xt7p2n4zh41w https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7p2n4zh41w/data/mets.xml Harlan, Mary B. 1853  books b92fh2262009 English Applegate & co. : Cincinnati, Ohio Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Slavery --Kentucky --Fiction. Ellen; or, The chained mother; and pictures of Kentucky slavery. Drawn from real life. text Ellen; or, The chained mother; and pictures of Kentucky slavery. Drawn from real life. 1853 2009 true xt7p2n4zh41w section xt7p2n4zh41w 













& CO,





The following sketches have been    written with a design to show the practical workings of slavery, where, as is generally conceded, it exists in its mildest form. A n d the author, let it be observed, has attempted but little i n delineating slavery where she has not witnessed its evils. there. She has endeavored faithfully to portray slavery in Kentucky, as it has long existed "While, therefore, these picture-rolls of the past The are unfolded to the gaze of enquiring beholders, let no one hastily charge the author with injustice. scenes she has depicted, as indicated in the title-page, are sketches from real life, and hence no exaggerations have been attempted. B ut the oft-repeated question may again be asked, ' ' What adv antage is likely to result from the continual a gitation of the slavery question?" In answering this query it is but just to say, that there is evidently a misapprehension concerning the discussion of slavery, interwoven, as the subject is, with important political p roiii



jects of our day. It certainly has not escaped the attention of well informed persons, that an eagerness has been manifested by leading politicians of our country to extend the area of slavery. And what do they contemplate in this important movement ? Their schemes when fully developed would present an aspect about as follows : California and Texas must be divided and furnish territory for two more slave States ; another slave State must be formed by wresting a large extent of county from the Mexican Government ; Cuba also must be purchased, and H ayti conquered before the pro-slavery power of this great free Republic, can hold undisputed sway. N ow, it is respectfully asked, are we of the North ready to make such concessions i n favor of slavery ? A re we ready to legalize slavery in territories where, hitherto it has not existed ? or w ill we coolly submit to see its power augmented in our country by annexing territory where it is already established ? We think not. A nd while the freemen of the North are able to resist the further encroachment of slavery it is their duly to do so. They may not successfully interfere with the domestic institutions of the slave States, but let them look to it, that the power and patronage of slavery be not enhanced in our U nion, bv territorial acquisition.


CHAPTER I --The Separation,

7 12 19 27 33 40 49 57 63 71 80 87 94 101 107 114 120 126

I I - -Ellen's N ew Home in the Country, I I I - - A Voluptuary, I V - -Skin of the Ethiopian Changed, V - -Violent Death of a Slave, . V I -    The Conversion, V I I -    Negro Meeting, V I I I -    Same Subject Continued, I X -    Nuptial, -

X -    Plan for Obtaining Freedom, X I -    Reflections in Pospect of Death, X I I -    The Pastor's Consolation, X I I I -    A Kentucky Slave Trader, X I V -    Fearful Forebodings, X V - -Last Hours of an Inebriate, X V I -    The Beginning of Sorrows, X V I I -    Temporary Disappointment of a Trader, X V I I I -    Mother and Daughter Separated, -



C HAP . X IX   Kitchen Scenes, -




134 142 146

X X     S a m e Subject Continued,

X XI   Flagellation at a Camp Meeting, X X I I I     The Wounded Slave, X X I V     The Chained Mother, X XV   Departure tor the South, X XVI   Ormsby, the New Landlord, X XVII   Jerome Escapes, X X V I I I     E l l e n in New Orleans, X X I X     T h e B urial, X X X     T h e disappointment, -

X XII   Sufferings of the Oppressed Increased, 153 - 161 - 169     178 - 188 - 194 202 210 2l4 220 226 234 244 252

X X X I     A Ride to the Country, X X X I I     T r i a l of Christian F aith, X X X I V     Capture of a Fugitive, X X X V     F a t e of the Captured,

X X X I I I     Christian F idelity Rewarded.




