xt7pg44hn33n https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7pg44hn33n/data/mets.xml Patterson, A. W. 1843  books b92f517p32009 English Patterson, A. W. : Pittsburgh, Pa. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Ohio River Valley --History --To 1795. History of the backwoods; or, the region of the Ohio; authentic, from the earliest accounts. Embracing many events, notices of prominent pioneers, sketches of early settlements, etc., etc. Not heretofore published. text History of the backwoods; or, the region of the Ohio; authentic, from the earliest accounts. Embracing many events, notices of prominent pioneers, sketches of early settlements, etc., etc. Not heretofore published. 1843 2009 true xt7pg44hn33n section xt7pg44hn33n 









not heretofore pub 1,18 h e i> .

Still to llic whiteimn's wants there is no end;

ile said, 'beyond those hills he would not come.' Bui to the western seas his hands extend,

Ere yet his promise dies upon hJs tongue. Dkake,

Let them come with the pipe; we will tread it to dust, And our arrows of war shall ne'er moulder with rust.

Let them come with their hosts; to the desert we'll flee, And die drought and the famine our helpers shall be. Tike.



The history of the West abounds with memorable and thrilling incidents. The discovery and settlement of the Western valley by the French, and their subsequent struggle to retain an occupancy of it, forms a period of the most interesting character. The warfare with the savages, then ensuing, long, bloody and unremitting, furnishes a series of incidents but little less engrossing.

Our endeavor has been to present these events, im-bodied and arranged, in the order they occur. The motive to the undertaking has been a desire to supply a vacancy in the general history of the country, which may not have failed to be very generally remarked. Much of our western history, it is known, has never been written, while the published portions, to a great degree, have not been collected. To accomplish these objects, therefore, has been the present attempt. How far we may have succeeded, remains with our readers to determine.

A strict regard to impartiality, and correctness of statement, has been the constant aim.   And where quo- 

tations occur, which are frequent, it has been from a knowledge of their undoubted authority, and from a conviction that our own language could not present the matter in a more acceptable garb.

Neville B. Craig, Esq., Col. A. J. Faulk and others who have kindly extended us facilities in the collection of materials for the work will accept our thanks. 


The Backwoods   Discovery of the Ohio comparatively late    Spaniards at the mouth of the Ohio, at an early period   French migrate to the St. Lawrence   Their missionaries along the lakes    Indian tales o.c a great river in the west   Marquette and Joliet sent to explore it   Mississippi discovered   La Salle's expedition    Illinois colonized   early name of the Ohio   French along the Wahash   First voyageurs on La Belle Riviere.       -       - 5


The Massawomees, first known residents in the Ohio region   Five Nations and Lenni-Lcnape beyond the Mississippi   Their migration and warfare with the Allcgawe   Their settlements east of the mountains and near the St. Lawrence   War of the Five Nations with the Adirondacks   Their subsequent victories over numerous nations   Migration of the Delawares and Shawnees to the Ohio    Joncaire   His mission to tLc Ohio   Disaffection of the English colonics towards the French, - 14


Frontier settlements of Virginia and Pennsylvania   View of the rise and progress of the French colonies in the north, west and south   Region west of the Blue Ridge in Virginia, explored    One of the explorers a captive in the west and south   His return   Lewis' settlement west of the Blue Ridge   Burden's settlement   English traders on the Ohio   Treaty with the Delaware Indians at Lancaster   Boundry Question,       -        - 25


French army destined for the Ohio   Alarm in the English colonies    Send a spy into Ohio   Three letters brought by traders from 


the Ohio   French forces in the Ohio   A leaden plate stolen from the French by the Indians and brought to Fort George   Six Nations call upon the English for aid to expel the French   Ohio Land Company   Gist sent to explore the Ohio   Hostilities in the Ohio region   Twightoes   Indian council at Carlisle,     - 35


