xt7p8c9r2n8v https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7p8c9r2n8v/data/mets.xml Mattoon, Wilbur R. (Wilbur Reed), 1875-1941. 1923  books b96-17-36622562 English : [Frankfort Ky. : s.n.], Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Trees Kentucky. Common forest trees of Kentucky  : how to know them : a description of the common forest trees of the state, with notes regarding their occurrence, the character and value of their wood, and their desirability for shade and forest planting / by Wilbur R. Mattoon. text Common forest trees of Kentucky  : how to know them : a description of the common forest trees of the state, with notes regarding their occurrence, the character and value of their wood, and their desirability for shade and forest planting / by Wilbur R. Mattoon. 1923 2002 true xt7p8c9r2n8v section xt7p8c9r2n8v 


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How To Know Them

        awued by the
     W. C. HANNA, Co-ms &aio
    In Coopervado with the Foeast Son-ice
    U. S. Depmrt-u of Aoritulre




Ash, White   .    ............. 71
Ash-leaf Maple .64
Basswood .66
Beech .24
Birch, River or Red.    20
      Sweet or Black..2. 21
Black Gum ..
Black Locust     .      a.
Black Walnut    -11
Black Willow..          13
Box Elder ..            64
Buckeye,  Ohio  ................... 65
Butternut ......... ........ 10
Carolina Poplar ................ 19
Catalpa ................. 72
Cedar,  Red  .................9.......  9
Cherry, Black  .............. 54
Chestnut ...........  .. 25
Coffee Tree ............. 59
Cottonwood.    ............. 19
Cucumber Tree ............. 45
Cypress   . ...................... 8
Dogwood.------...........7. ...... 6
Elm, Sli-,pery ................... 42
     White  .   ................... 40
     Winged ........... 41
Gum, Sweet.       .   ... 60
      Black -.          69
Hackberry ...........   43
Haw-..5----------------- ... . ............ 63
Hawthorn .---------..   53
Memlock ------------...    7
fickory, Big Shell-Bark ... 14
         Bitternut ..------ 15
         Broom or Black 16
         Mockernut ........ 17
         Pecan..    ...... 12
         Pignut ......... 15
         Shell-Bark ..  13
         Whiteheart..   17
Holly       ........- -6
Hoiey Locust.      .-   567
Hornbeam    ...         23
         Hop ...        22
Ironwood......  .    22, 23
Xentucky Coffee Tree..._.... 59
ing Nut   -..      -  14
LoL     n.I-66

Locust, Black ................ 58
       Honey .57
Magnolia .............. 45, 46
Maple, Ash-leaf ..----------- 64
      Red ....   .      62
      Silver .... 63
      Sugar .    ... 61
Mulberry. Red ............-. 44
Oak, Black. ------------------..-34
     Black  Jack  .................  37
     Burr ............ ......... 28
     Chestnut.          30
     Chinquapin ....    31
     Pin ...   ... .........36
     Post  ................ .. 27
     Red .--           - 32
     Scarlet..          35
     Shingle .-----------------39
     Southern Red .......... 33
     Spanish .--------.--   33
     Swamp White ....    29
     White .             26
     Willow .......... _  38
Papaw               .... 48
Pecan  .----------..     12
Persimmon .........   -_ 70
Pine, Pitch ..........-.. _ 4
     Scrub .    ...._.  6
     Shortleaf .  ....... 5
     Virginia ...... ........  6
     White .........3.......... 3
     Yellow ... .... ....-..
Plum ..  ........... ...... OS
Redbud        .     -   56
Red Cedar ....... 9_
Red Gum ..- -.      - 50
Sassafras .----------- 49
Service Tree  .    ...... 52
Sourwood     .. ......  68
Sweet Gum. ----------50
Sycamore .......  -.... 51
Tulip Tree  .     ........47
Umbrella Tree.    ..    46
Walnut, Black...        46
        White   .._ _. 10
White Ash -.        ._-.. 71
Wild Plum   .  ...... .
Willow Black .    ......... 1i
Yellow Poplar 4_7