I T was on the first day of the year, while the c old wind whirled i n many a pile the d rifting snow as it whistled round the corners of the squares, s ighed through the a lleys, a nd swept a long the wide streets of the city of L , K y . , that a large number of slaves were seen i n shivering groups, standing i n and around the market-house. S ome were to be hired out for the year, and others were to be s old, as the nature of the case m ight be. A great concourse of citizens, from the country, and s urrounding villages, had early i n the morning of that day made t heir appearance at the scene of action. A large block was placed at the entrance of the market-house, on which the slaves were to be exhibited, prior to their being




h ired or sold at auction. These unhappy creatures formed a group, consisting of husbands and wives, parents and children, brothers and s isters   all the ties t hat an elevated, free, C hristian c ountry holds s acred, were soon to be rent asunder. The s hrill c ry o f the auctioneer was now to be beard pealing above the storm, as slave after slave was put up for h ire, a nd i n a short time a ll t hat were disposed of i n t his way, were taken off by their new masters. T he sale now opened w ith a f amily consisting of a mother and two daughters. The mother was a m iddle-aged mulatto. H e r daughters were w ell n igh g rown; i n appearance healthy, and approaching still nearer than the mother, the perfection of the Anglo-Saxon race. The mother was first p laced u pon the block. The auctioneer then, i n a stentorian v oice, cried, ""Who'll give me a bid for Lucy, a w oman just now i n the prime of life   sound, h ealthy, good cook, first-rate h ouse-woman   Who'll g ive the first b i d . " Immediately, a number of bids b eing heard from different quarters, a confusion was p roduced. A t this juncture, an innkeeper from the v icinity o f the city, came f orward i n advance of the c rowd, and w ith a n expressive glance, scanned the w oman from head to foot. A g a i n the auctioneer proceeded to speak i n glowing terms of the property j ust about to be sold; and after announcing t hat b ids were i n order, it was soon e vident t hat the innkeeper was to be the lucky purchaser




o f so valuable a prize. H a v i n g made the purchase, he conveyed L u c y from the crowd, where she was torn from the affectionate embraces of her two daughters. The auctioneer then proceeded to expose to sale E llen, the younger daughter, whose tears and sobs spoke the deep a nguish of her heart. W h i l e the poor g irl stood shivering i n the cold, and the blast d allying w ith h er long dark ringlets, a p lain l ooking gentleman, wearing a broad-brimmed h at, a nd enveloped i n a drab over-coat, pressed t hrough the crowd towards the block. Stopping s uddenly, he fixed his eyes u pon E llen. H i s countenance, which n aturally expressed benevolence of f eeling, n ow indicated a deep s ympathy for the g irl, whose irrepressible grief began to manifest itself, q uite to the discomfort of the auctioneer, whose interest p rompted him to impose quietness. B ut our " F r i e n d , " (for he was of Quaker origin,) became interested i n the welfare of this poor s lave, just i n p roportion to the deep sorrow of heart she was then c alled to endure. So the perplexity realized b y the auctioneer was of short duration; for no sooner did he announce his readiness to receive b ids, t han he found near at hand a prompt bidder i n the person of the Quaker. The contest was warm. T here were several eager b idders. B ut the calm determination o f the Quaker was understood from the outset. H i s every look p lainly showed to a ll present, t hat he had f irmly r esolved on the purchase of E llen.



A n d w hen bidders were seen here and there dropping off, and r etiring as i f to give up the contest, the g ood Q uaker seemed just to have commenced. Of course the result may easily be a nticipated. E llen, a ccording to statute law i n the State of Kentucky, became the property of W m . H . Hammond the Q uaker, he attending i n person the place of auction o n the day of her sale, and giving the highest b id. T he elder sister was next exhibited. She was a b eautiful g irl o f eighteen summers. H e r bonnet was taken off and her shawl thrown back, but her h ead was b owed w ith g rief, and she observed not the crowd, for her eyes f ollowed the r etiring f orm o f her dear sister t ill they were suffused w ith tears. B u t she was suddenly startled by the loud voice o f the auctioneer, as he cried out, " J ulia, a sister of the g irl j ust sold, a house-servant and seamstress    one of the most valuable young women i n the country," & c. The auctioneer had now, as i n the two f ormer instances, but l ittle trouble i n disposing o f the slave exposed to public sale. A w elldressed young gentleman, apparently about five and t wenty, p urchased J u l i a , the last member of the separated and broken family. T he sale continued w ith u ndiminished interest. A v ery considerable number of slaves were sold d uring t hat day. These dejected creatines were n ow h urried off i n different directions, and by



