xt7p5h7bvw8f https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7p5h7bvw8f/data/mets.xml Missouri Hattstaedt, Otto Frederick 1862- Wisconsin Historical Records Survey. United States. Work Projects Administration. Division of Community Service Programs. 1941 ix, 96 leaves; 28 cm. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call Number FW 4.14:W 753c/4 books English Madison, Wis.: Wisconsin Historical Records Survey This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Missouri Works Progress Administration Publications Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod. South Wisconsin District -- History History of the Southern Wisconsin District of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio and Other States text History of the Southern Wisconsin District of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio and Other States 1941 1941 2019 true xt7p5h7bvw8f section xt7p5h7bvw8f I “I'VSSWKSW l
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. of the
' of the
Submitted to the Synod of Southern Wisconsin in conventions assembled.
‘ in Watertown, June 22-28. 1927. and in Jainesville. June 25-29. 1928. and
- ‘ published at their direction; ‘
Concordia Publishing House. St. Louis. Mo.
Translated by
The Wisconsin Historical Records Survey
Division of Commity Service Programs
Work Projects Administration _
Madison, Wisconsin
Sept. 1941
i .
é ,

 5 ' :'
f The Historical Records SurVey Projects
I Sargent B. Child, Director
‘ Jacob Hodnefield, Regional Supervisor
; J. E. Boell, State Supervisor
E Research and Records Programs

, Harvey E. Becknell. Director

Mark English, Regional Supervisor ‘
‘ Lowell T. Galt, 011in
E .
‘ V
1 Division of Community Service Programs
E Eiorence Kerr. Assistant Commissioner
E t.
Helen T. Bundy, Chief Regional Supervisor

E Harriet G. Deuss. State Director
E Work Projects Administration
E‘ Howard 0. Hunter, Commissioner
E Linus Glotzbach, Regional Director
E Mark Muth, State Administrator
E It I“ it ‘3 II * O
E . Sponsors: University of Wisconsin and ,
Q‘ State Historical Society of
E Wisconsin
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K~ _UWhAW ,W' ,i ‘

 \ "To bring together the reCOrds of the past ani

to house them in buildings where they will be preserved
for the use of men living in the future, a nation must
believe in three things. It must believe in the past. \
It must believe in the future. _It must, above all, i

k . believe in the capacity of its people so to learn from
the past that they can gain in judgment for the creation

I of the future." ‘ v ‘
Franklin Delano Roosevelt

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As my “History of the South Wisconsin District of the Missouri Synod“
was originally written in German and was presented in that language to the
synods in session at Watertown and Janesville, it naturally was read almost '
exclusively by German or German-reading people, or, to be more exact, by those
who professed the Lutheran faith, as it was their church that the "History“
treated. It was the author's intention to acquaint his people with the
history of their church in Wisconsin from the very beginning up until the ’
time the history was published (1928), and he had not the faintest idea that
it would also serve another purpose. The "History" came only now, after 12
or 13 years, into the hands of the State Supervisor of the Wisconsin Historica“
Records Survey, and he at once recognized its value as an addition to the '
historical knowledge of the State. He had Mr. William H. Lichte render it
into English, who at once went to work and with painstaking care furnished ‘
a translation which approaches the original as nearly as possible. I have
read the translation and my sincerest thanks are due to Mr. Lichte for his
fine piece of work» Now that the "History" has become available to the
English—speaking public, it is to be hoped that it will be read with some
pleasure by at least a few to whom it was not available heretofore.

