xt7p2n4zj826 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7p2n4zj826/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1937 journals kaes_circulars_003_306 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 306 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 306 1937 2014 true xt7p2n4zj826 section xt7p2n4zj826 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Directoi·
’ rgy rtw
,..$¤· {
1 ·~' . .
  ‘ ‘ - K V A  
i   2* 2 ,—
‘ /§· . .
s   , _. ,
  V   V S . , G,         in y ,,  
’ .;—  , .  . ’ .‘· 4   ei g4 t
_ { ‘4 C , ,, e .` wi ._   . wi-
“   _ ,3, A V   ·   gi   7   \.,;   i ’ L
Lexington, Kentucky
November, 1937
Pulblished in connection with the agricultural extension worl: carried on by co-
Uhemtion of the College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, with the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture and distributed in furtherance of the work provided for in thc
Art of Congress of May 8, 1914. ~

WORKST()(jK   ·
Horses or mules are necessary on all farms i I
that are cultivating farm crops and producing -. A
livestock. They can be raised by tl1e_ use of farm- i
grown grasses and grains, and can be maintained  
while at work by l`2il`lIl-l)l`O(lllC€(l leeds. Mares V  
are desirable on many larnis because they not l
only do the farm work but they also can produce `
horse or mule foals, il` desired. The young ani-  I (
mals have an attractive sales value il` not needed I
for replacement Horses and mules are versatile. {
They can be worked single, double, or in mul- `
tiple—hitch. They can be used on steep or rough . I
land. They can be ridden or driven on unpaved ‘ I
country roads; and they are useful in hauling I
crops from wet helds.  
. I

   Circular N0. 306
  By W. S. Anderson
i  ln American agriculture power animals have always played an
Yi important part. The early farmers used oxen as well as horses but
F they have been almost completely replaced by horses and mules.
3 About l920, horses and mules reached the maximum number of
_ ji 26,(l(l(),000 in tlte United States; but due to the greater use of
i - automobiles. trucks and tractors the number has decreased to
5 n. |ti,()(l0,000 at the present time. Horse and mule breeding has
{ I fallen ofl in the interval from one and one—hal[ million foals
annually to less than one—half million. The annual loss of a mil—
5 I lion foals and the high death l`2tlC because of old age has produced
[ an acute shortage of workstock.
3 The decrease in horses and tnules in Kentucky was front
{  i 675,000 in l920, to 450,000 in lf}37, which number is less than two
for each farm in the state. A recent survey indicates that there are
` on the average slightly less than four stallions and four jacks
_ standing for service, per county, in Kentucky; not enough. i|` used'
2   to full capacity, to sire as many foals as are needed for replace-
ment. An unusttally large percent ol` horses and mules are aged
I anitnals and the death rate will deplete the numbers rapidly.
While there has been considerable increase in breeding in the last
two years, not enough foals are being produced to replace the loss
by death and other causes. l·`armers are buying horses shipped itt
from other states. a practice which seems unwise when it is evident
. tltat horses of il more excellent quality can be produced on Ken-
" tttcky farms for less cost than is being paid for the imported ones.
ln Kentucky and many other states there are farming areas
where work animals are indispensable. Small farms, hillside helds,
rolling land and poorly drained areas can be successfully and n
economically farmed only by the use of horses and mules. The t
_ economic advantage of the use of workstock instead of power f

 4 Kcniucky Extension Circular N0. 306
machinery for [arm use is that horses and mules can be raised on ll
farm-produced grasses and grains and maintained, while at work, li
in the same way. Farmers who own rolling or infertile farms, or ll
who are larniin · on a subsistance basis are unable to vurchasu
tractors or other power machinery. Such lariners are able to raise
horses or mules and to use them to do farm work with the outlay _ lh
“ of but little money. The grasses, hays and corn stover can be ul
utilized for roughage not only lor growing young workstock but U
with the addition ol? but little grain to maintain them while at _!