the next evening most of them had reached their new homes, or places rather of t oiling and suffering. L ucy was doomed to a miserable destiny. She was not only bereft of her two daughters, through the cruel p olicy of the slave trade, but was also unfortunate in f alling i nto the hands of an u nkind, heartless, and b rutal master.




E LLEN was taken the same day to her new home, w hich was a neat farm-house, situated on a r ising g round, and surrounded w ith fruit trees, w ith here a nd there a locust or dwarf oak; a few hardy shrubs, a nd l ilies, a nd rose bushes, grew about the doors and windows ; and some v ines clung a round a p lain portico at the front door. B ut every t hing was now almost entirely concealed i n snow. H ammond, her new master, was a Pennsylvanian b y b irth. A s already noticed, he was by b irth a nd education a Quaker. H a v i n g emigrated to a slave State, a nd s ettling i n a fertile region, he soon found it difficult to pursue the business of c ultivating the s oil, as -it was seldom that any one could procure help, e specially i n the most busy seasons o f the year. H e h ad purchased a large tract of l and, a nd i n order to succeed i n a gricultural p ursuits according to his o wn mind, he at length concluded, though much a gainst the early prejudices of his education, to



purchase a few slaves. In t his, however, he greatly erred, as the sequel of our narrative w i l l show. H a d he been content to live and labor without conforming his life to the vain, and foolish, and a ntiscriptural notions of a peiople l iving i n open v iolation of the great law of C hristian c harity, he might have secured to his household every good t hing needful, besides p reventing a series of calamities that afterwards betel them. B ut to proceed w ith our story. E llen was the last of the slaves purchased by M r . H ammond. B y t his t ime the Negro cabin was pretty well stowed w ith s ervants; all as comfortably provided for as was the custom i n Kentucky. A n d , indeed, M r . H ammond was not inclined to conform to any custom of oppressive dealing with slaves. H e was a m an of humane disposition. H i s servants all regarded him as an excellent master. It seemed as i f the yoke of slavery, when placed i n his hands, set lightly on the necks of his servants; and it was under this m ild a dministration that E llen, the i nteresting quadroon slave, gradually developed a ll those excellent traits of character by which she was distinguished i n her future history. M r s . H ammond, although an amiable lady, was one of those s allow, melancholy looking females, i n whose d ark, s unken eyes one might read a complication of diseases; such as torpor of the liver, affection of the lungs, nemalgia, dyspepsia, a slight affection




o f the spine, etc., etc. A n d to these complaints were added four or five l ittle u rchins whose restless habits often disturbed her quiet, and at times, rendered it necessary that she should seek repose b y r etiring f rom the din and confusion incident to household r esponsibilities. I t was to take care of these dear l ittle creatures, that the good father and husband p lodded his way to the city, through the storm o f New Year, and at the slave-market purchased the sprightly and promising young E llen. I n t his department she did w ell, for one     o f her years. S he was k ind to the l ittle ones p laced i n her care, but at times was sad; especially while s inging those songs t hat brought to remembrance the days of her early childhood. She was much concerned about the fate of her sister, as she knew not who had purchased her. B u t knowledge i n s uch matters would have contributed but l ittle to E llen's h appiness. H e r mother was sold to a man o f most cruel disposition. H e was possessed not o nly o f cruelty of nature, but often i n the government of his slaves gave w ay to poroxysms of anger, w hich was ensued by violent blows w ith b roomsticks, c hairs, brick-bats, or any t hing of the k ind that chanced to be i n his way. E llen was sufficiently a cquainted w ith this man's character to s tand i n c ontinual dread for the safety of her mother; a nd i n many instances while pondering this matter i n her mind was she affected to weeping. B u t her