‘ Otto r. Hattstaedt
- Concordia College

Milfiaukee, Wisconsin


The Historical Records Survey, under the National direction of
Sargent B. Child, is engaged in a Nation—wide survey of the records of
State and local governmental units. This work was initiated in January
1936 as a part of the Federal Writers Project of the Works Progress
Administration. In Wisconsin the project began operation in February
1936, and on July 1, 1936 the present supervisor was appointed. In August
of that year the Survey beCame an independent part of Federal Project No. 1.
Since September 1939 the Survey in Wisconsin has been a State~wide project
sponsored by the University of Wisconsin and the State Historical Society
of Wisconsin. ‘

The objectives of the Survey are twofold. The one is to provide useful
employment for unemployed historians, lawyers, teachers, research, and
clerical workers. The other object has been the preparation of complete
inventories of the records of the State offices, of county, city, and other
local governmental units. Besides the preparation of the inventories of the
records of governmental units, the Survey is also preparing inventories of the'
records of the Various churches in Wisconsin. This translation of
Professor Hattstaedt's history is one of the publications of our church
records series.

The Geschichte dgg SEQ-Eiseonsin—Distrikts d33p§z.=Luth. Synode 12g
Migsguri, Ohio pad andern Staaten was compiled by Professor Hattstaedt
pursuant to a resolution passed by the Synodical Convention in 1922. The
final report was submitted to the Synod in the convention assembled in
Watertown, June 22~28, 1927, and in Janesville, June 25—29, 1928, and
published at the direction of the Synod as a part of the Yerhandlungen_dgr
zweiunddreigsiggtgp Jghresversammlung deg §pd§flisggp§ip52jstrikt§ deg ‘
EllaLutherischen Sypgde 19g Migsgpgi, Ohio End ggdggn Staaten,fl1§rsgmpelt
an gnueflLlle 2113.. m 31. his gun; as. Juni page; @rgang 1928.——1_~=7_1;. g.

* St. Louis, Mo., Concordia Publishing House, 1928. The history was also
reprinted by the Concordia Publishing Company and issued as a separate
publication. So far as we know, the separate publication is undated. ‘

When the workers on the Historical Records SurVey Project were making
an inventory of the records of the various churches in the South Wisconsin
District of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other
States, we found this history written by Professor Hattstaedt very valuable.
Professor Hattstaedt had lived through this period and he knew intimately
the development of the churches in the Synod. We found that fully three—
fourths of the information contained in this history will be very hard to find
elsewhere. and in view of the fact that we were compelled to translate most
of the history for our use in the suIVey, we believed that it would be
advisable to translate the remaining portion and thus make the history

i available to a large number of people who could not read German. We discussed

§ this with Professor Hattstaedt and several other peopde and they thought it

! would be a very useful piece of work.

 3 ‘ v _
The original work was published in printed form and in the translation
we have not been able to follow the original page for page. Therefore, we
have shown the ending and beginning of each page of the original by the number
of the page in the left-hand margin. We have included in this translation a
copy of the German title page and a translation of Professor Hattstaedt‘s
original foreword. As a matter of convenience we made up a table of contents,
which is not found in the original.
Professor Hattstaedt's history was translated from the German by
Mr. William H. Lichte, and in its final form was checked by Miss Katherine
, Hartmann and Mr. Ernst Jung, working under the direction and supervision
of Mr. Elmer Plischke. Professor Hattstaedt has also read the entire
translation and in many places has made valuable suggestions Concerning
form and usage. The editors on the staff in the National office have checked-
this translation and we have profited by their suggestions and criticisms.
I wish to thank these people for their cooperation in the preparation of this
volume, and the others, especially the typists and proofreaders, who have
participated in the preparation of this book,
State Supervisor “
Wisconsin Historical Records Survey ‘
September 1941 '
Madison, Wisconsin

der . -
Der in Watertown vom 22. bis zum 28. Juni 132'? und in Janesville vom 25. bis
zum 29. Juni 1928 Versammelten Synode des Sud=Wisponsin=Distrikts vorge‘legt
und auf deren Beschluss dem Druck ubergeben
Concordia Publishing House. St. Louis, Mo.