work. ` ,l
There is much work on large as- well as on small larms that can *1
be done successfully and economically by horses or mules. Thu U
horse is indeed the utilit i animal ol the farm. He not onl * docs
l l ti
all the power work of preparing fields lor planting but he also docs gl
the cultivating. He is used to harvest the mature crop and likclt it
later to haul it to market. The horse may be ridden on variour m
errands from place to place on the farm or from larm to farm or
other visitation. .11
On large level farms growing crops lor market, farm powtr m
V ul
  =..    ,  .,
  ,.:r   rl
    ..... . T
     r é%§if‘<;?~?E$;i.2:¤~¤/·a   . .  .,
       F  ’.     Aw w  ,,,_  
       ·‘‘     ·vv=-   ,i>‘i&*¤2;»¤;& g;; l  5 lll
Q';   ;~  _§;·   -· . » -   ,..v I  . N  ·, V   ‘· m
,,~»‘§·i@ .·  A ‘ <   ‘  " ee , `·=.i . -;.. ·    ay  zagjir M
  . "‘   " A   ‘  is  ~~’**§i~" ~~~ K > ·
    I V sig?. {VV; V     _  w ~{""‘¤’» ‘   ‘V»  ;* ` Q.  >\
..‘-. `.  r;>—;;..,  -4* -   i .. `,       ¤    "   .   ' ‘
   r    ‘ _     —   ”.’.                   ` ·.  s
  V  V VV:  ·,  __·>   —;V     r   ._ `, PV!  U)
"     i i i   ‘- *‘}3.;,·i-é.i?"· `  i ` I  /5 ,
V,   -   · ` I WL _   VV.     . ` W` ,  (H
   ‘£i¥fg.¤~>;`;r/€;s¤ r    }   ,,».   ‘ xi v`  .
  '_/.. ~,  -  iw    i<= »     ii; = *. *9 lk? H.
. w £,;C va ~=»   ? i  s V      ,   ,  VV   su
i'      "  ¤ it ‘     `  . , -»  r
~.(,_V, as V, °V w    VV   · _ O   “‘_ ;       °   A (ll
\ Mr 4g ·,*—,f) a _~   VV  4;- V  .V rf"} V V .· M.   .w•  V ,--9; f;_u i.;._;,,  yi
{  f‘;W»§;.>—=,~?;Zv;?5,75;QT , Ti"   . _»_    ,7 2,; .ssi,~  j‘j.Q;;,g YH
Sify w Vt ~   , V- · _V.;` V,/.WV{·» __ if —a;;V‘;j ~ VV¥V).VV .     ,fA;V“_V_,._
' Fm. l. A hard-working farm mare, light type, with her promising wcanling bf 3 ln
draft stallion.

 Workstock 5
ised On mqehinery may be used to advantage but the vast majority of those
{ Work, |;ii·ger farms keep and use some horses and 111ules to supplement
rms, 0], . the work ol power rnaclnnery,
lo mlsf Suitable brood mares are necessary for farmers to produce good
` mlllill t horses and good mules. No one type of brood mare is suitable for
can bs ;tll farmers and all sections of the country. The sections of the
xk bm totuitry that produce cotton require a peculiar type of farm work-
thilé lll stock, mainly Slllllll to 1IlC(lll|lll ntules. North of tl1e cotton belt is
, ;t territory that is more or less broken and the farms are not large.
hfll (HH T This territory requires horses and mules of a heavier type. ln the
s. '1`liv torn belt sections north of the Ohio River and west an entirely
ily docs different type of workstock is in use; namely the purebred and
ls0 (loo grade draft animals and the heavy mules. It requires different
d likely types of brood mares to produce. the different kinds of workstoek
Vill`l0lly needed in these different sections. ,
liilflll Ol Light-Horse Mares. The rather small, inexpensive mules that
are needed in the southern states must come from light-horse
i powtt mares. The utility farm mare of the light—horse type is the result
ttf mingling the original farm workstock with the Morgan horse, ·
tlte American Saddle horse, the American Trotting horse and the
y Tliorobred horse. These light horses have been in use ever since
  the first settlements were made in America. The pioneer farmers
  needed them for riding and driving and to do light draft work.
   ti .·\t first the early settlers supplemented the light horse by using
”  nxen for heavy draft work. .~\t present the ox; is almost unknown
 ff on .\nterican farms.
