xt7pc824bw55 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7pc824bw55/data/mets.xml Griffin, Gildroy W., b. 1840. 1873  books b92-54-27062371 English Claxton, Remsen & Haffelfinger, : Philadelphia : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Todd, Charles Stewart, 1791-1871. Shelby, Isaac, 1750-1826. Memoir of Col. Chas. S. Todd  / by G.W. Griffin. text Memoir of Col. Chas. S. Todd  / by G.W. Griffin. 1873 2002 true xt7pc824bw55 section xt7pc824bw55 




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     G. W. GRIFFIN,




Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872, by


  it the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.


       Franklin Buildings, Sixth St., below Arch,


           ataIf iolt


           CORDED IN IT.

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IN the publication of this volume, I can but feel that
    the people of Kentucky, and of the West, will take
some degree of interest in the perusal of a work devoted
to the life and public services of one who played such a
prominent part in the history of the times in which he
  Since this volume was ready for the press, I found,
among some papers left at my disposal by Colonel Todd
a short time before his death, a manuscript copy of a
lecture he delivered in i849, at Frankfort, Ky., on " Russia,
her Resources, Religion, Literature, c." Colonel Todd's
residence in Russia, in the capacity of United States
Minister to that country, his fine classical education and
taste in literature, gave him many advantages for the
investigation of the history and resources of that semi-
barbarous nation about which so little is known even to
this day. I have, for these reasons, thought best to print
the lecture entire in this memoir.
  I have also embraced in this work, to the exclusion of
much. matter of my own, a number of Colonel Todd's
speeches and state papers; and also some extended ex-
tracts from a work entitled "Sketches of the Civil and


Viii                   PREFACE.

Military Services of William Henry Harrison," by Colonel
Todd and Mr. Benjamin Drake. This book is now out
of print; but it had in its day a very large sale. It was
published by G. P. James, of Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1840.
More than twenty thousand copies were sold, and as
many more were distributed, in pamphlet form, through-
out the country as a campaign document.
  Colonel Todd, on one occasion, pointed out to me such
passages of the book as were written by himself, and
those written by Mr. Drake.
  Colonel Todd, as many of my readers doubtless know,
bore a very prominent part in the election of Harrison,
which was perhaps the most exciting Presidential canvass
in the history of the country.
  Many a story have I heard, when a boy, from the lips
of my dear and venerated grandfather, of that interesting
epoch, so familiarly known as the Log Cabin or Hard
Cider Campaign. My grandfather was a very zealous
Democrat, and he used to tell me how much the enthu-
siasm of the Whigs annoyed him at that time. " For once,
and only once," he said, " in the history of our country, did
the Whig speeches, and barbecues, and banners, and trans-
parencies, and cannon, strike terror into the hearts of the
  I remember his telling me, on one occasion, of some
of the most enthusiastic Harrison men carrying, in the
midst of a great parade through the streets of Louisville,
an immense log cabin on their shoulders, the weight of
which would have been enough to crush them to death,
had it not been for their enthusiasm and the shouts of
thousands of people enlivening their march.
  In one of these parades, Jim Porter, the great Kentucky


                       PREFACE.                      ix

giant, who was by far the tallest man in all the world,
appeared, wearing a large coon-skin cap, and dressed in
a hunter's uniform made of deer-skin and trimmed with
bright-colored fringe. He swung his great rifle, which was
over eight feet long, across his huge shoulders, and excited
the utmost delight and astonishment wherever he went.
  Some years afterward, I went to see the great giant at
Shippingport, a little town a few miles below Louisville,
where he then resided. I expressed to him my deep regret
at not having been able to see him in that famous parade,
when he very kindly opened a wardrobe, and donned his
coon - skin cap and gay uniform - coat. He presented a
magnificent picture to my boyish sight, before which all
my wildest dreams about giants paled into utter insigni-
ficance, and even to-day I think of that interview with no
ordinary satisfaction and delight.  " Those were great
times," said the giant, "that we had in the Hard -Cider
Campaign. We shall not see the like again." And in-
deed, judging from all that I have heard in regard to that
memorable canvass, few, I think, will be. inclined to dis-
agree with him.
  I could relate many such incidents, interesting enough,
doubtless, in their way; but I have preferred to give in the
following pages the more solid facts of history, and I have
given them as well as I could.

 This page in the original text is blank.