Eumors of the French establishing themselves in the Ohio   A messenger sent to Ohio   Orders of the British Ministry to build two forts on the Ohio   Washington commissioned to visit the French commandant at Fort Le Bceuf   Leaves on his journey   Reaches Frazier's on the Monongahcla   Delayed at Logstown   At Venango   Arrives at Le Bceuf   Return, and incidents by the way, - 48


Hostilities anticipated   English proceed to erect a fort at the mouth of the Monongahcla   Repulsed by the French   Fort Du Quesnc erected   March of English forces to the Ohio   Skirmish with Jumonville   Battle of the Great Meadows, and retreat cast of the mountains   Hostilities of the French against neutral tribes of Indians; and others friendly to the English, 63


Aspect of affairs on the opening of the year 1755   Arrival of Gen. Braddock from England, and his campaign commenced   Services of Captain Jack and his company rejected   Arrival at the Little Meadows   At the mouth of the Youghiogheny   St. Clair reconnoiters the fort   Cheerfulness among the troops   Battle of the Monongahcla   Retreat of the army   Braddock's death and burial   Fawcet, a settler afterwards near Braddock's grave    Preparations made by the French at the fort to meet Braddock    Evening after the battle, at the fort   Bcajeau   His ill-treatment from the commandant, 77


Evil consequences of the defeat of Braddock   Sanguine anticipations of the French   Block-houses erected along the Pennsylvania frontier   King Shingis   Killanning villages   Armstrong's 
   Con t k n is. t"

expedition against them   Their destruction   Mercer's hardships returning from the expedition   Armstrong presented with a silver medal by the corporation of Philadelphia, 92


Change in the British ministry   Three campaigns determined on    General Forbes against Fort Du Quesne   Troops assemble at Eaystown   ISew route to the west resolved on   Loyalhanna fort erected   Grant's fatal skirmish near the French fort   Major Lewis and Colonel Grant prisoners   Capture of Fort Du Quesne by General Forbes, 105


Treaty with the Indians at the French fort   Description of Fort Du Quesne   Return of most of the troops east of the mountains    Name of the fort changed   Re-built by General Stanwix    Treaty with the Wyandots, Ottowas, &c.   Continued success of the British arms   Surrender of Canada   Pontiac   Preliminary articles of peace between France and England   Dissatisfaction of Canadian settlers   Enumeration of the western Indians,      -     11S


" Kiyasuta and Pontiac War"   Early attack on Fort Pitt   Reason why   Forts fallen into the hands of the savages   Account of the attack on Michilimacinac   Siege of Detroit   Massacre of it meditated   March of troops to its relief   Defeat of Captain Dalyell near Detroit   Schooner attacked by Pontiac,      ... 128


Difficulty in raising troops for the relief of Fort Pitt   Colonel Bouquet despatched with a small force of the regular army   Incidents    Battle of Brush creek   Indians defeated and abandon the investment of Fort Pitt   Importance of the victory gained at Brush creek   Indian force at the battle and their loss   Fort Pitt during the siege   Close of the campaign.      ..... 141


Comparative tranquillity after the battle of Brush creek   Indian depredations renewed   Colonel Bradstreet de  patched up the 


Lakes   Bouquet's second campaign   Despatches from Brad-street of an alleged treaty   Bouquet's arrival at Fort Pitt   Met by ten Indians   Indian messengers   Bouquet's march into Ohio    Logstown   Tuscarawas   Conference with the Indians,    - 152


Army at Wakautamikc   Arrival of Messengers   Letter from Colonel Bradstreet   Arrival of prisoners   Major Smallman   Conference with the Indians re-opened   Speech of Kiyasuta   Speech of Red Hawk   Meeting of prisoners   Romantic passion of a young Mingo   Army leaves for Fort Pitt   Escape of hostages    Shawnee speech   Close of the "Kiyasuta and Pontiac war." -     1G6