tears, a nd sympathies, and regrets, availed nothing. I n the meantime, the kindness of Ellen's master served i n some measure to assuage the grief that p reyed upon her feelings. H a v i n g purchased for his children a few school books, M r . Hammond, p rompted by a humane and a benevolent disposition w hich did honor to his nature, determined on the instruction of his slaves, and accordingly purchased for each one of them a s pelling b ook. T his was necessary as a preparatory measure, for all his slaves were destitute of a knowledge, even of the alphabet. But among the number, none of them manifested the same eagerness for i nstruction as did E llen. She learned w ith u nusual rapidity; such was her delight at the thoughts of learning from books, a p rivilege most generally denied the slaves of the South. D uring the long winter n ights, after the children were all asleep, this energetic g irl was busily engaged i n learning her spelling book, and w ith the instruction bestowed u pon her by Mrs. Hammond, she was soon enabled to r ead. H e r master then gave her a B ible, w hich she put away carefully i n her chest, and kept as s omething sacred. E llen h ad invented a great many plays and amusements ' which delighted the children, and served to increase their attachment to her. She h ad served faithfully as a nurse for three years, r endering satisfaction both to parent and c hild,



w hen the unexpected death o f the housekeeper made i t necessary for her to change her position. T he youngest o f the c hildren was i n its f ourth y ear, a nd the elder ones b eing a l l day at s chool, E llen h ad been for some t ime a ssisting the housekeeper, and i n t his w ay soon became a n adept i n the management of household affairs. H ammond h ad been i n K entucky l ong enough to lose his yeas, a nd nays, a nd thees; y et w ith t his l ittle change o f d ialect, he had not forgotten to act as the S pirit m oved h i m ; and hence, possessing a generous s pirit, he was moved to erect comfortable dwellings for his servants, a nd to f urnish those dwellings w ith every necessary appendage. B u t E llen's p lace was at his own fireside, a nd her s leeping apartment j oined the f amily r oom, where she was a lways near at hand to bestow the necessary attentions u pon her l ittle c harge. The two elder c hildren, b eing b oys, n ow l odged i n an u pper room, a nd E llen was left i n charge o f the two l ittle g irls, J ane a nd A melia. M r s . H ammond, w ho seldom looked b eyond h er o wn apartment, p laced all her domestic affairs under the j udicious care and management o f E llen. A n d t his management did not induce M r s . H ammond to b urden her housekeeper w ith a l oad of keys, as was often clone under s imilar c ircumstances ; for her husband had taught her to b elieve, that i f the servants were supplied w ith a sufficiency o f food a nd r aiment, there would most l ikely



be, on t heir p art, but l ittle t emptation to dishonesty. E llen entered upon t his n ew theater of action w ith new energy. She went through the entire house, examined drawers, cupboards, and sideboards, and properly adjusted every t hing. T hen commenced a series of sunning bed-clothes, washing, s couring, rubbing and scrubbing, u ntil every t hing was fixed according to her own taste. She then went to the kitchen, where she found A u n t B ridget, the cook, w ho had long, i n t his d epartment o f domestic government, held a quiet, and undisturbed a nd peaceful reign. E llen, after looking round a moment, dropped a few hints that a slight change i n some o f the k itchen affairs would be the better; but t his o nly roused B ridget to resentment, and occasioned a somewhat s pirited reproof. " Y o u t hinks y ourself a great somebody," s aid B ridget, as she glanced her eye at E l len w ith a s crowl. " I's always hearn that young folks t hinks o ld folks is fools, but old folks knows y oung folks is fools. If you's so mouty s mart, t hat y ou knows how ebery t hing 'bout house and k itchen b oth ought to be done, I w ish to gracious g oodness misses would make you do the work, and then I guess I mout git to rest a while, and look on and l arn. B u t i f you gits to marchin' i n here to h i n tin' r ound how ebery t hing must be done, l ike as i f y ou was white as any body, you'd better be somewhar else, I jist t ell y ou now you had."