      How To Know Them

A Description of the Common Forest Trees of the State,
  with Notes Regarding their Occurrence, the Char-
     acter and Value of their Wood, and their
        Desirability for Shade and Forest

       WLBun R. MArrOON, Forest Examiner

           Issued by the
W. C. HaNwA, Commissioner of Agriculture

           FOREST SERC




  The object of this manual is to place in the hands
of the people of Kentucky a brief general descrip-
tion of the more common forest trees of the State.
The less common trees and many of the very small-
sized trees have been intentionally omitted. It is
intended for the public, including the "grown-ups"
as well as those in our schools who are coming on to
assume the responsibilities of the State with its
great natural resources.
  The text, under the direction of the Commissioner
of Agriculture, has been prepared by Mr. W. R.
Mattoon of the Forest Serviee, U. S. Department of
Agriculture, in collaboration with the State Forest-
ers of Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia and
Maryland who are simultaneously publishing tree
guides adapted each to his respective State. The
description of the local distribution of the trees
within the State accords with information furnished
by Professor H. Garman of the Kentucky College of
Agriculture, Lexington. Most of the cuts have been
loaned by the several State Foresters mentioned
above. A large number are from original drawings
made especially for this cooperative project by the
Federal Forest Service; and those showing the pines
and other conifers are from Prof. C. S. Sargent 's
"Manual of Forest Trees of North America," used
here by permission of and by special arrangement
with Houghton-Mifflin Company. All of this as-
sistance and cooperation is gratefully acknowledged.
  The rapidly increasing interest in outdoor life,
stimulated perhaps by good roads, the automobile,
the "scout movement" and the widened outlook re-
sulting from the spread of education, encourages the
rational treatment of our trees and forests. It is
highly important that this be done in order that our
forests may continue to furnish the materials so
essential to the Maintenance of the industrial and
domestic life of the State and Nation, protect our
farmsteads and mountain streams, and provide
places of pleasure and recreation for our people.
Indeed, the trees may be justly regarded as "our
best friends."


        WHITZ PINE (Pinus strobus L.)
THE white pine occurs naturally throughout the
1mountainous lands in eastern Kentucky, but is
nowhere abundant. It grows on high, dry, sandy and
rocky ridges, but prefers the cooler or moister situa-
tions. Its straight stem, regular pyramidal shape
and soft gray-green foliage make it universally ap-
preciated as an ornamental tree. Its rapid growth

                  WHITE PINE
               One-third natural size
and hardiness, and the high quality of the wood
rnake it one of the most desirable trees for forest
  The trunk is straight, and, when growing in the
forest, clear of branches for many feet. The branches
extend horizontally in whorls (i. e., arranged in a
circle on the stem), marking the successive years
of upward growth. The bark is thin and greenish
red on young trees, but thick, deeply furrowed and
grayish brown on older trees. The tree commonly
attains heights of 50 to 60 feet and diameters of
1 to 2 feet, though much larger specimens are still
to be found.
  The leaves, or needles, are 3 to 5 inches in length,
bluish green on the upper surface and whitish be-
neath, and occur in bundles of 5, which distinguishes
it from all other eastern pines. The cone, or fruit,
is 4 to 6 inches long, cylindrical, with thin, usually
very gummy scales, containing small, winged seeds
which require two years to mature.
  The wood is light, soft, not strong, light brown in
color, often tinged with red, and easily worked. The
lumber is in large demand for construction pur-
poses, box boards, matches and many other products.


        PITCH PINE (Pinus rigida Mill.)
THE pitch pine grows on dry ridges and slopes
    and in cold swamps and bottoms in the moun-
tains and outlying hilly regions. It occurs scattered
with hardwoods or other pine, and is one of the com-
mon pines of eastern Kentucky.
  It attains a height commonly 50 to 75 feet and
a diameter of 1 to 2 feet. The trunk is erect, and

