .. .  .         132     . 133    .067
Sand and insoluble silicates . . .. . . . . . .  85.900  8:3. 760  84.943
Loss . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .  . ..     .288     .838
                                        100.000 p 100 000   110 426

  "These soils," writes Dr. Peter,      present almost the only
anomaly in the whole of the soils analyzed, of the existence
of larger proportions of lime, magnesia, oxide of manganese,
potash and soda, and a smaller proportion of sand and insolu-
ble silicates, in the soil of the old field than in the virgin soil
from the same neighborhood. The organic and volatile matters
are in nearly similar quantities in the two soils, but the virgin
soil gives up a much larger proportion of soluble extract to
the water charged with carbonic acid; and the amount of
phosphoric acid in this latter is also much the larger.            If
no error has been committed in putting up and labeling the
soils, or no accidental substitution has occurred since, this
anomaly can only be explained on the supposition that the
soil of the old field was originally much stronger than that of




the neighboring one from whence the "virgin soil " was taken,
a case which seems to be rare. The subsoil does not appear to
be better than the soil of the old field."

                   UPPER SILURIAN.

  On the ridge of land extending from near Jericho to Sligo,
and along the higher points near the line of Carroll and Old-
ham, are the remains of part of the Upper Silurian. There
are but few exposures, and none where the extreme thickness
can be determined. The Medina is in place with its peculiar
earthy and sandy texture. Some of the layers of the Clinton
with its chert beds can be partially seen; and the Niagara
shale makes local beds of stiff clay. At Jericho and at Pen-
dleton some quarrying has been done in the beds of the Niag-
ara limestone.  One layer contains specimens of Calymene
Niagarensis. As these beds are more fully seen in Oldham
county, the reader is referred to the report on that county for
more extended notes on them.


  ALLUvIUM.-Since the Kentucky river has excavated its
channel to its present depth, its waters have wandered from
side to side, and, in places, cut out wide bottoms which have
been filled-except where its immediate channel runs-with
the gravels, sands and mud brought down from above. These
materials have been assorted by the current, and arranged in
layers, one over the other, as the conditions for their deposi-
tion varied. All the gravel and sand have been derived from
the siliceous rocks which are in place higher up the stream,
while the earthy matters, with organic materials, have come,
in part, from the washings of the fields in Central Kentucky.
  The bottoms are usually rich loamy soils, with slopes to the
river sufficient to give nearly always ample drainage; and
they are much valued for agricultural purposes. Some of the
deposits referred to are valuable as materials for brick-making.
The bottoms have all been cleared and are under cultivation.




 DISTURBANCES.-A line of disturbance in the rocks is no-
 ticeable crossing the road from Drennon Springs to Franklin-
 ton, and near the former place. On the north-west of this line
 the rocks are nearly horizontal, only having, perhaps, the gen-
 eral dip of the region; but on the south-east they have a steep
incline in the latter direction. This is a regular fault with a
down-throw of over 150 feet. The Middle Hudson has dropped
entirely into the break, and the lynx beds of the Upper Hud-
son have been brought down to nearly a level with the top of
the Lower Hudson. How far this disturbance extends I could
not determine, but it seems to be purely local. The line of
strike is north-east and south-west, with steeper dip to the
south-east, like all the faulted places in Central Kentucky.
This one was evidently produced at the time of the uplift of
the Kentucky Anticlinal, and as a local phase of that axis.
  In a sharp bend of the Little Kentucky river, about one mile
above Sulphur Station, there is a small area of disturbed rocks.
It crosses the river twice within a few hundred yards. When
the water is low and clear, or too low to cover the rocks, as 1
found it, it exposes a very interesting type of the small anti-
clinals, which are often to be seen in the Hudson beds of the
central part of the State. A much smaller fracture was seen
crossing Tall Timber creek, some two miles from Sulphur.
  WASTE OF HIGHER BEDS.-There are several places in Henry
county where considerable quantities of hard siliceous rock
are scattered over the surface. The rock has been derived
from layers which once extended much higher than the present
hills. These fragments are parts of the more indestructible
portions, and have remained while many hundreds of feet of
the softer rocks inclosing them have dissolved and been carried
away. Over the tops of the ridges and in the beds of the
branches, to the south-east of the fault near Drennon Springs,
there are many pebbles from the conglomerate, geodes from the
Subcarboniferous, and chert from the Niagara and the Cornifer-
  The down-throw of the strata above mentioned produced a
depressed area on the surface, and it was long before any drain-