A t t his unexpected outburst of displeasure on the part of B ridget, E llen stood for a minute or two as i f confounded. But recovering from the apparent shock, she endeavored to explain herself i n such a w ay as to conciliate the feelings of the old cook, w ho seemed so much exasperated at the obtrusiveness of the young housekeeper. " A u n t Bridget," said E llen m eekly, " I am sorry that you misunderstood me. I know that y ou have a great deal of work to d o ; and rather t han see you do so much more than you are able, I would l ike v ery well to come a nd help you n ow and then when I get all my own work d one." " O , you's mouty g ood, so you i s , " interrupted B ridget. " W e l l ; i f you wants to show yourself so clever, I can find work for you. Jis come to de kitchen when de work's done 'bout de family r oom, and step round as I tells you, and I ' l l find p lenty of work for you to do, I ' l l a'bound. But I guess y ou 'most too grand for de sort o' work I has to do. Y o u sets up and primps so much of y our time, you knows nothin' 'bout what hard times we all has i n here and out o' doors." E llen p lainly saw from these cutting expressions of A u n t B ridget, that she was prompted by i ll-natured feelings, as there was really no just ground of complaint against their master, whose u niform i m partiality showed, on his part, a fixed purpose to do equal and exact justice to all his servants.



" F i l l t he intoxicating b o w l , Full high."

CLAYTON was the only son of a wealthy farmer, l iving i n one of the most fertile and beautiful districts of Kentucky. H e had been reared i n comparative indolence and ease. N o sooner h ad the son arrived at a suitable age, than the parents, anxious to have his education completed, k indly gave h im his choice of a ll the L iterary I nstitutions of the country. After some d eliberation, young C layton decided on going to West Point. To this far-famed Institution he was accordingly sent. Here he soon d isplayed superior a bilities, a nd during the first session, succeeded w ell i n his studies. But not h aving sufficient energy and industry to continue i n a n arduous course of study, he was at length found d issipating, a nd assuming the habits of an i dler. I n addition to all t his, he became i ntractable, and after the usual efforts to effect a r eformation, C layton, i n consequence of having proved i n corrigible, was expelled the I nstitution. T his was v ery unexpected to the parents, and occasioned 19




t hem the most poignant sorrow of heart. But s till desirous of seeing t heir son a ttain to some e levation i n society, they g ave h i m choice o f a profession. C layton's first and only choice was that of the law. S oon after this decision was made, he was placed under the instruction of the distinguished r esiding a t the capital, not far distant from the s plendid m ansion occupied by his doting parents. I t often happens that the most tender and enduring p arental love is i n v ain l avished upon sons, w ho continually yield to the influence of a prodigal d isposition. T his was the case w ith C layton. H e was placed i n a position where he might have attained to distinction ; and nothing was wanting on h is p art, but a due regard to his parents and preceptor. B ut a n i nvincible a version to close thought, a nd a s trong tendency of the mind to seek g ratification i n light amusements, seemed to have marked C layton's w hole course of l ife. H e was endowed b y nature w ith superior talents, and might have excelled i n any of the learned professions of the c ountry. "While a student at law, he enjoyed every possible advantage, but to no purpose; for a great w hile before he could, i n accordance w ith usage, h ave been admitted to the bar, he was seen at another bar, d rinking h is bumper w ith the besotted a nd v ulgar loungers of the day. A n d in addition to the pernicious practice of mingling w ith the i n temperate throng infesting the grogshops a nd ho-



tels of the city, Clayton devoted some p ortions of h is t ime to reading novels, and infidel works    such as the writings of Payne, Volney, and V o l taire. H i s appropriate studies, however, were neglected. H i s instructor admonished him, and did a ll that could have been suggested, both by p rudence a nd friendship, to give a different direction to the course of his student, but without success. A t l ength M r . , felt it to be his duty to address a few lines to the father, informing h i m of the downward career of his son. In a short time y oung Clayton was brought home. But here he soon became restless, and to pass away the time a ccording to his own mind, he was found associating w ith a l ow and worthless set of young men, who kept up their nightly revels at a d rinking establishment some m iles distant from his own quiet home.