         ,,S: kEL

                   PITCH PINE
               One-half natural size.
at heights of 20 to 30 feet branches into a close
head made up of rather large branches and notice-
ably thick foliage. It has longer leaves and larger
cones, or burrs, and generally a rougher and less
straight trunk than the shortleaf pine with which
it is often found.
  The leaves, which are found in clusters of 3 each,
are 3 to 5 inches long, stiff, dark yellowish green in
color and stand out straight from the twigs. They
fall during the second year after forming. The cones
are 1 to 3 inches long and light brown in color. They
usually cling to the branches for several years,
sometimes for 10 to 12 years. The bark on the stems
and branches is rough. On mature trees it is dark
gray or reddish brown, and irregularly divided into
broad, flat, continuous ridges.
  The wood is light, soft and brittle. It is sawed
into lumber for general construction and is used
for fuel. This tree is able to grow on very poor soil
and has the capacity, when young, of sprouting
successfully from the base of the stump when
burned or cut back.



       SHORTLEAF PINE (Yellow Pine)
               (Pinus echinata Mill.)

THE shortleaf pine, also known as yellow pine,
Tis widely distributed throughout the South. In
the State it is found in many counties in the east-
ern part, but is less abundant than the pitch or the
scrub pines. The young tree in the open has a
straight and somewhat stout stem with slightly as-

                SHORTLEAF PINE
                One-half natural size.
cending branches. In maturity the tree has a tall,
straight stem and an oval crown, reaching a height
of about 100 feet and a diameter of about 41/a feet.
The young tree, when cut or burned back, repro-
duces itself by sprouting from the stump.
  The leaves are in clusters of two or three, from
3 to 5 inches long, slender, flexible, and dark blue-
green. The cones, or burrs, are the smallest of all
our pines, 11/' to 21/ inches long, oblong, with small
sharp prickles, generally clustered, and often hold-
ing to the twigs for 3 to 4 years. The small seeds are
mottled and have a wing, which is broadest near
the center. The bark is brownish red, broken into
rectangular plates; it is thinner and lighter-colored
than that of loblolly pine.
  The wood of old trees is rather heavy and hard,
of yellow-brown or orange color, fine-grained and
less resinous than that of the other important south-
ern pines. It is used for interior and exterior finish-
ing, general construction, paper pulp, excelsior,
cooperage, mine props, and other purposes.



  VIRGINIA PINE    (Scrub Pinc, or Spruce Pine.)
              (Pinus virginiana Mill.)

                  VIRGINIA PINE.
                One-half natural size.
T HE Virginia pine, scrub, or spruce pine, is quite
   widely distributed and common over the eastern
and central parts of the State. It occurs often in
pure stands and is very persistent in gullying,
broken and very dry soils. It is one of our slower-
growing pines. The side branches usually persist
for many years, even after dying, thus giving a
scrubby appearance to the tree which is responsible
for one of its common names.
  The twisted and spreading leaves are borne two
in a cluster. They vary from  1t,, to 3 inches in
length, are grayish green in color, and are shorter
than those of any other pine native to the State. The
fruit is a cone, or burr, averaging about 2 inches in
length, narrow, and often slightly curved, with
small prickles. Cones are produced almost every
year, and, as they persist on the branches from 3 to
5 years, a tree top with many dry, open cones is
characteristic of the species. The bark is thin, red-
dish brown, and broken into shallow plates. Even
with age, the fissures in the bark are so shallow as
to give a somewhat smooth appearance to the trunk
of the tree.
  Except in the occasional large-sized trees, the
wood is- very knotty because of the persistence of
the side branches. It is light and soft, but fairly dur-
able in contact with the soil, so that it is being used
to some extent for posts, poles and piling. The lum-
ber is increasingly used for rough construction, but
it warps easily with alternate wetting and drying.
It is much used for paper pulp and firewood.


       HEMLOCK (Tsuga canadensis Carr.)