Earliest Anglo-settlements in the west   Frazier's settlement on the Monongaliela   Gist's   Tygart's   Files'   Eckarly's   Red Stone fort   Decker's settlement surprised by a party of Indians   Capt. Gibson and Kiskephila, a Mingo chief   " Sandy creek voyage"    Other settlements and depredations of the Indians,      -      - 178


A means by which information was obtained respecting the Indians    Capture of James Smith   Carried to Fort Du Quesnc   Runs the gantlet   Removed to Kittanning, and from thence to Tullihas on the Muskingum   Undergoes the Indian toilet, and is adopted    Attends a feast   War dance performed   Leaves on a hunting excursion   Removal   Incidents, etc.   Escape to the French at Montreal   Exchanged and returns,.....187


The early settlers   Village of Pittsburgh laid oil   Old Redoubt, still standing   Burbridge's settlement on the Loyalhanna   Patience Bickerstaff   Jim Compass, a friendly Indian   Burbridge killed by Compass   Patience again the hunter's bride   Removal to Forbes' Road   Thomas Burbridge   Sale of his brother's estate    John Craig, an old Revolutioner......198


Early settlers   Settlements in Westmoreland county, Pa.   Wheel- 
   contents. >*


ing settled by Colonel Zane and others   Murder of Bald Eagle    Destruction of Stroud's family   Massacre at Bulltown   Skirmish at Crave Creek   Destruction of the family of Logan, the Mingo chief   Retaliation of Logan   General hostilities of the Indians   Dunmore's campaign   Battle of Point Pleasant.  - 205


Governor Dunmore descends from Fort Pitt   Sends messengers to General Lewis   At tin; mouth of Hockhocking   Simon Girty    Old Revolutioners   Retreat of General Lewis   Speech of Cornstalk   Logan's celebrated speech   Difficulties with the Indians consequent to the American Revolution   Cornstalk visits the fort at Point Pleasant   Retained in the fort   The assassination of himself and his son.      -      -      -      -      -      - 218


Earliest settlements made in Kentucky   Henderson and company's grant   Character of the pioneers   Girty's attack on Wheeling   Fort Crawford, on the Allegheny, built   Fort M'Intosh built   M'Intosh's campaign   Erection of Fort Laurens, and issue of the campaign   Colonel Clarke's expedition against the French settlements in Illinois   Capture of Kaskaskia, of Caho-kia, and Fort Charters   Reduction of Fort Vincent.      -          230


Military men in the west   Colonel Brodhead   Samuel Brady    Washington's letter   Brodhead's popularity with the Indians    Indian name conferred upon him   March of Canadian forces against the settlements of Kentucky   Colonel Brodhead's march against the Munsey towns on the Allegheny   His campaign against the Ohio Indians.       -      - - 243


Moravian campaign   Causes that led to it   Their inhabitants principally murdered   Crawford's campaign   Encouragement to volunteers   Insubordination of the troops on the way   Battle of Sandusky   Retreat of Crawford's men, and dispersion   Crawford and Knight taken prisoners   Simon Girty   Crawford burnt    Knight sent to the Shawnee towns   His escape and arrival at Fort M'Intosh..........253 



Sketch of Colonel Crawford   Indian council at Chillicothc   Girty's speech   Attack on Bryant's station   Battle of the Blue Licks    Wheeling besieged   Adam Poe   Close of the Revolutionary War   Pittsburgh laid off   Hannah's town burnt   Earliest settlements in Ohio   First newspaper west of the mountains   Pittsburgh, a seat of justice,      ....... 274


Settlements of Ohio   Harmar's campaign   His defeat and return ^    St Clair's expedition   His defeat   Settlements on the Allegheny   Brodhead and Brady   Forts erected on the Allegheny   Mas-sy Harbison   Settlements north-west of the Allegheny   Frceport laid off...........286