C layton h aving formed an early attachment to an amiable and accomplished young lady, and being now i n the twenty-second year of his age, his parents thought proper to encourage this attachment, t hough i n former days they had opposed i t. They were impressed w ith the belief that an early marriage w ith one so agreeable and attractive i n her person and manners as the young lady just mentioned, would be the means of saving their son from the degradation and r uin w hich seemed to await h im. A u nion between these two young persons was



a ccordingly consummated, and young M rs. C layton, accompanied her husband to the country. The delighted parents now fitted up and neatly furnished a l ovely dwelling, situated on an excellent farm, that l ay about a mile from the city. To this delightful home, the newly married pair was soon r emoved. They were here surrounded by a ll that the most aspiring could have desired. The entire house was furnished w ith the most elegant furniture that c ould be purchased i n the "West. I n their neat parlor was a fine piano of the latest model, besides sofas, chairs, tables, etc., all of the latest style. E very other department of the house was fitted up i n a m anner corresponding to the elegance o f the p arlor. T he fond parents having now despaired of t heir son ever attaining to distinction i n literary or professional pursuits, it was the intention of the father, at this time, to strike out a new path for one whose every adventure i n life had hitherto proved a f ailure. Clayton's father accordingly purchased for his son a large and valuable farm, and supplied h im w ith a sufficient number of field-hands to carry on the business of a griculture; a nd also w ith several house-servants, and waiting-boys and g irls. M rs. C layton had but few of those qualities necessary to a house-keeper; but then she had a good substitute, as her mother gaye her an excellent aouse-keeper, who took charge of all the domestic affairs. A n overseer, also, was employed to super-



i ntend the field-hands and manage the farm, while C layton a nd his accomplished lady were left to r evel i n luxury and ease. T his wealthy young p ah possessed, i n a high degree, that hospitality for which Kentucky has ever been d istinguished. T heir fondness for social pleasures soon p rompted t hem to throw open t heir fine parlors for the reception of former gay associates. M u c h of their time was devoted to such entertainments. Music, and d ancing, and wine, and cards, etc., seemed to be the order of the times, t ill, at the end of two years, a pause was made amid these rounds of pleasure, b y the entrance of two infant sons i nto the family. I t was shortly after this event, that Clayton was seen at the slave-market as already described, where he purchased J ulia. M r s . Clayton was confined to her room most of the winter, during which t ime her twins absorbed a great amount of her attention. J u l i a was a seamstress, but was ever ready to lend her assistance i n other departments o f business, when required to do so. A mulatto g irl a nd a waiting boy also were employed i n the n ursery. M rs. C layton, who was naturally of an amiable d isposition, would have been happy i n this new relation, h ad she only found a sufficient reciprocity of feeling on the part of her husband. But no sooner d id the gay and opulent leave his dwelling, t han he was seen wending his way to the capital,




where he was i n the habit of engaging i n those vices and v ain amusements peculiar to the times. T he Legislature always attracted a gay and fashionable crowd during the winter season, from all parts o f the State. Many and diversified entertainments were given by the hospitable citizens. A n d whenever the dancer's foot k ept time to the melodious v iolin, a nd the red wine sparkled, during s uch seasons o f h ilarity, C layton always played w ell h is part. H e had an insatiable fondness, too, for cards; and often, at a late horn, was seen w ith h is profane associates at the baneful board, while h is neglected wife was at home, w ith no other protector than J u l i a , a strange servant g irl, k eeping h er lonely vigils over her l ittle charge, t ill the blaze grew dim on the h earth, a nd the lamp shone w ith a f aint flicker, alternately weeping, and chiding her husband's long delay. Often, w ith eyes suffused i n tears, did the fond wife and mother i n v ain beseech her husband to desist from the r uinous course he seemed inclined to follow. But C layton a lways found some p lausible excuse for every t hing he did. " M y dear E l i z a , " he would say, " Y o u know my business calls for my attention, a nd i t must be neglected i f I should be required to return home every day by the going down of the sun. I p rovide for you every t hing necessary for your comfort. W h y should you make yourself unhappy ? B esides, y ou ought to consider how wretched it