This history of the Southern Wisconsin District is the result of a
‘ resolution passed by the District at its convention in Horicon in 1923. There .
the question arose Whether this were not an opportune time to assemble all
available material pertaining to the history of the District, and have it
recorded in a coherent manner. Convinced of the importance of the matter. the
Synod immediately gave its approval, and entrusted the not exactly easy task
to the undersigned.
In order to obtain the essential material, it was necessary first to
inspect the material published by the Missouri Synod, and then also, contempo—
rary publications, and these. as Well as biographies, various historical works, ,
i and other documents afforded some rather rich source material. Very little
that was of any use Was supplied by a comprehensive questionnaire which was
sent to all pastors of the Synod. The author's great_expectotions from-

' these were fulfilled only to a Very small degree. Also inquiries about things
that seemed worthy of note produced but little. Much material has been irre—
trievably lost. The old—timers. Who could have related many things from their

' personal experiences, have long since gone to their last resting place, and
what they did record probably lies hidden or forgotten in the trunks of their
descendants. Thus the desired completeness of the contemplated work is
impaired. Nevertheless, enough can be found to afford the reader the hoped
for satisfying glimpse of the church activities of the District. But it
should be said in advance that often it was neccssary to go beyond the bounda—

‘ ries of the Southern Wisconsin District, as this has existed as an independent
District for only 10 or 12 years.

It is certainly proiseworthy that the District undertook the publishing
of its history. As a congregation, at its 50th anniversary, may look back
upon its past and cause its history to be published for the use and benefit
of all its members in which she says with the prophet Isaiah (Ch. 65: 7)

"I Will mention the loving kindness of the Lord, and the praises of the Lord,
according to all that the Lord hath bestowed on us according to His mercies
and loving kindnesses," so might the District which.last yeah in some respects:
celebrated its SOwyear Jubilee, cast a glance upon its synodical past, and
surely there will be many things that should be of interest, particularly to
the younger generation, and if history at large is an instructress, so also
is the history of a church body.

| \ r

o. F. H. ' ’

Concordia College
Millwaukee, Wis.

Introductory Pemarks Page
Wisconsin as a Homestead of Lutheranism is Evidence That God
Looks After the Eternal Welfare of His Church 1
The German Immigration 4
The German—Lutheran Immigration 6
Our Church nativities in Southern Wisconsin
I. The Origin IO
, II. Growth in Number of Pastors and Congregations Until 1873 21
III. The Pioneer Work of Our Early Pastors 35
IV. Doctrine and Practices From the Beginning 33
V. Development of the Congregations Since 1873 45
VI. The Synodical Conventions anl Their Customary Doctrinal ‘
Discussions 43
VII. The Pastoral Conferences 51"
VIII. The Work of the Inner Mission in Our District Since 1873 V 54
IX. Our Relationship With Other Lutheran Synods 58
1. Our Relationship With the Wisconsin Synod 58
2. Our Relationship With the Iowa Synod 62
5. Our Relationship With the "Merger" 55
X. Our English Activities 57 '
XI. Our Parochial School System 71
XII. Our Higher Educational System , 79
XIII. Special Mission Work Within the District ‘ 83
l. The City'or Institutional Mission in Milwaukee 83
2. The Student Mission in Madison 84
i 3. The Children's Friends Society 85 ‘
4. The Institution for the Foeble—Minded and the
Epileptics in Watertowu 85
'The Deaconess School in Watertown ' 86

, Table of Contents 1 ‘
Page 1

5. The Lutheran Home of the Aged, in Wauwatosa 8'7

6. The Two Milwaukee Walther League Hospices 8’7

The American Luther Association 88

1 Concluding Remarks

A Glance at the Past 90

A Survey of the Present 91

Viewing the Future 92

 ~ I N T R O D U C T O R Y R E M A R K S

It has often been pointed out that hardly 10 years after the birth of
the man whom God singled out for the work of the Reformation of His Church
in the Old World, a new part of the world was discovered (1492), namely

. our America.

Naturally, no one surmised that it was God's merciful purpose to open
for His renovated Church that was presently to emerge from the rubbish of
papistical abomination, a new haven of refuge in case she was to again
degenerate and again lose her homestead in Europe. And yet it was so.