    The mingling of the blood of the purebred horses of the light
    type with utility farnt mares has resulted, at this time, in a very
Trj_ V.  . substantial farnt type of light horse. ()ver a large section of our
  .,,t_.m,.r ./~ my  rywlm‘¢>¤·"¥:€:’ét>~»~!—» · I]  
r r  + , V »——.   i »,,., .     ,· v-··    
   `   -=‘’       M       restc    
W >, 5;: lv       .., I irc rY?w\ ‘v-I _Q I _ Y V A`   '   ’" ~
  Q   ,7ZV   ,»_   ,,., »     y     _   `_g` x_r. !*_J [yl,.
  itv·   ¥   { ':“’ . l   lj ;:`t   i....:       i.‘     · pm
. _    · ; V , ~ . V          rv I lust
. :-   gt D V / ·_ y, V ji   __;___ F.   »  ,4 h
¥’“ ·s·     ‘.    "’”   ,. "  "  , - l ·— z   usii
M    V  at U yn y    V _   V _    >a~..:*»        
    *ctts   s - ~ · ; t   ¤ tml
I .!,,$~:‘·r   wl- ,_· _;'€(*;~_ a'    . ""     ` ‘  ,' '
,~ M N - .. xs   . mt
_, Y  ‘)’;  \»,i4>   ,
*/*4; ·:   of —. ~. we l   t'
·?·’* ’ `V T ¤~L» 2 .   2 ~   l¤¤
Fir;. 2. Sat`t>gt‘ess1ve larmers are mating their ordinary farm mares to re-
  t;’t>t¢t`c 4 ~  #3*   [we‘*»-€¥~~»       ’·   ” t ` ·
i¢§s»mg,;,,,,.,-»“*—   "ts.?~=·¢‘¤> ‘   ··**i  »~   tvsy t > it A  ,
"       A   ~   5* M _   E  _
  ·7°i,',i,  *"*?"‘       A fi  ,t; _  , .   -* i • t
”.» g /‘ Q‘t,‘§..`¢:·*j' f~1~". V V /`   , — V ,.; _ `· · . r , '¥ ;=fa~gyw V A '
‘4T‘.·1{’"_/ E ,    _' V:}   _` V ‘ V _gi Y   ·i I _
i Fm. 3, Grade draft mare, working; on farm and raising foal by a draft stallion Q

 té l
  W orkstock 9
th td   Grade draft mares weigh [rom 1150 to 1600 pounds. They
` 'i   _ . . ,. . .- 1
i ( LU   myv in height lrotn lalé to 101/Q hands. 1hey have heavy bones
` 11]2il"Q  5 ’ . . ·
[   and larger leet lltitll ltgltl ltwrses, altlto ttettlter the bone or the
  feet are so coinpact or so tough as those ol` ligl1t horses.
.nown av   _ _ _ _
ing m.di_  _ The gl`2t(l€ flrlill 1tt1il`C 15 used extensively lor mule produeeion,
·1·hw_   When bred t0 gtmil _]2t<`l€ 50 1\i‘F‘¥  ’         ~   `  ··‘’ "   , A
    li         _'..» AQ   4 , i    » ‘`t· ·   `T `   "“'
r       »..;   .    ...    
R' ·  ;`  A-_LA` -;j»»z--e `       ,   JQ: ` `°`Y*’¤»;j§5- ' 1- 3.
  ·  ·€ LW¤{'”€`J**?{ ¢»?$?'~‘~_..¤·r ~-mj    __  {-_.;/ll .;..j_?*¢ q 
  ·   4 , , ,' .lz¤**E-i t-   `e*l               `
.  ;:·   M -» l“""""';¥·=—    ’&1~? - , ii T .  Q. I
. ._      *· ` °--.    ,  T ·*Y ""‘ `i F' ";  `
, .· ‘   — -{ =’*·     .·   " 5;  ’i‘--,.)."_~ V » ~ _ » 
We » . M 2*     -7;*   I I _;U·v,_A_M_,_     
A I  1 Fm. 4. Gracie draft, mare, Dam of weanling mare mule 0n title t>&8¢‘.  