                         CHAPTER I.
The Author's first Acquaintance with Colonel Todd -Characteristics of
  Colonel Todd as a Writer and a Man ............................................ 13

                         CHAPTER II.
Birth and Parentage of Colonel Todd - Sketch of his Father, Judge
  Thomas Todd - Education of Young Todd ................................... i6

                        CHAPTER III.
War of 1812 -Young Todd volunteers and is rapidly Promoted -His
  Gallantry -Battle of the Thames -McArthur's Expedition -Todd's
  Distinguished Services .......................................................   21

                        CHAPTER IV.
Colonel Todd resumes the Practice of the Law at Frankfort -Becomes
  interested in Masonry - His Address before Mt. Horan Lodge - He
  is married to Miss Shelby........................................................... 28

                         CHAPTER V.
Colonel Todd is appointed Secretary of State - His Election to the
  Legislature over Judge Marshall and Judge Bibb- His Re-election
  over General Hardin - Is appointed Minister to Bogota - His Dis-
  charge of his Mission approved by John Q. Adams -He returns to the
  United States, and settles on a Farm in Shelby County, Kentucky - His
  Intelligence and Enterprise as a Farmer - His Services to Agriculture  35

                        CHAPTER VI.
The Harrison Campaign -Colonel Todd one of its Master-Spirits-
  He removes to Cincinnati, and takes Charge of the Cincinnati
  Republican- ie speaks as well as writes - He, in Conjunction
  with Benjamin Drake, prepares a Life of General Harrison - Ex-
  tracts from this Work - Incidents of the Campaign ......................- -45

                        CHAPTER VII.
General Harrison expresses his Gratitude for Colonel Todd's Services -
  His Appointment as Minister to Russia -Success of His Mission -
  Felicitous Speech of Colonel Todd at a Banquet in St. Petersburg -
  Motley and Maxwell in his Official Family -Colonel Todd's Visit to
  the Interior of Russia -Important Despatches ............................... 78


Xii                         CONTENTS.

                       CHAPTER VIII.
Colonel Todd returns to Frankfort - Delivers a Lecture on Russia -
  Withdraws from a Contest for the Governorship of Kentucky - Ac-
  cepts the Office of Commissioner under the Mexican Treaty - Ad-
  vocates a Railroad to the Pacific .................................................. go

                        CHAPTER IX.
Colonel Todd prepares a Series of Articles on Texas -Letter from
  Daniel Webster to Colonel Todd - Colonel Todd prepares a Sketch of
  Tecumseh for the Louisville 7ournal- He proposes to write the Early
  History of Kentucky - An Incident in the College Life of Colonel
  Todd - His Confidential Report to the War Department in 1815 ........ 122

                         CHAPTER X.
Colonel Todd takes an Active Part in the Taylor Campaign - His
  Characteristics as a Popular Orator -His Opinions of Jefferson and
  Jackson - His Acquaintance with the Presidents - His Admiration
  of Madison - His Accomplishments as a Man of the World - His
  Moral Characteristics - Anecdote of Bernadotte, King of Sweden ...... 127

                         CHAPTER XI.
Colonel Todd's Embarrassed Fortunes - His Personal Resemblance to
  Louis Philippe - Anecdote of that Monarch - Colonel Todd's Zeal
  for the Preservation of the Union - His Claim to a High Military Ap-
  pointment in the Civil War acknowledged but not discharged - Evil
  Effects of Conferring Military Appointments on Civilians -Colonel
  Todd's Military Talents - He severs his Connection with the Gazette... 133

                        CHAPTER XII.
Colonel Todd's Friendship for the Author- His Opinion of Actors and
  Acting - His Exalted Estimate of the Character of Dr. Theodore S.
  Bell - A Letter to the Author - Colonel Todd's Address before the
  Perry Monument Association -Friendship between Colonel Todd and
  the  Hon. J. Scott Harrison .........................................................  137

                       CHAPTER XIII.
Letter from the Hon. William C. Rives to Colonel Todd - Colonel Todd
  prepares several Articles for Dr. Sprague's "1 National Portrait Gallery "
  - Dr. Sprague's Acknowledgments - Governor Shelby's Pride in
  Colonel Todd-Colonel Todd's Last Illness-His Death ................. 143

Correspondence of Colonel Todd with the Colombian General San-
tander -Memoir of Governor Shelby ..........................................1 47




                  CHAPTER I.
 The Author's first Acquaintance with Colonel Todd-Characteristics of
            Colonel Todd as a Writer and a Man.