God had selected this country as a harbor~—perhaps the last harbor and
place of freedom-~for His persecuted Church, where she could build herself
up without any hindrance. This was recognized as early as 1756 by the devout
Senior of the Lutheran Ministerium at Frankfort on the Main, Dr. Johann Philip;
Fresenius, who during this year wrote: "Let us pray for the better colonizing
and spreading of God's Kingdom in.Americal Let us in every possible way help

‘ to promote its building upL Let us consider that perhaps this distant part

' of the World in time to come when God visits His severe judgment upon the
European Christians because of their gross ingratitude, could become for the
few faithful ones a country of refuge and deliverance." Other devout men
also expressed themselves to similar effect, and what they foresaw, even if
only vaguely, came to pass. After our dear Lutheran Church, as a result of

_ the rationalism and the eVer increasing unbelief, was faced with dissolution,

‘ and after her thread of life had finally been tied into a knot through the
Prussian Union, God prepared for her here in our America a new home, and,
indeed, such a home as she had never before enjoyed.

God ordained that in 1776 the American Sovereign States should free
themselves from their English mother country to which they belonged until ’
then, and so directed the hearts of their leaders and directors that they
framed a Constitution such as no Country in the world up to that time could

= boast. For while every Christian nation had been either a Monarchistic—
Pepery (Waite) or a Papistical-Monarchy (,figmgaggggjfi) , in which the
government was more or less concerned in the affairs of the church, or
, ~ conversely, the church more or less concerned in the affairs of the State,
our Constitution established the principle of the complete separation of
church and state. Absolute freedom of religion and conscience was the
sparkling, precious gem in the crown of our Constitution. And behold, the
Lutheran Church, which had been persecuted, tormented, and terrified in her
native home, could here, under the protection of Complete freedom from and
' 5 independence of the state—~a precedent without equal in the entire history
1 of the Christian Church—~build herself up on the old foundation without
, hindrance, gather around herself her pure confession, arrange everything
' according to God's Word, and at all times organize as her circumstances
‘ permitted. Here she could lift up her voice‘unhampered and fearlessly, in

 2 ,
Introductory Remarks
the spoken word or in writing, in teaching and protecting, in defense and
' attack, in doctrine and conduct, as prescribed by God; she could here exercise
discipline, and enjoy without limitation all her Christ-given priceless
6 privileges and rights; she could have her own grade and high schools, and
her costly institutions under her exclusive care and supervision; her divine
services could be arranged according to the spiritual wants of the people
and held undisturbed; she could choose, issue a call to, obligate, and pass
judgment on her servants in church and school; and, finally, with the means
granted, she is not prevented by any law of the land from expanding. An
incomparable boon’.l Thus the Lutheran Church in our country was spared the '
. misery that is occasioned by the mixing of church and state, and in the
shelter of freedom she could enjoy a wonderful growth.
I venture these remarks beforehand so that we might be reminded of God's
wonderful disposition in matters of His Church, and so that we may not forget
‘ ’ the great things He did for us. Stop and consider, if God had not so merci-
fully provided for the church of the unfalsified Evangelical Lutheran con—
fession, where would it probably be now? Might one not really say that as ,
an integral corporate body she would no longer exist, or, in any event,
would lead only a miserable existence?
_ \ Our State of Wisconsin was privileged to share in this boon to our entire
country, and here God's wonderful guardianship is even more evident than in
, the New England States.’ The latter soon fell into the hands of Protestant
England, which in her erroneous attitude towards the divorcing of the church
and state, at least in some places, did grant the opposition a bearable ‘
existence. waever, what was the situation here in Wisconsin? This State,
which later became so important for our American Lutheran Church, seemed not
to be destined for the seat of Lutheranism, much less German Lutheranism,
' as from its first discovery by the Europeans this part of the country belonged
' to the French Catholics. It was a hundred years after De Soto had discovered
~ - , the Mississippi in April 1541, and laid claim to the entire lower territory
in the name of the Spanish Crown, that French Jesuits discovered the upper
MissiSSippi Valley. In 1634 Nicollet came as the first Jesuit to WiSCOnsin x
V and traversed the country to the Wisconsin River. The Jesuits Raymbault,
~ ' Joqfifis. Pierrot, Allouez, and Dablon established missions among the Indians.
' The latter 2 founded the important mission of the Holy Francis Xavier at
. , Green Bay, for spreading Catholicism in Wisconsin, and motivated the large
congress of 14 Indian tribes in 1671. The cross was erected and beside it
, was placed a statue with the Lilies of Bourbon (fleuraflgelis). and every ,
means was used to let the wild men know that they were under the protectorate
. , of the French King, Louis XVI. The cross was carried throughout eastern
Wisconsin by Allouez and Dablon, to the Mascoutins on Lake Winnebago, t0 the
Kickapoos on the Milwaukee River, to the Miamis on the south end of Lake
Michigan, to the Foxes on the river that to this day bears their name, and
thus the whole territory was claimed for the Catholic Church. In 1673 the
‘ Jesuit Marquette and Sieur Joliet left Green Bay along the Fox River and by
‘ 1- 9i. Walther's §xngdalrede (Synodical Conference), 1874, p. 9.