`L stallion. V 1

 ,  ~
l(l Keri/tic/cy IBN/(’)I.S'I(J}I Czrcit/nr N0. 306 asf 
used lor mttle production. They are usually in such great demaml  
lor the production ol purebred draft horses that they cannot lit  
used lor mule production. The lighter types of some ol the rlmtt  
breeds do make excellent brood mares [or producing mules. Malo  
l`rom them are of excellent conlormation, show the lull dralt  ’
characteristics and develop into very desirable draft animals. 'l`l1t  ·
scarcity ol` purebred draft mares ol` the type suitable lor mule pm  _i
duction gives breeders no expectation ol` ever producing any quam-  
tity ol` mules in this way.  
H()'II.Yli}lg. There should be a roomy, dry, box stall lor the { 
stallion, which is kept bedded deep with clean, dry straw. The  `_
stall should be freed ol` all droppings and damp straw each (lay. {j 
There should be a built—in leed box for grain and a rack lor liar.  
lhe dimensions ol the stall should not be less than lb lt. by ltr lt,. 5: 
the larger the better.  
l£.vwrci.w» and care. ll` possible, the stallion should have a gras  A
paddock large enough lor exercise and grass enough to satisly liiy f
appetite lor green stull`. l·le must have exercise each day, wintct  
and summer. The most natural method is to roam in a paddotk.  “
’ ~   ~ ia r  
t _ - ‘: ,‘;;#-*:·=,~    * · 
_ · Mt c   · =*   ,.(,. , ..,..     ·‘=i  »—  M    ·,
» T   ‘ ·,‘‘   ~     T n     
  ‘   A A ;,= ·     .’»,¤    #
.     at     _, 1   · -   ._.,         td  
W   M   yr er, gg _   A       _   _ _; ,i '
  { " · . Z · g " I   _ V _, . ·   {ji;. Q J    ·'t
    _; ·— ··..   ?   · iz,  it M    e   1;   ‘ ;  i
ifi ,  ry , ;v  L ,     L     .  ll      fp;   _'Q_»;%   hw  I
_ ;_,: , W  .    ‘    ,=1.;¢ia’.  r_ t* f,!;         .   i· 
.     ,;»a ~  ” i.,/l » ‘ ~ f 4  · iv A ·’     rl;  »"    si r? -   .J~(  ’ ·   T '  *
    ,. .  t   yl 5      rl icssc    [      ~ i`  
- Fm. 5, A ring 0I fillics by the same purebred draft sire and out of farm mares.

   Works/00}: l l
llclllllllll   In the absence ol a suitable paddock it is necessary to ride or drive
mlm lll   him several miles each day,
llc lllilll   He should be curried or rubbed down onee a day. His [eet
‘· All‘l°*  gl must be watched carelully and kept pared in proper shape, with
ll tllitll  Q Shoes 35 neeessary. The groom should handle the horse gently
ls" llllll   but hrmly, requiring him to develop good. quiet habits. Kindly _
lllc l’ll"’   treatment is usually better in cultivating a good disposition than
ll llllllll   harsher methods.
 l ]·`eerling. One pound ol grain per day lor each 100 pounds
 __ ol live weight and at least the same amount ol good hay should
lor the l .l·_ be given a stallion. Oats is the standard grain lor stallions. Some
.v. The  ly corn may be substituted lor an equal amount ol oats; and bran
itch dat.  4 occasionally should be added lor variety in the grain leed. i·\llalla.
lor hav  l—:_ clover. lespedeza or a good mixed hay should be the roughages
xy ltiilt-   with available pasture during the growing season. Hay should be
  led in such quantities that the horse will just consume it all. lt is
Ja grass   well to have a box in the stall in which to keep salt to be con-
ttislyhiv  it sumed at will. No other mineral supplements are needed by
‘, winter ll.  stallions. The usual grains and legtnne hays led to them lurnish
>addotk.   all the minerals required when an abundance ol salt is available.
 t ll a laxative is needed, a pound ol linseed oil meal led with two or
 _ three pounds ol wheat bran once a day will usually give reliel.
 ll ll’or/.· on //1e farm. Stallions should have abundance ol exer-
    cise and not be confined day alter day in small or dark stalls. The
  —· stallion may be exercised by work on the larm. l)ralt and even
    light-horse stallions can be trained to work in harness on the larm.