L DID not become personally acquainted with the
    distinguished soldier and statesman who forms
the subject of this memoir until the spring of i867.
We had, however, been associated some time pre-
viously in the editorial management of the Louisville
Industrial and Commercial Gazelle. At that time he
resided in Owensboro, Kentucky, where he prepared
no inconsiderable portion of the editorial matter for
the paper. He was a quick and fluent writer, and
almost every mail was sure to bring something from
his pen. I was forcibly struck by the readiness with
which he comprehended all the plans of the paper,
and by the spirit and determination with which he
entered into them. It seemed that the slightest hint
from the publisher that an article was desired upon
any subject was all that was necessary to have him
produce it in the most complete and satisfactory



manner. He displayed a knowledge of every sub-
ject upon which he wrote that was really extraordi-
nary. He seemed to have a high and a noble purpose
in everything that he undertook. He had been all
his life a very active and energetic man. He was a
highly accomplished classical scholar. He scorned
to make a show of knowledge which he did not pos-
sess. He was a thorough hater of all shams and
conceits. All the best attributes of humanity were
centred in him. There was not a particle of selfish-
ness in his nature. There was no ostentation about
him. He possessed dignity without haughtiness, and
a courage which no mortal man could overcome. He
was of a very kind disposition. He seemed to have
lived always in an interchange of the gentlest offices.
He never allowed trifles to fret and annoy him. He
was in every respect a perfect model of a Christian
gentleman. He could not do a mean or a little act.
No weeds of bitterness ever grew in his manly
bosom. He was a good man, a true man, and a
brave man. I shall never forget the first time I saw
him. I was busy one morning writing at my desk
upon a subject that I knew very little about. I could
not write a single line that seemed to me to have any
sense in it. My poor brain was taxed almost beyond
endurance, ahd I was about to give up in despair,
when I happened to cast my eyes toward the door,
and saw a fine-looking, elderly gentleman, with the
kindliest face in the world, advancing toward me.
He seemed to understand, as if by intuition, the
nature of my trouble, and I immediately rose to
speak to him and tell him my name and ask his in
return. He did not give me an opportunity, but




took me by both hands, and said, "If I judge cor-
rectly, you are my editorial associate." I bowed an
assent, when he said, " I have often helped you be-
fore, my young friend, and I beg the pleasure of be-
ing allowed to do so again." He immediately sat
down at my desk, and, after looking at my article,
which was entitled, " The Duty of the Government to
repair the Levees of the Mississippi," he smiled
pleasantly, tore off the heading and pasted it on
another slip of paper, and wrote, in about ten or
fifteen minutes, one of the best articles ever written
upon this subject. It is scarcely necessary for me
to say that I was grateful for the kindness of my ben-
efactor, and tried to make known to him my grati-
tude in the best way I could. He rose from his seat,
and, again taking me by both hands, said, " It is in
our power to be of much help to one another. You
have youth, and I experience, which, perhaps, next
to an unsullied conscience, is the most valuable thing
in this life." He did not part from me without giv-
ing me a very cordial invitation to visit him at the
residence of his son, Mr. Isaac Shelby Todd, where
he said he would remain for several weeks, and
would expect me every day until I called.
  Such was the beginning of one of the most charm-
ing acquaintances of my life, and I record with no
little satisfaction that from that time up to the day
of his death the warmest feelings of personal friend-
ship existed between us.
  When he died I lost one of the best and truest
friends I ever had. I shall not see his like again in
this world, but the memory of his love and unremit-
ting kindness will ever be to me a pleasure inesti-

I 5



mable. In endeavoring to give some account of his
life and public services, I shall not attempt anything
like a panegyric or eulogy upon his character, but
will try to relate faithfully and conscientiously some
important incidents in the history of Kentucky and
of the nation, and to describe, in a plain, truthful, and
straightforward manner, the characteristics of a man
who for more than half a century was felt to be a
power in the land, and who was loved, honored, and
respected by all who knew him.