 _ 3
Introductory Remarks
portage reached the Wiscansin River which they followed to the Mississippi,
and 7 years later the Franciscan, Hennepin, traveled north on the Mississippi
to what is new St. Paul. Thus the entire State came under the Franco-Catholic
domination, and the numerous French immigrants saw to it that WiSConsin was
a "Little France," not only in name but also in fact.

7 It might well be asked, how could one, conceivably think of establishing
the mighty flourishing German Lutheran Synod here in this territory in which
the Jesuits and the French held sway? Had it remained that way, Wisconsin
would have become a district somewhat like the present Canadian Province of

~ Quebec where French is the universal language and also where papacy rules
without restrictions, and for that reason leaves little or no room for the
Lutheran Church. But God disposed otherwise. .In the war that raged from
1755 to 1763 between England and France, He granted victory to the former,
and in the peace treaty at Paris, which ended this so-called Frenchelndian War,
all the territory east of the Mississippi and north of the Ohio River which
had been occupied by the French until that time, was ceded to the British,
. - and 20 years later, at the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War,
this territory became a part of the liberated United States. Thus Wisconsin
was once and for all time liberated from the oppression of papal domination
and came under the blessings of our Constitution, to which we have already
referred, and the soil Was prepared for the planting of a church that other—
wise could not have existed here. Let us remember this fact with thanksgiving
H ' and praise as we are reminded of the words spoken by St. Paul on the Areopagns
. at Athens when he brought to the superstitious heathens the name of the true
God, namely, "He hath determined the times before appointed and the bounds of
their (the generations of man) habitation." Actsll7126. God in His omnipotence
' ‘ > assigns to men and nations their places, and His.objective is always the pro~
claiming of His Gospel and the building up of His Church.
The development of the territory now began, namely through the "Ordinance
for the Government of the Territory of the United States Northwest of the
' Ohio River" which was adopted by Congress on July 13, 1787. Treaties were
'fl. made with the Indians in which they renounced their ownership of the land,
- ,; and since about 1816, a stream of American-English immigrants started turning
. ' 1- towards Wisconsin. In 1829 the EpiscOpalians under Rev. Richard F. Cadle
{_. .. established a mission school in Green Bay, and during the same year the first
' ‘ " Episcopal congregation west of Lake Michigan was incorporated. Other denomin-
’ “ “ ations, particularly the Methodists, followed. Before Wisconsin could really
. . be settled, however, the Black Hawk War of 1832 had to be fought, which removed
,‘ from the State the last hostile Indian tribe and freed enormous stretches of
‘ - ~ land. (Friendly and peaceful Indians remained in great numbers, and our first
‘ ‘- Lutheran pioneers encountered many of them.) The acquisition of land was now
~ '- - regulated. the land was surveyed and mapped, roads were cut everywhere through
- v .‘ the primitive forests, and soon many settlements appeared in the southern part
* .V ‘ of the State. ‘
,,_, ‘ The firSt public land sale occured at Mineral Point on November 10, 1834.
Others f0110Wed. and so practically all the land in southern Wisconsin was
. . , placed upon the market. Even as early as 1886 OVer 430,000 acres of land were.