THE hemlock, also known as hemlock spruce or
    spruce pine, is a large timber tree, attaining a
height of 60 to 100 feet and a diameter of 2 to 4 feet.
It is common along streapms and on cool slopes
throughout the mountains of eastern Kentucky, and
also follows the Green River westward nearly to the
Ohio River. Its horizontal or ascending branches
and drooping twigs, forming a pyramidal crown,

                One-half natural size.

make it one of our handsomest and most desirable
trees for shade and ornament.
  The leaves are from one-third to two-thirds of an
inch in length, oblong, dark green and lustrous on
the upper surface and whitish beneath, and, although
spirally arranged, appear to be 2-ranked on the
stem; they fall during the third season. The cones
are oblong, about three-fourths of an inch long, light
brown in color. The cone scales are broadly ovate
and about as wide as they are long. The seed is
small and winged, maturing in the fall and dropping
during the winter.
  The wood is light, soft, not strong, brittle and
splintery. It is used for coarse lumber and for paper
pulp. The bark on old trunks is cinamon-red or
dark gray and divided into narrow, rounded ridges,
and is one of our chief sources of tannin.



      CYPRESS (Taxodium distichunm Rich.)

THE cypress, or bald cypress, is a tree found ex-
celusively in deep swamps which are usually
flooded for long periods at a time, and on wet stream
banks and bottomlands, in the western part of the
State. Its straight trunk with numerous ascending
branches, and narrow conical outline makes the tree

                One-half natural size.

one of considerable beauty. In old age, the tree gen-
erally has a broad fluted or buttressed base, a smooth
slowly tapering trunk and a broad, open, flat top of
a few heavy branches and numerous small branch-
lets. The original-growth timber attained heights
of 80 to 130 feet and diameters of 5 to 10 feet.
  The bark is Silvery to cinnamon-red and finely
divided by numerous longitudinal fissures. The
leaves are about one-half to three-fourths of an inch
in length, arranged in feather-like fashion along two
sides of small branchlets, which fall in the autumn
with the leaves still attached; or they are scale-like
and much shorter, light green, and sometimes silvery
  The fruit is a rounded cone, or "ball," about one
inch in diameter, consisting of thick irregular scales.
  The wood is light, soft, easily worked, varies in
color from a light sapwood to dark-brown heart-
wood, and is particularly durable in contact with
the soil. Hence it is in demand for exterior trim
of buildings, greenhouse planking, boat and ship
building, shingles, posts, poles and crossties.



     RED CEDAR     (Juniperus virginiana L.)
 A VERY valuable tree found in all classes and
     conditions of soils-from  swamp to dry rocky
ridges-seeming to thrive on barren soils where few
other trees are found. It is widely distributed and
common throughout the State.
  There are two kinds of leaves, usually both kinds
being found on the same tree. The commoner kind

                    IPD C IEDA It
                One-half natural size.
is dark green, minute and scale-like, clasping the
stem in four ranks, so that the stems appear square.
The other kind, usually appearing on young growth
or vigorous shoots, i.i awl-shaped, quite sharp-
pointed, spreading and rwhitened.
  The twvo kinds of flowers are at the end of minute
twigs on separate trees. Blooming in February or
March, the male trees often assume a golden color
from the small catkins, -which, when shaken, shed
clouds of yellow pollen. The fruit, which matures
in one season, is pale blue, often with a white bloom,
one quarter of an incfl in diameter, berry-like, enclos-
ing one or two seeds in the sweet flesh. It is a
favorite winter food for birds.
  The bark is very thin, reddish brown, peeling off
in long, shred-like strips. The tree is extremely ir-
regular in its growth, so that the trunk is usually
more or less grooved.
  The heart wood is distinctly red, and the sapwood
white, this color combination making very striking
effects when finished as cedar chests, closets and
interior woodwork. The wood is aromatic, soft,
strong and of even texture, and these qualities make
it most desirable for lead pencils. It is very dura-
ble in contact with the soil, and on that account is
in great demand for posts, poles and rustic work.


         BUTTERNUT (White Walnut)
                (Juglans cinerea L.)

rHi    butternut, known also as white walnut, is a
lTsmaller tree than the black walnut, though in
the highlands and where it attains its best develop-
ment, it reaches a height of 70 feet and a diameter
of 3 feet. The trunk is usually forked or crooked,
and this makes it less desirable for saw timber. The
bark differs from that of the black walnut in being