                  CHAPTER II.
Birth and Parentage of Colonel Todd -Sketch of his Father, Judge Thomas
             Todd -Education of Young Todd.

      the 22d of January, 179I, between Danville
and Stanford, Kentucky, in the old county of Lincoln.
At the time of his birth, the State was not a member
of the confederacy. It was in what is called the
transition period, but was passing rapidly from the
pioneer stage to the dignity of an established and
well-regulated commonwealth. The Hon. Thomas
Todd, the father of the subject of this sketch, was
one of the most eminent men in the nation. He
immigrated to Kentucky from Virginia when about
twenty years of age. He chose the profession of the
law, and devoted himself so earnestly to its duties
that he soon became known as one of the ablest
lawyers in the Western country. The honors of his



profession came thick and rapidly upon him. His
counsel was sought not only at home but abroad.
He rose to the position of chief justice, the highest
judicial office of the State. It is said that his means
were so limited that he studied his profession by
  Some idea of his ability can be formed from the
marvellous facility with which he comprehended the
difficulties of the celebrated Land Law of Virginia
of I779. In the passage of this law, the legislative
authorities neglected to provide for a general survey
of the State, but authorized every owner of a land-
warrant to make his own entry and survey. The
owner, of course, located his land-warrant wherever
he chose, but was required to do so in such a way
that a subsequent locater could enter the adjoin-
ing land. The system of registration under no cir-
cumstances could have been more defective. It was
with the greatest difficulty that a title could be estab-
lished at all. As a natural consequence, intermi-
nable disputes and litigation followed.
  The ingenuity and talent of the greatest lawyers
in America were called into requisition. No one,
however, achieved a greater reputation in the ad-
justment of these perplexing difficulties than Judge
Todd. His success was such that President Jeffer-
son, in I807, called him to a seat on the Supreme
Federal Bench.  He held this position until his
death. His friend and associate, Justice Story, pro-
nounced the following tribute to his memory: "' Mr.
Justice Todd possessed many qualities admirably
fitted for the proper discharge of judicial functions.
He had uncommon patience and candor in investi-

I 7



gation; great clearness and sagacity of judgment; a
cautious but steady energy; a well-balanced indepen-
dence; a just respect for authority, and, at the same
time, an unflinching adherence to his own deliberate
opinions of the law. His modesty imparted a grace
to an integrity and singleness of heart which won
for him the general confidence of all who knew him.
He was not ambitious of innovations upon the set-
tled principles of the law, but was content with the
more unostentatious character of walking in the
trodden paths of jurisprudence - 'super antiquas
vias legis.' From his diffident and retiring habits, it
required a long acquaintance with him justly to ap-
preciate his judicial as well as his personal merits.
His learning was of a useful and solid cast; not,
perhaps, as various or as comprehensive as that of
some men, but accurate and transparent, and appli-
cable to the daily purposes of the business of human
life. In his knowledge of the local law of Kentucky
he was excelled by few, and his brethren drew
largely upon his resources to administer that law, in
the numerous cases which then crowded the docket
of the Supreme Court from that judicial circuit; what
he did not know he never affected to possess, but
sedulously sought to acquire. He was content to
learn without assuming to dogmatize. Hence he
listened to an argument for the purpose of instruc-
tion and securing examination, and not merely for
that of confutation or debate. Among his associates
he enjoyed an enviable respect, which was constantly
increasing as he became more familiarly known to
them. His death was deemed by them a great
public calamity, and in the memory of those who



survive him his name has ever been cherished with
a warm and affectionate remembrance. No man
ever clung to the Constitution of the United States
with a more strong and resolute attachment. And
in the grave cases which were agitated in the Su-
preme Court of the United States during his judicial
life, he steadfastly supported the constitutional doc-
trines which Mr. Chief Justice Marshall promulgated
in the name of the Court. It is to his honor, and it
should be spoken, that, though bred in a different
political school from that of the Chief Justice, he
never failed to sustain those great principles of con-
stitutional law on which the security of the Union de-
pends. He never gave up to party what he thought
belonged to the country. For some years before his
death he was sensible that his health was declining,
and that he might soon leave the bench, to whose
true honor and support he had been so long and
zealously devoted. To one of his brethren, who had
the satisfaction of possessing his unreserved confi-
dence, he often communicated his earnest hope that
Mr. Justice Trimble might be his successor, and he
bore a willing testimony to the extraordinary ability
of that eminent judge. It affords a striking proof of
his sagacity and foresight; and the event fully justi-
fied the wisdom of his choice. Although Mr. Justice
Trimble occupied his station on the bench of the Su-
preme Court for a brief period only, yet he has left
on the records of the Court enduring monuments of
talents and learning fully adequate to all the exigen-
cies of the judicial office. To both of these distin-
guished men, under such circumstances, we may well
apply the touching panegyric of the poet:




      'Fortunati ambo;
      Nulla dies unquam memori vos eximnet avo.'"