 ' 4
Introductory Remarks
sold to settlers, and as the Government wisely imposed legal restrictions to

' - curb the speculators' greed and to protect the settler in the possession of

‘ his land, it followed as a result that none of the Western States, either

p- 8 before or at that time, was so rapidly settled as Wisconsin. About 1835
two-thirds of the population lived in the southwest corner of the State, in
Iowa County (now Grant County) primarily because of the lead mines located
there. Most of them came to get rich quickly and then to depart from there.
But not a few also came to settle permanently, and these attracted others.
Such as Were seeking a new home here during the years from 1836 to 1839 turned
to the easterly counties, Kenosha, Racine, Milwaukee, Waukesha, Dodge, Jeffer-

' son, Walworth, Columbia, and Rock, where all forms of speculations were

suppressed and the settlers were permitted a free choice of their land. One
needed only to file a ”claim,“ and if the simple requirements with respect to
inhabiting and working the land were met, such claim was at all times respected
by the Government, and the community of interests and the feeling of equality
did not permit these pioneers to be robbed of the fruits of their honest

. This too is a matter that should give us Christians food for thought as
we see here the blessings of a good and just Government that redounded to the
benefit of the church, for wherever Lutherans settled, they were protected in
their rights. Their possessions were guaranteed by the Government. They
COUld, therefore, be found by our missionaries and gathered into congregations.
In 1838 Congress established 15 postal routes with the result that more roads
were built. As the Territory had an established government and its own courts,
law and order was maintained. In 1840 Wisconsin had a population of 30.774:
of which 5,601 lived in Milwaukee, which because of its advantageous location
was rapidly developing into the metropolis of the State. The entire northern

' half of the State was still an absolute wilderness, and the counties west of
the Wisconsin River to the Mississippi were not yet mapped and were very
sparsely settled.


a ‘i In the thirties commenced an extensive German immigration movement to
- , Wisconsin which almost made this State German, more German than any other.
u ’.: After the political upheaval of 1830 the Germans were affected by the emigra—
'. * _ tion fever; oppression by their governmental officials and hard times made
; "' ~ them dissatisfied with their old fatherland, and they left it in large numbers
. . - to settle in New York, PennsyIVania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri.
- - ‘ Soon, however, the attention of the Germans was directed towards Wisconsin.
It became known that here much good government land was to be had at very low
V prices, and this was no longer the case in the enumerated States. And it was
' of particular importance that the Territorial Government-had set aside 4 million
acres of school land to maintain schools and the newly founded university at
Madison, and this land was sold to the settlers for $1.25 an acre. At the
f' A ' same time the other advantages of Wisconsin were being extolled. One sang
' the Praises of its favorable location between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi,
' the many lakes and streams teeming with fish, the fertile soil, the forest
, ; riches, the Climate which appealed to the Germans, the fine drinking water, _