Simon Girty   Character and causes of desertion   His attack on Wheeling   Rescues Kenton   His battle at the Piqua Towns    Present at the burning of Colonel Crawford   His speech before a grand council of the Indians at Chillicothc   His attack on Bryant's Station and battle of the Blue Licks   His subsequent life   Whiskey insurrection   Wayne's war and victory   Conclusion, .........- 299 






The Backwoods   Discovery of the Ohio comparatively late   Spaniards at the mouth of the Ohio, at an early period   French migrate to the St. Lawrence   Their missionaries along the lakes   Indian tales of a great river in the west   Marquette and Joliet sent to explore it--    Mississippi discovered   La Salle's expedition   Illinois colonized   ear* ly name of the Ohio   French along the Wabash   First voyaguers on La Belle Kiviere.

The primitive name bestowed by the early pioneer on the Western country, may be new, as seemingly inappropriate, to many within its limits at the present time; however, a quarter of a century has littld more than elapsed since the fertile valley extending westward from the mountains, in Pennsylvania and Virginia, was still familiarly known as the "Bachvoods."

The earliest permanent Anglo-settlements in the west, being made on the Ohio, towards its sources, this portion of the country, more particularly, continued to retain the rude, but early name; which it still bore, even at a time,when, with strict propriety, it 


might only have been applied to the forests of Missouri.

A comparatively long period elapsed after the colonization of the continent, on the northern and eastern coasts, before this portion of it seems to have become known.

The Spaniards, as early as the beginning of the sixteenth century, landed on the coast of Florida; and in 1539, one of their adventurous discoverers, the restless De Soto, at the head of "nine hundred steel-clad warriors," penetrated to the Mississippi. Where wandering "in search of gold, of civilized Indians, and of miraculous fountains," fearlessly encountering the dangers of the forests, and the hostilities of the natives, the unfortunate adventurer, at length, lost his life; and his men, to a considerable extent, became dispersed; some of whom, it is supposed, reached the Ohio, as a tradition was extant among the Kaskaskia Indians, many years afterwards, that they had destroyed the first white men they had ever seen.

This, is probably the earliest notice we have of the west being visited by Europeans. The next is by the French, after the lapse of a long period.

The south being occupied by the Spaniards, principally in pursuit of discoveries, and the east Atlantic coast by other nations, the attention of the French was naturally directed to the north; where their 'settlements were accordingly commenced. They founded Quebec in 1608, two years after Jamestown was built by the English, on the coast of Virginia.

However, a long period had still to elapse before adventurers, from either of the infant colonies, had even crossed the intermediate wilderness, or, perhaps, heard of the great valley of the west. 

The French emigrants bearing the cross with them to the banks of the St. Lawrence, their reverend fathers eagerly pushed forward into the depths of the forests, in pursuit of their sacred labors, among the natives. By the untiring industry of these missionaries, discoveries were soon made along the great lakes of the north, and eventually, through the country to the south-west.

About sixty years after their settlements were commenced, and when they had already extended to the Ontario, a grand series of discoveries to the north-west, was commenced under the auspices of the government, which finally led to the exploration of our own portion of the western valley.

For some time their missionaries and traders among the Indians on the upper lakes, had been told, that, far to the sunset, was a great river, which "neither flowed to the north nor to the east,"* but of its source or termination they knew nothing. And many were the strange tales told of the "endless ?-iver" which they had seen in their long excursions, but no information of it could be given by them, further than it was a stream of mighty appearance, and its waters seemed to flow in a contrary direction to those of the lakes.

The French, enchanted with these strange accounts, * and ever ready to set out on adventurous expeditions, were soon resolved on a journey to the "great river." It was thought it must discharge its waters into the western seas, and if so, a north-western passage through it to the East Indies, might be effected. It therefore became a matter of great moment, to ascertain something definite concerning it. Accordingly Father Marquette, a recollet monk, who had been a missionary among the

* Charlevoix. 