  Judge Todd gave every attention to the education
of his son. He encouraged him to cultivate a taste
not only for the classics but for almost every species
of knowledge.
  Young Todd was placed at an early age at the
Transylvania Seminary at Lexington, Kentucky, for
the purpose of preparing for a more thorough course
of study at the celebrated college of William and
Mary in Virginia. He graduated at this last-named
institution of learning in 1809.
  About a year afterward he went to Litchfield,
Conn., to attend a course of law lectures by Judges
Reeves and Gould. At Litchfield he pursued his
studies with the utmost energy. He was licensed to
practise law in i8ii, and opened an office in the
following year at Lexington, Ky.; but at that time
the second war with Great Britain broke out, and
he determined to take part in the contest.



                  CHAPTER III.
War of 18I2-Young Todd volunteers and is rapidly Promoted-His
  (allantry-Battle of the Thames-McArthur's Expedition-Todd's
  distinguished Services.

T     HE spirit of war was nowhere more brilliantly
      illustrated than in Kentucky.  The whole
State, from the Big Sandy to the Mississippi, was
alive, as it were, with restless energy and activity.
   In the mean time Hull's surrender was announced.
It served only to add fuel to the flame. Hull was
at once proclaimed a traitor. No language was suf-
ficiently strong to express the detestation in which
he was held. The Kentucky troops were impatient
to be led to the scene of action, but they moved
amid the most distressing circumstances.  They
were indifferently armed and wretchedly clothed.
They suffered privations almost unheard of. The
country to be crossed was but a succession of
swamps and marshes. The Secretary of War was
unable to supply means of transportation. Notwith-
standing these obstacles, the ardor and enthusiasm
of the volunteers remained unabated.
  William Henry Harrison, on whom the President
had conferred the rank of Major-General, assumed
command of the forces in the West. Harrison was
an especial favorite with the Kentucky troops, and
his appointment served to increase their enthusiasm.
  Young Todd was among the first to volunteer his
services, and he was elected ensign in one of the
Lexington companies, but was soon afterward ap-




pointed to a position in the Quartermaster-General's
Department. He was afterward assigned to another
position, and was soon actively engaged against the
enemy. We learn from McAfee's History of the
War of I8I2, and from Hall's Life of Harrison, that
in the campaign which followed Colonel Todd ren-
dered invaluable service.
  General Harrison, in a letter to the War Depart-
ment, recommended him for a captaincy in the line,
saying that "he appeared to combine the ardor of
youth with the maturity of age."
  The campaign terminated in the unfortunate battle
of the River Raisin. The movement to that point
was made by General Winchester. It was made in
violation of Harrison's instructions in regard to the
campaign. Harrison's instructions were conveyed
by the subject of my sketch from the right wing to
the left of the army, a distance of one hundred miles,
through a swampy wilderness. McAfee, in his His-
tory of the War of I8I2, says that " Colonel Todd
performed the hazardous journey with a secrecy and
dispatch highly creditable to his enterprise." The
defeat of Winchester was the defeat of the campaign,
but measures were taken to obtain command of the
lake prior to active operations in the next cam-
paign. In the mean time the British General Proctor
attempted to take Camp Meigs on the Maumee, and
Fort Stevenson on the Sandusky, but both attempts
were signal failures.
  Harrison made a requisition upon the Governor
of Kentucky for troops to act in the decisive opera-
tions of the campaign. The Governor, the noble
and gallant Shelby, around whose peerless name so



many bright and glorious recollections cluster, offered
to lead the troops in person. Four thousand
mounted men rallied on thirty days' notice. The
venerable Governor reached the scene of operations
just as Perry had obtained command of the lake.
The genius of Harrison now shone out in the fulness
of its splendor.  He had entire command of the
lake, and was ready at any moment to attack De-
troit and Malden.  The British forces became
alarmed at the condition of affairs, and began to re-
treat. Their Indian allies fast deserted them. Less
than one half remained faithful in adversity. Even
the gallant Tecumseh refused to share the fortunes of
Proctor, except on condition that the first favorable
ground should be selected for battle.
  The division of Major-General Desha was formed
at right angles, which caused it to face the Indian
line. But, just as the order to advance was about to
be given to Trotter's brigade of Henning's division,
information was obtained through Colonel Wood, of
the Engineers, that the enemy was formed in open
order. This information decided Harrison to charge
the British line with Colonel Johnson's regiment.
Harrison placed himself at the head of the right bat-
talion of this regiment. The enemy was unable to
resist the charge, and gave way in the wildest confu-
sion. The Indians fought with the utmost despera-
tion; but, Tecumseh being killed, they were driven
from every position they assumed.
  Colonel Todd was engaged in the battle from the
beginning to the close. He was by the side of Har-
rison in the charge upon the British regulars, and
was despatched with orders to Governor Shelby,