  ’  by this means they can be made to pay lor their leed during the
  busy season on the larm. ll he is used as a work animal a stallion
   * should work very moderately during the breeding season, but
   l when it is over he will be all the better lor lull work on the larm.
  y l)l`illl and most light-horse stallions readily lall in with the work
U ` ’l  5 1`<>utine and become as amenable as mares or geltliligs.
 · B}`(’('(ll‘}lg`. A mature stallion can be mated once a day during
y yl the usual breeding season. During the height. ol the season he
  may be allowed nine or ICH services per week. There should be
mm y Milled hours lor breeding; il` once a day, set a morning hour or an
i [
E  l
l .

 I2 l(<·11I11r/ry Ex/wzsioiz Cirrulrzr No. 306  
afternoon l1our Zlllll do not vary [rom it. Il two services a day; i_ 
tl1ey sl1ould be at 8:00 a. 111. and 4:00 p. 111.  V
The mare to be 111ated sl1ould be tried to determine il` sl1e is Q
ready lor 1nati11g. She sl1ould be hobbled, tail bound 2lll(l \\’2lSllCtl,  `
ll sl1e is 1lCl`\'()llS a twitch should be used.  
The stallion should be \\'ZlSllC(l alter tl1e service. For (ElC2lll·  
~ si11g, tepid water should be used witl1 some chlorine disinfectant 0i 
11. it. Calcium chloride (Till] be purchased at any drugstore and S
tl1e package contains directions lor tl1e amount to use per gallon Y
ol` water to make a mild disin|`ectant. 01 
No mares Sll()lll(l be bred unless healthy and l`ree from dis-  
charge. Mares with foals should be bred on,the ninth day alter g1 
loaling 1lll(l barren mares on tl1e tl1ird day i11 heat., 11ot on tl1e lirst  E
day. .~\I`ter breeding, mares should not be tried again u11til the  
l8th to 2lst day. ll` a 111are lails to conceive from the hrst or "
SCC()ll(l service, it is well at next heat period to mate l1er even Y 
other day during tl1e l1eat period, provided the services ol the  .
stallio11 or jack are available for such frequency.  _
Often lll2ll`(IS with considerable age are in heat as many as 6 toil  
scgyi     .1      
  . 1 i` *1  1
  V1 $1 ,1,. f_11 1_ 
      0 1 0  -e:      ·..__ i? 
1V "  {L  H1 , ’¤ V Mr 1 ij    
’’’‘   0 0    ___ .  ,     1   _'`l 0*1   ·*
._ .-     g j  1   Q 1 5:;  .grAir— .     { ,  .
    1  *, 1  11   _,,.   ,.,.....,., . .‘...~       ·1 ,       yy  E0
    V   .1   S   .1     ·»ii      00**%  `
  `0 i`* 0       1      Eiiiiiiiix i   Y    0 ` , W 1 V  1*  °=
1 .111·'l it    .1     0 0i       0 · *   M   1 
 1    0 1  ·1·’: 10  ‘“  """°" ll   °   1
1  .   Q ·   1   1   1. 11·=    S-     1    1
ev   v   · .11   ,,1 ; A       .  
     V1   I K     ry    `AZV 1 L       T   y  .