Twig, one-half natural size. Leaf, one-sixth natural size.
light gray on branches and on the trunk of small
trees, becoming darker on large trees. This tree
may also be distinguished from black walnut by the
velvet collars just above the scars left by last year's
  The compound leaves are 15 to 30 inches long,
each with 11 to 17 sharp-pointed, oblong, finely
toothed leaflets 2 to 3 inches long.
  The flowers are of two kinds on the same tree,
the male in long yellow-green drooping catkins,
the female recognized by the rather conspicuous
red-fringed stigmas. The fruit is a nut enclosed in
an oblong, somewhat pointed, yellowish green husk,
about 2 inches long, which is covered with short
rusty, clammy, sticky hairs. The nut has a rough,
grooved shell and an oily, edible kernel.
  The wood is light, soft, not strong, coarse-grained,
light brown, and takes a good polish. It is used for
interior finish of houses and for furniture. A yellow
or orange dye can be made from the husks of the



      BLACK WALNUT (Ju glans nigra L.)
rpHIS valuable forest tree occurs on rich bottom-
1 lands and moist fertile hillsides throughout the
State. In the forest, where it grows singly, it at-
tains a height of 100 feet with a straight stem, clear
of branches for half its height. In open-grown trees
the stem is short and the crown broad and spread-

                  BLACK WALNUT
              Leaf, one-fifth natural size.
           Twig, three-quarters natural size.
  The leaves are alternate, compound, 1 to 2 feet
long, consisting of from 15 to 23 leaflets of a yel-
lowish green color. The leaflets are about 3 inches
long, extremely tapering at the end, and toothed
along the margin. The baxk is thick, dark brown
in color, and divided by rather deep fissures into
rounded ridges.
    The fruit is a nut, borne singly or in pairs, and
enclosed in a solid green husk which does not split
open, even after the nut is ripe. The nut itself is
black with a very hard, thick, finely ridged shell,
enclosing a rich, oily kernel, edible and highly nu-
  The heartwood is of superior quality and value.
It is heavy, hard and strong, and its rich chocolate-
brown color, freedom from warping and checking,
susceptibility to a high polish, and durability make
it highly prized for a great variety of uses, includ-
ing furniture and cabinet work, gun-stock, and air-
plane propellers. Small trees are mostly sapwood,
which is light colored and not durable. Walnut
is easily propagated from the nuts and grows
rapidly on good soil, where it should be planted and
grown for timber and nuts.



            fF/RSM'r IrRF-S,

   PECAN   (Hicoria pecan (Marsh.) Britton.)
           (Carya pecan Ashe and Gr.)
THE pecan is found native in the State chiefly in
lthe Mississippi and lower Ohio river bottom-
lands, but has been planted for nuts pretty widely,
and from them has sometimes spread considerably.
It makes an excellent shade tree, and for this pur-
pose it has also been planted. The pecan is the
largest of the hickories, attaining heights of over 100

              One-quarter natural size.

feet and when grown in the open forming a large
rounded top of symmetrical shape. The outer bark
is rough, hard, tight, but broken into scales; on the
limbs, it is smooth at first but later tends to scale or
divide as the bark grows old.
  The leaves resemble those of the other hickories
and the black walnut. They are made up of 9 to 17
leaflets, each oblong, toothed and long-pointed, and
4 to 8 inches long by about 2 inches wide.
  The flowers appear in early spring and hang in
tassels from 2 to 3 inches long. The fruit is a nut,
4-winged or angled, pointed, from 1 to 2 inches long,
and one-half to 1 inch in diameter, borne in a husk
which divides along its grooved seams when the nut
ripens in the fall. The nuts, which vary in size and
in the thickness of the shell, have been greatly im-
proved by selection and cultivation and are sold
on the market in large quantities.
  The wood is strong, tough, heavy and hard and is
used occasionally in making handles and parts of
vehicles, and for fuel.