whose command was stationed at the intersection of
the two divisions. Colonel Todd, with this portion
of the army, now participated in the action against
the Indians, but when the Indians were driven from
their position he was recalled to engage in the pur-
suit of Proctor. In this pursuit Colonel Todd was
accompanied by Colonel Wood, Major Payne, Major
Chambers, and Captain Langham. There is scarcely
an historian, who has given an account of this en-
gagement, but makes some honorable mention of
these gallant and accomplished soldiers. The pur-
suing force, though unable to overtake Proctor, suc-
ceeded in capturing his sword, carriage, and papers.
Wood and Todd were far in advance of the other offi-
cers. The pursuing party succeeded in capturing quite
a number of prisoners. A mounted British officer,
who was among the captured, endeavored treacher-
ously to shoot Colonel Todd. This attempt was
instantly discovered by Captain Wood, who struck
the coward down with his sword. Captain Wood
'was breveted major for gallant conduct in defence of
Fort Meigs, lieutenant-colonel for conspicuous service
at the battle of Lundy's Lane, and colonel for his he-
roic part in the defence of Fort Erie. He would have
been made brigadier-general of the elite of the army
had he not fallen in the sortie from the Fort on the
I 7th of September, i8I4. He was wounded in the
thigh, and was bayoneted while tendering his sword.
  That our readers may form some idea of the im-
portance of the victory on the Thames, we give the
following extract from an article entitled "The Mili-
tary Genius of Harrison," from the pen of Colonel
Todd, first printed in i840, in the Cincinnati Re-



   "The strong position of the enemy rendered it
 probable, that, if the American army should be victo-
 rious, the result would be achieved by the loss of
 many gallant men.
   "The British troops occupied the left of the allied
army, resting upon an unfavorable view, with its
right extending into swamps filled with Indians
under Tecumseh. To undertake to turn the Indians'
right would have been hazardous, and certainly at-
tended with great loss of life. The British line was
then properly regarded as the weakest point of the
enemy, In the first instance the charge was in-
tended to be made by the infantry, the front of which
was commanded by Trotter; but the fortunately dis-
covered error committed by Proctor in opening his
files led to the brilliant conception of charging with
the mounted troops of Colonel Johnson. The result
is known to the world, -an entire British army cap-
tured and two thousand Indians defeated, with an
immense loss of life, by less than fifteen hundred
Americans, whose loss was less than thirty killed
and forty wounded; and an end put to the war in
the Northwest, an important territory restored to the
United States, and the uppermost part of Canada
conquered. Other generals have acquired renown
by great bloodshed, but in the career of Harrison
we recognize equal glory in the results, with much
greater prudence and humanity in the preservation
of the lives of his patriotic soldiers."
  In the fall of i814, General McArthur undertook
an expedition into Canada. Colonel Todd, having
been previously appointed Assistant Inspector-Gen-
eral, acted as McArthur's Adjutant-General. It was




one of the most brilliant and successful expeditions
of the war.   It was organized at Urbana, and
marched from Detroit. It consisted of seven hun-
dred mounted men. Its object was to prevent the
enemy from molesting Michigan.
  Headley, in his " Second War with England," says:
"It was, however, no holiday march. Expedition was
necessary for success. The horses were kept to the
top of their endurance - straining up acclivities,
floundering through swamps, struggling with the
rapid current of rivers. This detachment succeeded
in penetrating more than two hundred miles into the
enemy's country, and to within twenty-five miles of
Burlington Height. It marched more than four hun-
dred miles, one hundred and eighty of it through an
unbroken wilderness, defeated five hundred militia
strongly posted, killed and wounded twenty-seven
men, took one hundred and eleven prisoners, and
returned with a loss of but one man. McArthur
showed himself a skilful and able commander, while
his subordinates deserzed the highest commendation."
  McAfee, in speaking of this expedition, says (see
McAfee's History of the War of i8I2, page 453):
"lAnd thus terminated an expedition which was not
surpassed during the war in the boldness of its de-
sign and the address with which it was conducted.
It was attended with the loss of one man only on
our part, while that of the enemy was considerable
in men, as well as the injury done to his resources.
It was with great difficulty that General Drummond
could subsist his troops, with the aid of