0    `° t'  t W   0     .  ‘ i 
 ;   c @*1* 1 ‘V"""*ls,.  1
_., ,. gt; ‘ ·4~ _ ·  ,
· * , V" 1 . 'W’* T`
I I FIG. 6. Registered Belgian stallion, 14 years old, 1800 pounds in weight, sire Gl TG  
‘ living foals in spring of 1937. Sire of the foals i11 figs. 1, 2, 3 and 5. a

   l~V0r/tsl uc/t 13
t day.   davs. It is impossible to know when the ovum is liberated and
l  ll ready lor fertilization during the long heat period. \Vhen it is
She B   liberated and on its way in the fallopian tube it is not known how i
wml,   soon it loses its ability to be fertilized. \\’hether it retains its
  vitality llor many or only a [ew hours is still unknown. The evi-
Clcim   (lenee indicates that it does. not retain its viability longer than 2·l
__   to 36 hours and there are indications that the viable period may
illlllli   be less than 24 hours, both for eggs and sperm. This writer has
_ lllll   llountl that sperm oll stallions reaches the llallopian tubes ol` mares
lllllllll   in nine hours allter mating. Near the end of the heat period seems
H (HS-  . best llor-mating in the case ol·horses and cattle also. ·
y arm   In view ol the short viability of sperm and ova ILUIS-l`C2lSt)llZll)l}`
IC Hm   certain tltat much barrenness ol mares is due to man s inability to
NH [hc   know when is the best day in the heat period to mate each brood
U _ I  mare. Should the breeder be able to discover the best hour lor
llll_ lll   any one brood mare llor any one year, he could not depend on that
    time lor subsequent years, because ol her tendency to vary [rom
l EQ year to year. He also cannot determine how other mares may
 ` behave llrom the behavior ol one 11lZ\l`C.
6 L09  ‘ lt is lairly well established that the one service that results
  most llrequently in conception is the one given on the ninth day
·.€  alter a mare has [oaled. All mares, even il entirely recovered [rom
 l Iloaling and llully in heat. do not conceive on that day: but ol all
 ~ the days oll the heat cycle it is the one on which service is the most
  likely to result in pregnancy.
4 4,   ()n the range. when a stallion is turned with a band oll brood
   V ¤¤1¢t1`<‘> tlttring the breeding season, a very large percentage oi the
K ?    uiares conceive. The reason is that occasional matings. one or
    more a day. occur during the entire heat period. ln our trials in
    horse breeding, mating barren mares every other day during a
    ]>r<>longed heat period gave excellent results. Matings are inelllec—
  W   tire unless viable sperm unite with viable ova.
___Nm   (Zvi! of jaw/4. The most diihcult problem which the horse
· j breeders have to solve is the one oll obtaining the services oil good
no or TG  T i=·<‘l` where _]a1i1(`li is s1t:1r1ie :11111 111:11 i~  ·
111:11 111e [ee 1`or 111e service ol` 111e 11111le _j:11t1< is rather s111:111, :11111  I
1l2lI`(l 10 (`1>llU(`l which 111:1kes l`1l1`111C1`S unwilling 111 own _ia1·1;s :11111  
_ (>1l`C1` 1111-111 [or SL‘I'\’1(`(j.  

 g l»l»’or/c.r/ ucl:. 15
tre ex-   Ilwtwlily of nitz/ws. \\’l1en jueks ure mutetl to mures the result-
Jept any cg  ing nylnitl shows the inlluemte ol the sire in his eonlorrnution.
work   The head ol` the mule, the size ol the ears, set ol eyes uml eyen
The  =· · tnnun nose resemble the sire. The thick, heuyy neek with
V t it .
outlzty  f erect mune uml the rut—lilurutiyely smztll, light—bonetl juttlas produce
to nm-   mules ol good size uml conlormutton. The size ol the tuck is not
`st-cltm   neurly so intportunt in mule [>rol`€C(lC1‘s I 
, . .  t s _ 
own .t~  L r yi};  fl}   ` .
3 l;> tn it  ,J‘j?¥ l;·;·_
'  \ xv   [il wi.-  
[)()llIl(l5.   Te Elgég   _M"m`*  {N
    Wi _5.XԤ gr  .  T
wr t¤‘···   an l *n $2*  »    -;; $%>g“ 
2tbl€ W  € 4,       `  he sxw   »..,_  V gf »'¢~