(Hicoria ovata Britton)   (Carya avata K. Koch)

T HE scaly-bark hickory is known by every child
1of the community because of its sweet and de-
licious nuts. It is a large commercial tree, aver-
aging 60 to 100 feet high and 1 and 2 feet in diam-
eter. It thrives best on rich, damp soil and is com-
mon along streams and on moist hillsides through-
out the State

Leaf, one-third             SCALY-BARK HICKORY
natural size.             Twig, one-half natural size.
  The bark of the trunk is rougher than on other
hickories, light gray and separating into thick plates
which are only slightly attached to the tree. The
terminal winter buds are egg-shaped, the outer bud-
scales having narrow tips.
  The leaves are alternate, compound, from 8 to 15
inches long and composed of 5, rarely 7 obovate to
ovate leaflets. The twigs are smooth or clothed with
short hairs.
  The fruit is borne singly or in pairs, and is globu-
lar. The husk is thick and deeply grooved at the
seams. The nut is much compressed and pale, the
shell thin, and the kernel sweet. The flowers are of
two kinds, opening after the leaves have attained
nearly their full size.
  The wood is heavy, hard, tough and very strong.
It is used largely in the manufacture of agricultural
implements and tool handles, and in the building of
carriages and wagons. For fuel the hickories are the
mnost satisfactory of our native trees.



        (Hicora laciniosa (Michx. f.) Sarg.)
             (Carya laciniosa Schn.)

THE big shell-bark hickory, big nut, or king nut,
   is widely scattered over the western and south-
ern counties. It is similar in appearance to the
scaly-bark hickory, but the nuts are brown and
larger and the twigs much stouter. It is distinctly a
tree of the bottomlands and coves near rivers.
                   The  lower branches of this
                   stately hickory are drooping
                   and clothed with large leaves.
                                  The bark of the
                                  trunk is shaggy,
                                  with long thin
                                  strips separat-
                                  ing f r(o m t h e
                                  trunk. The win-
                                    ter terminal
                     la.buds                a are
                                  L oearl y    3
                                  Kinches. in
                                     The leaves
                                     are alternate
                                     and   vary

         int seera pece; i isprminntlo4tly fromg
                                    15  t o  22

         bore sngy o i parsandavragmostl  frtom2
                                    inches in
                                    length; they
                                    are composed
                                    -of 5to 9, us-
         ]BIG SHTELL-BARK HICKORY  ually 7 leaf-
           Leaf, one-fifth natural size.
           Twig, two-thirds natural size. lets on a leaf-
                                    stalk abrupt-
ly thickened at the base, which remains after the
leaflets fall and often curls backward. The fruit is
a nut enclosed in a thick hard husk which splits
into several pieces; it is prominently 4 to 6 ridged
or angled, and somewhat flattened. The nuts are
borne singly or in pairs and average from 1 to 2
inches in diameter. The kernel is light brown and
sweet and much sought as food.
  The wood differs but little from that of the shell-
bark hickory. It is heavy, hard, tough, and very
strong, and used for many purposes requiring a
wood of unusual strength, hardness, and toughness.



             (Hicoria minima Britton)
           (Carya cordiformis K. Koch)

THE pignut, or bitternut hickory is a tall slender
   tree with broadly pyramidal crown, attaining a
height of 100 feet and a diameter of 2 to 3 feet. It is
found common everywhere and is well known by its
roundish bitter nuts.
  The bark on the trunk is granite-gray, faintly
tinged with yellow and less rough than in most of

natural size.    Leaf, one-third natural size.

the hickories, yet broken into thin, plate-like scales.
The winter buds are compressed, scurfy, bright yel-
low, quite different from those of its relatives.
  The leaves are alternate, compound, from 6 to 10
inches long, and composed of from 7 to 11 leaflets.
The individual leaflets are smaller and more slender
than those of the other hickories.
  The flowers are of two kinds on the same tree.
The fruit is about 1 inch long and thin-husked,
while the nut is usually thin-shelled and brittle, and
the kernel very bitter.
  The wood is hard, strong and heavy, reddish
brown in color. From this last fact it gets its local
name of red hickory. It is said to be somewhat in-
ferior to the other hickories, but is used for the same



(Hicoria glabra Britton)      (Carya glabra Sweet)

   HIS hickory is a medium to large tree, occurring
1 plentifully on poor soil in the mountains and in
cool and moist places locally through the State. It
has a tapering trunk and a narrow oval head.
  The bark is close, ridged and grayish, but occa-
sionally rough and flaky. The twigs are thin,
smooth and glossy brown. The polished brown win-
ter buds are    egg-
shaped,  the  outer
reddish brown
scales falling in
the autumn.