Indians high on the lakes, and Sieur. Joliet, an Indian trader of Quebec, with a small party, were commissioned by M. Talon, Intendant of New France, as Canada was then called, to depart on a journey of discovery. Proceeding through the great chain of northern lakes, in their bark canoes, to the mouth of the river of the Foxes, and up that stream to its source, they crossed, accompanied by Indian guides, bearing their canoes on their shoulders, to the Ouisconsin; where, launching their frail crafts on the waters of the west, the discoverers *'went solitary down the stream," gazing with admiration on the flowery banks, hill-sides and prairies of summer; and on the 17th June, 1673, swept into the broad current of the Mgreat river," bearing the name of Mechasepi, among the natives.

Floating down the wide expanse of waters, no less imposing than had been represented by the Indians, thridding "green isles," that swelled in striking grandeur from the ocean-bosom of the stream, and sweeping by alternate woodlands and prairies, on either hand, while no sound broke the strange silence of the distant scene, but the dip of their oars, the travelers at length arrived at the mouth of the Missouri, called by the Indians in the neighborhood, the Pekilaiioni. Proceeding a few leagues farther down, they reached three large villages of the Illini Indians,* where they were hospitably received by the thronging natives, with a "deference due but to superior beings,'"

   The Illinois Indians were composed of seven tribes, the Miamies, Michiganics, Mascotins, Kaskaskies, Kahokias, Peorias and Taumer-waus, residing at this time on both sides of the Mississippi. They are represented as being very numerous and powerful; and are said to have been able, within the recollection of the whites, to bring eight or ten thousand warriors into the field; but no people were, perhaps, more peaceful. 

After descending the "endless river," to a considerable distance, further discoveries were abandoned, and the delighted voyagers hastened to return to report the success of their journey. And turning up the Illinois, they glided over its silvery wave, along emblossomed banks and through green woodlands, with no less delight than had been constantly realized from the moment they had entered the seemingly enchanted regions of the west. On reaching the shores of Michigan, the gentle Marquette remained a missionary among the Indians, where he eventually died; and Joliet hastened to Quebec to publish an account of their discoveries and adventures; in which his own flowery language afterwards, seemed too meagre for description. Of a warm imagination by birth, as well as it being the prime of summer, when the flower-garlanded wilderness would appear more like a region of fancy, than real, some allowance was to be made for the extravagant accounts of these adventurers; while an allusion to them in like language, may be entitled to the same indulgence.

Several years elapsed before the discoveries of these travelers were followed up. The noble De Salle was the first to retrace their footsteps. He proceeded on his journey and descended the newly-discovered river, which he called St. Louis, to its mouth; where he arrived on the 7th of April, 1683. Soon afterward a number of other adventurers followed; and ultimately, lured by the exaggerated accounts of the Eden-like land, crowds of emigrants, forsaking the bleak shores of the St. Lawrence, took up their abode on the genial plains of the Illinois. Conforming themselves to the manners and customs of the barbarous, though peaceful natives, with comparitively few hostilities, and little difficulty, 


the French won an influence over them, which no other people has since been able to accomplish.

Nearly simultaneous with the settlement of the Illinois, others were commenced by the French in the south, on the Isle of Dauphin, and the main-land opposite, at the entrance of the Mobile Bay; in the neighborhood of which, a Spanish settlement had been commenced, a short time previous.

It was not until several years after the French became established in the region of the Illinois, that they seem to have traversed the channel of the Ohio. But at what time their first batteaus skimmed the bosom of the "Beautiful river " towards its sources, is unknown. That portion of it lying above the entrance of the Wabash, as well as the region through which it flowed; seems to have been long neglected in its exploration. Nevertheless, many a song of their sprightly voyagxiers had, doubtless, echoed along its wooded banks, years before the first English adventurer, penetrating the passes of the mountains, had plunged into the wilderness of the west.*

It is known that the French were particularly fond of pursuing discoveries in every direction in which their light boats might be rowed. And it has been supposed thattheOhio andits tributaries had beenascended to their springheads, at a much earlier date, than either history or tradition, now informs.

