xt7pk06wxq3d https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7pk06wxq3d/data/mets.xml Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station 1956  journals  English Lexington, Ky Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky farm and home science, vol. 2 No. 4 fall 1956 text Kentucky farm and home science, vol. 2 No. 4 fall 1956 1956 2012 true xt7pk06wxq3d section xt7pk06wxq3d \ )
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    AND 676/{L? i
 ARM HOME ’  
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Volume 2, Number -1 ....................... Fall 1956 I5
A report of progress published quarterly by the Kentucky Agricultural tv
Experiment Station, University of Kentucky, Lexington ` ` " ii ‘
I
KILNTUCIQY AGRICUI[I`UR.-\I. IQXPILRIAIILNT Miitcriul 2l))C2l1`II`Ii" in this Iubliczitioii lil2l\’ bc
_ II ¤_ I _ _ ._
STATION rcproduccal wuliout Iurther permission, provided ai
I·`u.-xxi; _|. \\'1=I.I;u .,.,,...,.,.......,.....,..,.....,........,.,.....,l,... l)ircctor thm full i\(`liIi0\\'l€(lgIU€INL is made of the source
W. l’. Giuuuuus .,..,...,.,,...i.........,..,.,.,..,......i ·\ssoci:Itc Director und that no change in headings or text is made E
II. B. l)lII(Z|i und \\vII.I.|.\XI A. SI:.-xv ...... Adm. Assistants without 1l])l)l`O\`2Il by the author. _. - » - _ g
I. ;\I.I,.·\\ SMITH .....,.......l.l....................... \gl`1(`llllllI‘21l E(lI[0I` AL\d(h.€SS (,Ol.l.CS1)0ndCn(.C about articles in this Pu`} l' A 4
Kgntllcky Fan); and flgnlg Scjgncg IICZILIOII to CI[llCI` [llC 2llll.llOl`S O1` [lll? I)C])Zll`ll`i1Cll[ of E T
]osiI·II c. iiirms ..........................,...........................,... rzriimi i’¤·*>iir iiii`<>r‘i¤i=¤ri<>¤ riiiri Eriiirririeiirii Aids, Experi-
Oiuxxr _|On\sOx .........,............,...................... xsusuuu Iziiamr mem $l=¤ii<>¤ Iiriiiriiiig University oi Kentucky, Lex- :.4 ‘
R()l$I·I('l (Z. MAY .............................................,.. Photographer ington.
5
 
O
• A
In This Issue  — I
 
CIIuxIIc:AL l?IiIZ\`I:]N'I`S I)O'1`A'I`() S1·ROuTINc Page 3 T
By Clyde Singlelary and james Herron ;,_,_
F ».cTOIIs :\FI’I£C'I`ING Use or FROZEN SEMEN Page 4 if
By \V. M. jones, j. R. Perkins and D. AI. Seath yy, .
- W .
I1)I£N`I`II*YINC BIINRIIALS IN SOIL SALIPLES Page 0 _
By joe B. Dixon ,‘ 
I3[I’OR'I`.-\NCIi or SOIL STRUOTURI2 Page 6 ` Iii
P3  
By \VilIiam G. Suruant —~:*
4»
CRAxI;1·‘I.Y IJ,-\Ii\'AE CONTROL IVIEASURES Page 7 K
By j. G. Rodriguez P
*1
hII·Z'I`I-IYI. BIIOAIIIII; TO CONTROL A/VEEDS Page 8 `?
By Frank Borries
*1
CrII·:xIIcAI. :\C'l`I()N ix NVEED KILLER Page 9 ~
By Frank Borries
:<
E.—xIu.Y \Vl·Z.·\NIil) Pics Snow ADVANTACES Page 11 "
er
. _  ·  , The C0.U€r Symbolic of the lmrvest season in Kentucky is this pic- ‘°`
 if .,3*: I Tis . _ .
K-ri  ;g~*·§f—.Yg,-i ture of workers on ii jessiinnne county farm as they `*‘
  ;;}·;"lE‘j7 I   , +
     ii haul in cut burley from the field on ii crisp October l'
  rw  _
 . ~  morning. l'
A -4;*, I ·{T€I—·`;¤ I
Pill 1 I`- —·- "*"
4 i    `* )
. _ .‘ `
L l·
•» “T
~§
s