                   PIGNLT HICKORY     Twig, one-half
              Leaf, one-third natural size, natural size.

  The leaves are smooth, 8 to 12 inches long and
composed of 5 to 7 leaflets. The individual leaflets
are rather small and narrow.
  The fruit is pear-shaped or rounded, usually with
a neck at the base, very thin husks splitting only
half way to the base or not at all. The nut is smooth,
light brown in color, rather thick-shelled, and has
an edible kernel.
  The wood is heavy, hard, strong, tough and flexi-
ble. Its uses are the same as those of the other
The small-fruited hickory (Caryu microcarpa Nutt.),
by some considered a variety of the pignut hickory, differs
from it in having a round fruit and a bark which fre-
quently separates into narrow plates.
The pale-leaved hickory (Carya pallida Ashe) is found
scatteringly in the upland woods. It has pale, delicate fol-
iage. The leaves are wooly or hairy underneath, and when
young are covered with silvery scales. The husks are
thicker than those of the pignut.



(Hicoria alba Britton)     (Carya alba K. Koch)
T HE Xnockernut, white hickory, whiteheart, or
1big-bud hickory is com mon on well-drained
soils throughout the State. It is a tall, short-limbed
tree often 60 feet high and 1 to 2 feet in diameter.
  The bark is dark gray, hard, closely and deeply
furrowed, often apparently cross-furrowed or netted.
The winter buds are large, round or broadly egg-
shaped,  a n d
covered  with
downy, ha rd  

 Leaf, one-fifth

      of tmo kindsoil theTsig tree;themle in hde
  naturalched catkinse. efemaleinclusterso

scales. The recent shoots are short, stout and more
or less covered with a downy growth.
  The leaves are large, strong-scented and hairy,
composed of 7 to 9 obovate to oblong, pointed leaf-
lets which turn a beautiful yellow in the fall.
  The flowers, like those of all other hickories, are
of two kinds on the same tree; the nmale in three-
branched catkins, the female in clusters of 2 to 5.
The fruit is oval, nearly round or slightly pear-
shaped with a very thick, strong-scented husk which
splits nearly to the base when ripe. The nut is of
various forms, but is sometimes 4 to 6 ridged, light
brown, and has a very thick shell and small, sweet
  The wood is heavy, hard, tough and strong; it is
white excepting the comparatively small, dark-
brown heart, hence the name white hickory. It is
used for vehicle parts and handles. It furnishes the
best of fuel. This and the other hickories are very
desirable both for forest and shade trees.



             1rCItRSM-r- -rVR    AZ,'

    BLACK WILLOW (Salix nigra Marsh)

Hfl HE black willow is common along streams
1 throughout the State except in the high moun-
tains. It rarely comes to be over 50 feet in height
and is frequently found growing singly or in clumps
along the water courses. In winter the easily sepa-
rable, bright reddish-brown or golden, naked twigs
are quite conspicuous.

       Antj. 4
Two-thirds natural

  The leaves are from 3 to 6
inches long and less than one-
half an inch wide; the tips are
yery much tapered and the en-
tire margins finely toothed.
The leaves are bright green on
both sides, turning pale yellow
in the early autumn.
  The flowers are in catkins,
the male and female on sepa-
rate trees. The fruit is a pod
bearing numerous minute seeds
        which are furnished
        with long silky down,
        enabling  them  to be
        blown long distances.
          The bark is deeply di-
        vided into broad, flat
        ridges which separate
        into  thick  plate-like
        scales. On old trees it
        becomes very shaggy.
        In color it varies from
        light  brown    tinged
W       with orange to dark
size.  brown or nearly black.

  The wood is soft, light and not strong. A high
grade of charcoal, used in the manufacture of gun-
powder, is obtained from willow wood, and it is
the chief wood used in the manufacture of artificial
  There are many speciees, or kinds, of willows not
easily distinguished. They are of high value in
checking soil erosion and waste along stream banks,
for which purpose they should be more extensively



       COTTONWOOD (Carolina Poplar)