The first route pursued by emigrants and adventur-

   The English long and strenuously contended that their discoveries in the west, were of an earlier date than those of the French. They asserted that the Indian guides who had accompanied some of their exploring parties, were the first who gave the French information of the western country. But the fallacy of their arguments is too obvious to merit special attention. 


ers from the St Lawrence.to the Mississippi and southern colonies,had been by the way of thelakes, and across to the Wabash, which they descended to a certain point, now Vincennes; from which place they crossed by land to their settlements on the Mississippi, at the mouth of the Kaskaskia.

Thus, it probably, happened, that the Ohio long remained unnotieed, except at its mouth, and which, in truth, had been mistaken for the Wabash, for it seems the stream had not been pursued around to the Mississippi, on account of those who had descended it from the Miami of the Lakes, to the place spoken of, now Vincennes, being deterred from tracing it any farther, from the accounts they received from Indians there, of war-like nations inhabiting its lower banks, whom it was dangerous to pass. Therefore when they crossed by land from that place to the Mississippi, and observed the Ohio, pouring in its floods, they naturally supposed it to be the same stream, which they had descended part of the way, and consequently gave the same name to both.

The name Wabash, or Oulashie, originated with La Salle, who, as he passed the mouth of the Ohio, while descending the Mississippi, had given it that name; consequently when the river, now known as the Wabash, was discovered towards its source, it received that name, from the supposition that it was the same stream.*

But afterwards, when it was discovered, as Father Gabriel Maust, missionary at Kaskaskia, wrote in 1712, that "the Oulashie has three large branches, one of which," meaning the Ohio, "extends as far as the Iroquois," it was perceived that the branch "heading among

* Address of Judge Law before a society at Vincennes. 


the Miamis" was only a tributary to the former, and therefore not entitled to its name, farther than its confluence with the superior branch, consequently the main stream, already called lLa Belle RivicreJ* with propriety assumed that name, throughontits length to the Mississippi. Thus itwas thisstream once called the Oul-ashie, exchanged that for a more beautiful appellative.

As the discoveries of the French in the north and the west, must principally be attributed to the bold perseverance of their missionaries, the first explorations made in the valley of the Ohio, may likewise be ascribed to them. Although no accounts on record, inform us of their having floated their feather-light crafts on the bosom of the upper Ohio as yet, we, nevertheless, have reason to conclude, they had been along it at a much earlier day. Who, so zealous were they in the noble work of the conversion of the savages, they fearlessly braved the perils and the hardships of the wilderness in every direction   "mirigling happiness with suffering, and winning enduring glory by their daring zeal." It has been said that the labors of these "Apostles of the wilderness" are blended "with the origin of every celebrated town in the annals of French America; that not a cape was turned or a river entered, but they led the way."t Doubtless, then, for years that left as little trace behind, as the dip of their oars, may have many a

"Merry Jean Baptisto Paddled his pirogue on La Belle Riviere, While from its banks some lone Loyola priest Echoed the night-song of the vni/aguer"

It is to be regretted, that so few of the many interesting scenes and adventures that must have occurred with

*Thc Beautiful Diver. -(-Bancroft. 


the early discoverers of the west, have not descended to us.

The dim mist of years now brooding over the early history of the country, throws an illusory interest over it, fascinating in the extreme. The El Dorado of the Frenchman, whether in the character of the trader or the missionary, he4 thridded the forest-shaded streams and plunged in to'the gloom of the wilderness, witha fondness as untiring as unparalleled.

Now in our latter days, when our leviathans ride upon these same waters, where sported the light bat-teaus of that sprightly people, and our villages rise where gleamed the council fires of the red natives, when they held "talks," with the adventurous foreigners, the change in the scene, is as striking as the change of actors. And when at the present day, the solitary wanderer from '   La Belle France] may visit these places where his enterprising countrymen acted so prominent a part, in the history of the country, it may not be reckoned strange, that the gloom of the recollection, for the time, should darken the flow of his naturally animated spirits.