 5 ,
Introductory Remarks
the wholesome fever-free atmosphere, and all this worked together to direct
the steps of the immigrant towards Wisconsin.\ They came in great multitudes.
According to government reports the Erie Canal in 1843 brought 50,000 to
9 60,000 settlers to Wisconsin, mostly Germans. The land along the lake was the
first to be settled by the Germans, and as early as 1848 Milwaukee, because
of the large German population, was referred to as the "German—Athens." Until
1844, however, the majority of the Germans in Milwaukee were Catholics, and the
Catholics had in.Archbishop Henni their German chief. The extent of the immi~
gration is shown by the fact that in 1845 the land office in Milwaukee sold
250,000 acres of land, and incidentally, sold it mostly to Germans. These
were from the Rhineland, Saxony, Mecklenburg3and Luxemburg. The enormous
immigration from Pommerania commenced in 1853 and is attributable to the fact
that the later mentioned Pastor Johann A. Grabau, together with Artillery
Captain, Heinrich von Rohr, made a trip through Northern Germany that year,
and through their reports attention was directed towards Wisconsin. Shortly
’ before this the Germans commenced to occupy the splendid region in Sauk County.
This came about through a rather remarkable coincident: A Hungarian fugitive,
Count (Grai) August Harassthy, while on the boat, read an account of a trip
through Wisconsin from Green Bay to Prairie du Chien which was written with
SUCh slowing descriptions that it influenced him to Come to Wisconsin, and
he settled in the primitive forest in Sauk County. He laid out the village
of Sauk and induced others by word of mouth and in writing to settle there.
That Was the beginning of a large German population settling in this hilly
county. As early as 1847 there was also a large settlement of Germans in
. Grant County, in the southwest corner of the State.
While the Anglo-Americans and the Irish preferred the prairies, where
the soil could be easily tilled during the first years, the sturdy, durable,
energetic Germans showed their predilection for the wooded regions to establish
their homes. Hardships and privations were therefore the lot of these first
German settlers. They came from an intensively cultivated country where
pioneer work was no longer necessary, where they had homes which met their .
requirements for conveniences, where the soil had been tilled for a thousand /
years, where numerous cities were linked together by many good roads, and now
they came to a wilderness which to that time had known the tread of only the
red man's foot. Woods, nothing but woods, where in fact there was nothing
to which they had been accustomed in their old homeland. Is it any wonder
that many became victims of the most bitter home~sickness? Yes, undoubtedly
many tears were shed. But they did not dare to lose their courage; there '
was Work to be done. The first thing to do was to build a log cabin, consist~
ing in most instances of one room for the family; next, shelter had to be
provided for the stock which could, of course, be acquired only later; a well
had to be dug; and then a clearing had to be made so that a plot of land
could.be cultiVated. The enormous trees were felled, and since wood was
absolutely valueless, the splendid oak boles would go up in flames. Until
. the first crop could be harvested, privations end the lack of even the most
primitive necessities and bread Was great. It is true they could get sugar
from the maple trees, and wild honey could be had. Meat was supplied by the
game which was ample, such as deer, elk, moose, bear, and rabbits, and the
‘ streams and lakes supplied fish in abundanca, but flour for bread Was indeed
a rarity, It is a fact that many men carried a sack of flour from the nearest
' store some 50 miles distant to their home, after carrying on their back a

Introductory Remarks , ,
similar sized load to the store to be bartered for the flour, for there was
very little money. Verily, these Germans showed marVelous tenacity of purpose
and energy, and a blessing rested upon their labors. EVen after a few years
they were pretty well to do and could greatly enjoy the fruits of their arduous
10 ; Whether there were German Lutherans in WisConsin prior to 1839 cannot
-' be definitely established. But during this year a large number arrived here
in one group. They were Prussian Lutherans. We shall consider their history
somewhat closely. When during 1817 the so—called Union was instituted in
Prussia, which meant for the Lutherans the sacrificing of their creed and the
denying of their beliefs, the gifted, splendid Professor of Theology in
Breslau, Johann Gottfried Scheibel, Was the first to oppose it, and he preached
, several strong sermons about the Holy Communion in which he pointed out the
impossibility of conciliating the Lutherans with those of the Reformed faith,
and officially declined to accept the Union agenda and use it in his church.
But in 1830, when the three—hundred—year jubilee of the delivery of the
p Augsburg Confession was celebrated, a decree was issued by the Cabinet that
the breaking of the bread at Holy Communion should be a symbolic indication
of the attac