makes a nusband, when his own dear wife, the partner of his j oys a nd sorrows, begins to show, i n any measure whatever, feelings of d istrust. I hope y ou w i l l succeed i n overcoming these c hildish whims       at any rate, have confidence i n me to think that I am able to take care of myself, and rest assured that I understand my own business, whether at home or i n the city. A n d did I believe it would be i nteresting to you, I w ould cheerfully, at my time, communicate such information respecting any business engagements, that you would easily see how it happens that I am so often detained fi-om home u ntil a late hour of the night." A fter such endeavors on the part of Clayton to excuse himself, would his forgiving wife     d ry her tears, a nd vainly try to be happy. J u l i a , w ho was her only companion during these long, dreary v i gils, was always ready to do her bidding, and M r s . C layton rewarded her services w ith m any valuable a rticles, w hich the poor g irl p rized very highly. A faded silk: c loak, a s ilk or satin shawl that had outlived the fashion, a fine bonnet, w ith the rose or p lume shghtly faded, a piece of refuse jewelry   a h alf-worn necklace or b racelet   all these were thankfully received by the delighted J u l i a . B ut it was unfortunate for her that she became v ain o f outward a dornings. She never associated w ith the rest of the servants, and i n her conversation and conduct, often showed an utter contempt for the lower 2 w




classes of white society, which she called " p o o r w hite f olks;" and ranked thern w ith the negroes. I n t his way she became odious to all the servants o n the premises. W h i l e on errands to the cabins or kitchen, the men would frequently p ull off their h ats, t uck them under their arms, and, looking askance at each other, make many a sly g rin at J ulia's expense. Then, bowing obsequiously, they w ould greet " M i s s J u l i a , " to the infinite amusement of the sooty, c urly-headed inmates of the c abin.




SPRING n ow advancing w ith f airy step, adorned the earth w ith v erdure and flowers, and ever the m usic of groves a nd streams, came wafted on the gales of the South, amid soft dews a nd refreshing showers. C layton was now necessarily at home, as i t was the planting season. A n d not being insensible to the beauties of nature, here surrounded as he was by her fairest charms, he would sometimes pen a speech, or a few stanzas, which indicated superior genius. H i s residence was on an eminence, a round w hich, seemed as if nature had touched the l iving landscape w ith a master hand. The back grounds were undulating, and i n the distance, green w ith meadows. Near the dwelling were gardens and orchards, all dressed i n flowers. O n b oth sides, spread out cultivated fields, interspersed w ith b eautiful clusters of forest trees. In front of the dwelling, far down the sloping green, the river flowed onward, down its rocky channel, w ith its majestic cliffs towering on either side, where



they terminate at a dizzy hight, crowned w ith t heir o wn green cedars. E a r off to the left, i n the dreamy distance, lay the capital, i n amphitheatral form, as i f by Herculean hands, it had been excavated f rom the surrounding rocks, which were piled far above i ts highest steeples; where, i n the blue distance, were seen those beautiful cedars that are no greener when the south wind stirs then- bowers, a nd the woodland notes are heard, than when the A utumn blast sighs momnfully amid t heir branches a nd the withered leaves from the surrounding forest, lie mouldering beneath their shadow. If, a mid s uch scenery as t his, C layton h ad been reared i n poverty and honest t oil, l ike the peasant bard of S cotland,