The Massawomees, first known residents in the Ohio region.   Five Nations and Lenni-Lcnape beyond the Mississippi.   Their migration and

warfare with the Allcgawe__Their settlements cast of the Mountains

and near the St Lawrence.   War of the Five Nations with the Adi-rondacks.   Their subsequent victories over numerous nations.   Migration of the Delawares and Shawnces to the Ohio   Joncaire.   His mission to the Ohio.   Disaffection of the English colonies towards the French.

At the time the Ohio Valley became known to the whites, it was the abode of a large confederacy of savage tribes, called by the eastern Virginia Indians, the Massawomees ; a portion of whom, perhaps, were scattered bands of the Five Nations, as that people was likewise known by the same name, and their traditions rather confirm the supposition.

The Massawomee confederacy, however, to a great extent, seems to have been composed of numerous remnants of broken tribes, who had been subdued by the Five Nations, and afterwards taken under their protection, and, in consequence of living under the government of their conquerors, received their general name.*

The earliest accounts we have of this portion of the country, commences with the traditionary history of the Five Nations and theLenni-Lenape, or Delawares.j

   The Five Nations, in common with these early inhabitants of the Ohio region, were called by the eastern Virginia Indians, the Massewo-mekes or Massawomees. They were called by the Dutch, Maquos or Makakause, and to the French they were known as Iroquois. "Their appellation at home was the Mingos, and sometimes the Aganuschion or United People."

fLenni-Le nape, or Original People, was the proper name of this na- 


These warlike, nations it would appear, originally dwelt beyond the Mississippi; who at an ancient period migrated hence; and being numerous, subdued in the course of their march, all the primitive residents of the country on this side.

The most powerful opposition they met with, according to accounts lately extant among the Delawares, was from a people, no less formidable than themselves, called the Allegawe, who inhabited the banks of the Allegheny, and from whom they say this stream derives its name.*

This ancient and once powerful race of people, are represented as being unusually tall and athletic, and possessing other characteristics which distinguished them from all other nations of the country. They are said to have arrived to a comparatively high degree in the use of the arts, and many of the fortifications that still remain in the vicinity of their abode, it is stated by other Indian nations, were erected by them.t

On the approach of the combined forces of the Five Nations and Delawares, a long and bloody contest ensued. The Allegawe, resident from time immemorial on the soil they had ever successfully defended, valiantly repulsed, for a time, the more numerous forces of the invaders. But at length, the united strength of their enemies proved superior; and the patriotic primitives were totally routed, or exterminated.

The triumphant emigrants continuing their march

tion. They were sometimes called by their neighbors Wapanachc.    They received the name of Delaware from Lord De La Ware, who entered the Delaware Bay in 1610, which he named after himself; the Lcnni-Lcnape then residing on the batiks of this river, were in consequence given the name.

"Heckewclder.      -j-Cumming's Sketches, page 455. 


eastward, separated on leaving the region of the west. The Delawares, composed of three tribes, the Turkey, the Turtle, and the Wolf or Munsy, commenced their settlements east of the mountains, occupying the country from the Hudson to the Potomac.

The Five Nations, known as the Mohawks, the Onei-das, the Cayugas, the Onondagas, and the Senecas, settled in the country north of the Lenni-Lenape; and when the French arrived on the St. Lawrence, early in the seventeenth century, they found them living where Montreal now stands.

At this time they were at war with the Adirondacks    "a powerful tribe residing three hundred miles above Trois Rivieres." By this valiant tribe the confederacy was at length effectually repulsed, and driven back from 'the St. Lawrence to the borders of the lakes. After remaining here inactive for a time, their belligerant enthusiasm was again enkindled, and a war was waged against the Satanas or Shawanans,* dwelling on Ontari