age lines emanated from it; so, while the general surfaces were
subjected to great erosion, this point was protected. Though
the rocks were disintegrated, limestones and shales dissolved
and leached away, the very resisting portions were left in the
pocket, and held there for a great length of time Since the
basin-like area has been destroyed, the washing of the surfaces
has not yet been great enough to remove all of the debris. It
is by the present position of these beds, and by the conditions
surrounding them, that we are enabled to determine the time
of the disturbance to have been after the formation of the coal
measures; and to know that Central Kentucky has, in time,
had a vast mass of material removed from over its present sur-
  At the head of Stevens' creek there are also many of these
rocks left in the heads of the branches, and continually
working lower and lower down the streams. These accumula-
tions are from three to six miles from the Kentucky river, and
400 feet or more above it. They are in no way assorted into
sizes, as water would assort such materials, and could not have
been left by the river or any other stream. In all the debris of
this character, as seen over the Lower Silurian area of the
State, its preservation seems to be due to some such condition
as exists near Drennon Springs.

  MINERAL SPRINGS.-Henry county has a number of mineral
springs, all issuing from the rocks of the Lower Silurian age.
In the bed of Sulphur creek a weak sulphur water comes to
the surface, which is occasionally used for drinking purposes.
At Eminence, a spring comes from near the railroad fill, which
has a very slight chalybeate taste, and is rather a pleasant
water. Towards the head of Drennon creek there are several
springs containing mineral ingredients.  One of these is
quite strong with salt, and another with sulphur.  Farther
down the creek other waters, more or less impregnated with
these matters, issue from the rocks. All of these have their
sources in the Upper Hudson, and neither of them possess any
characteristics of value or have local reputations.
The principal springs are situated in the valley of Drennon
creek, some two miles from its mouth, and issue from the




Lower Hudson, near its base, or rise up through the alluvial
deposits from the beds of the Trenton. The Drennon Springs
have been known since the earliest settlement of the State, at
which time they were resorted to by herds of buffaloes, deer
and other animals, who came to lick the saline waters. For
this reason they were known, for a long time, as Drennon Lick.
Some thirty-five feet above the creek, and a few hundred yards
from it, there issues, from near the base of the Lower Hudson
rocks, a spring of very clear and very pleasant white sulphur
water. A stone cistern has been built around it, and the water
rises some six inches above the surrounding surface, when it
runs off through an opening in the side. At several places,
within a few yards, the same water breaks from the ground.
  In the bottom below the above spring, and on both sides of
the creek, black sulphur water rises up through the deposits
made by the stream. The alluvial is some twelve feet above
the bed of Drennon, and the vents from which the waters come
up have evidently been produced by the pressure of gas, which
escapes in a succession of bubbles, at intervals of a few seconds.
In a number of these places gums have been sunk into the
ground, to the depth of seven or eight feet, and in them the
water rises above the general surface. Considerable deposits
of black mud have been made through the action of these
waters, and, around the surfaces of little pools formed by them,
incrustations of whitish yellow sulphur are to be found. All
these waters are saline; and, while there is some difference in
their taste, this is due to the different proportions of sulphur-
etted hydrogen and salt, which may be combined in the water
at any particular time or place.
  Drennon Springs. now owned by Messrs. Jett and Scott, of
Frankfort, was once quite a fashionable watering place, where
yearly many visitors used to gather. There is at present very
little accommodation for visitors, yet each year a greater or less
number of people go there to drink the waters, and bathe in
thenm. To some extent the water is being shipped all through
the year. Its most prominent ingredients, according to Dr.
D. D. Owen, are:




        Free sulphuretted hydrogen.
        Chloride of sodium (common salt).
        Sulphate of soda.
        Sulphate of magnesia.
        Bicarbonate of lime.
        Bicarbonate of soda.
        Bicarbonate of magnesia.
  On the north side of the creek, in the bottom, there is a
slight depression, which, for a long time, existed as a deep
miry flat, but when I saw it, was solid enough to bear the
weight of a wagon. This place is incrusted with the depos-
its of sulphur. Above it, on the side of the bluff, the frag-
mental blocks of the Trenton have the appearance of having
been subjected to some degree of heat; but it is probable that
this is due to the action of the salt and gas, which has, for
ages, passed up between them.
  Some of the layers of the Lower Hudson, as well as of the
Trenton, are freely impregnated with sulphide of iron, and
thus give rise to the gas which, in places, imparts sulphur to
the water of wells and springs. The shale beds of the Lower
Hadson, in many cases. carry stores of saline matters, and to
the above two facts we must look for the origin of Drennon
Springs. The Upper Blue Lick Spring has its position in the
same geological series, and the waters of the two places are
very much alike. The dislocation of the rocks which occurs
near these springs, may have much to do with the artesian-like
flow of some of them, and the gases may possibly be generated
at a great depth. The decomposition of the organic matters in
the bottoms could not give rise to the character and volume of
gas evolved.
  The amount of gas required to give the water its present
character is quite small, and it must not be presumed that the
conditions here are favorable to drilling for natural gas. The
slight pressure shown in its escape, and its rising over several
hundred yards of surface, show that it escapes as freely as it is
generated, and that there are no conditions here warranting
the existence of any reservoirs holding large supplies of it.
  At Sulphur Station a well was bored a number of years ago,
from which gas escaped. This was set on fire and burned for




a day or two only, when the volume was exhausted and the
well filled up. No favorable conditions seem to be underlying
our Central Kentucky rocks, for the production of natural
gas in paying quantities. That it exists in many places, in
small quantities, can not be disputed, but the fissured character
of the rocks has, for many ages, allowed its free escape. At
the same time, we know of no layers or beds, as low down as
our knowledge extends, in this part of the State, whose con-
ditions are favorable to the production of any large quantities
of oil or gas.

  MINERALS.-In Central Kentucky there are some twelve
counties in which occur true fissure veins, inclosing heavy
spar (barytes). Frequently there is some calc-spar or fluor-spar
associated with it. The heavy spar often incloses crystals of
galena. (lead ore) and zinc-blende. These veins penetrate the
Trenton, Bird's-eye and Chazy limestones, as far as exposed,
and probably to a much greater depth. Nowhere that I have
been enabled to see them, do they rise into the overlying beds
of the Hudson period, and the veins seem to have been pro-
duced and filled at the close of the Trenton, rather than at any
subsequent time. They, everywhere, seem to be distinct from
the faults and dislocations which involved all the rocks at the
close of the Carboniferous.
At numerous places in the counties referred to attempts
have been made to work these veins for lead or other min-
erals. All such attempts have proved utter failures, and the
time and money spent upon them has been lost. In Henry
county, near the Kentucky river, in the region around Lock-
port, there are a number of small veins known, several of
which have been dug into. On a vein a short distance be-
low, there has been considerable mining done. Three or four
companies have operated at this place, on what is known
as the "silver and spar mines,'" and altogether, perhaps,
much over a hundred thousand dollars has been lost in the
enterprises. The lead in those veins contains no silver, and
neither the spar, galena or zinc, will pay for the heavy ex-
pense required in mining these places. It is truly unfortu-
nate that we have any veins of this character, as they, too
    GEOL. suf.-2




often, have been only sink-holes, into which a great deal
of capital and labor have been buried. (For further informa-
tion on this subject, see Mr. Norwood's report on the Lead
Region of Henry county, in Vol II, New Series, Kentucky
Geological Reports.)
  A single layer of stone in the Hudson beds, frequently has
small nodules of zinc associated with crystals of lime, and the
finding of these often excites more interest among the people
than their importance warrants. It is not unusual for persons,
controlled either by ignorance or design, to go to those places,
pretending with forked switches, copper wires, and balanced
strings, to follow veins across the country, giving distance,
depth, width and character of alleged deposits in feet and
inches, as if they had been accurately measured. In view of
the fact that such individuals are ignorant of ores and their
distribution, and that they never have been known to own any
minerals, themselves, or to be benefited by their assumed
knowledge, it is strange that men, otherwise sensible, will
rislk. their time and money in pursuing mere phantoms. It may
well be assumed as a fact, that, in Henry county, there are
no mineral deposits that will ever pay for working them.
  ARCEI.-EOLOGY AND BONE BED.-NO mounds or other struc-
tures seem to have been erected by prehistoric tribes in Henry
county, though, in places, numerous implements belonging to
their time have been found. Over the whole area there may,
occasionally, be found an arrow-head of flint or some other
stone. In the excavations for the railroad track at Eminence, a
bone bed was found, in which the remains of the mammoth
occurred. The bones and teeth were so far decayed that they
could not be preserved. They were but little below the sur-
face, and the conditions were not favorable to long preserva-



                      APPENDIX A.


                       1885, AND OTHER SOURCES.

1880. Total population  . .   14,5151 Assessed valuation, 1885 total, 4,082, 761
1870. Total population  . .   11,066- Taxation, State, 1885 . . .  21,313
1860. Total population . .    11,949 Miles of railroad .30.30
1880. White population .      11,623 Value   of railroads in the
1870. White population  .      8,628    county  .... . . . .   .   675,050
1860. White population .       8,602 M1iles of turnpikes. . . . .       200
1880. Colored population       2,869 Average cost of turnpikes per
1870. Colored population       2,438 L  mile  . . . . . . . . . .    1,200
1860. Colored population       3,347 Total cost of turnpikes in
1880. For