 'T C11 °
em cal
( · 1 . . .
37 P Maleic hydrazide effectively
4
eve ts Potato . . . S
*-A I- in controls spronting of 8 varieties
· •
+   grown commercially in Kentucky;
Q;
large losses prevented
-g By (1LYl)E SINGLETARY and ]AMES HERRON ·
aq
N Sprouting during winter storage is the cause of one The first experimental tests with this chemical to con-
of the greatest losses in stored potatoes. The Ken- trol potato spronting were encouraging. Following
V tucky Agricultural Experiment Station, along with favorable reports from several agricultural experiment ‘
if { other experiment stations, for many years has been stations, the chemical was tested at the Kentucky Agri-
,, experimenting with methods for preventing potato cultural Experiment Station in 1955. The experiment
’* spronting during storage. Several methods have been here was set up to test the effectiveness of the chem-
*2 proven to be successful, including cold storage; how- ical in controlling spronting of the potato varieties
ever, since cold storage is expensive and very few grown commercially in Kentucky. Those included in
_ é farmers have access to ternperature—controlled storage the test were Cobbler, Kennebec, Cherokee, Katahdin,
t, rooms, methods for use in common storage rooms have Nlerrimac, Saco, Teton and Delus.
_ been tested.
l Immediately following the war years, several of the SP"¤Y€d 3 Weeks B€f°"€ H¤"V€$l'
ha plant hormones were found to delay spronting of Tlw lmmtoes for the €Xl)€l`lm€“t WBW PlilUt€i`nai‘y 1956. when they were removed to a room
  ,;4~ x   ,    /V_,   A 4   where the temperature was controlled at 55°' to 65OF.
it- *‘””   sri         The \Vhen the tubers were examined in May 1956, those .
*   "   Z    _g——‘‘ '_ if i from unsprayed plants of all varieties had sprouts
' ,,   ,  Q;    5   i``“       I     K ranging in length from 1 to 4 inches. The sprouts on
w   ·_V, g       ·’·i QL   the tubers which were harvested from treated plants
Y ` iirili Z   -i’.s      ·‘    y p   ~    were less than % inch long (see illustration). Many
    `’i ‘’   ~ ```S    g_ t ubers had no sprouts. There was no difference in
V" li spronting among the varieties.
H These two potatoes illustrate the effectiveness of maleic
ya hydrazide in controlling spronting during winter storage. T|’€¤l’€d T\|l3€|’$ Sound Gnd Edible
* The plant which produced thctuber on the left was lsprayed Tljlj Sprouts w(,l.(, ].(,mOV(,d from both the tmutwl
i T, ‘;"l' {hi j‘l‘°;“l$"l {5 *`fficlfS_l)€a()fc llulilfsfl llvl izyhlch lim` and untreated tubers, and the weight of the sprouts
I (mu HL mul lu M1 l€(€W€( no wml dm) lm (mi per bushel of tubers was obtained. More than 2%
° pounds of sprouts were removed from each bushel of
t t¤1l>¢‘1`$ lll $t<>l'¤t—£¢’ Wlwll $lll`¤}’¢’wi¤s untreated potatoes, whereas less than 2 ounces of
Q potato plants a few weeks before harvest or dusted ou Sp,·m,tS Wwt. (,i,mi,,(.(i {mm pac], imshpi of tl.CutC(]
1 f1'¢‘Sl1l)’ (lull l)0t¥ll0 tUl)<’I`$· l'l(’“’<“’<’*`~ tlw l`<’$Ull$ “’<*l`<‘ tubers. ln addition, the untreated tubers were shriv-
r-4 f1‘<‘<1U<‘“tl}’ <’U`¥ltl€· eled and soft and, in most instances, unfit for table
A During the early 1950`s a chemical, maleic hydra— use. The treated tubers were still sound and edible
· xide, was found to act as an inhibitor of plant growth. after S months storage.
e, Kl·]N'l`U(TKY FAa:»t xxi) Hoang Sc:i1;xci·:~FAi.t. 1956 3
 

 Kentucky dairy workers report the use of three glycerol levels of 7, 10 2111Ll 15 percent err V
on basic research on by volume, three extenders, chemical milk, heated milk -
and egg yolk-citrate and three freezing rates of 2°, —§
• 4° and 60 F per minute. The results fro1n the 27 dif- _){
    ferent treatments are given in Table 1. Tl
The treatment combination having the highest sur- 452
vival percentage (85.1) was chemical milk extender
      with 10-percent glycerol, frozen at a rate of 4° F per  
minute. *
  The comparative tests showed that the 7-percent  
glycerol level, with an average spermatozoa survival L-—
ny w_ M_ JQNES, J, R, PERKINS and 1), M, SEATH of 76.9 pereent after 2 weeks storage at -1100 F, was ia
significantly more satisfactory than the other two lev— ·
()ne of the more recent phases of artificial breeding els. As may be Observed from Table 1, the 15-percent if
has been the use of frozen semen. Frozen semen re- glycerol level failed to give satisfactory results, The ;
fers to semen which has been frozen at sub-zero tem- chemical 1nilk extender gave the highest average sur- es
peratures and stored until ready for use. vival (82.4 percent). This is a thioglycolic acid ex- v_
Frozen semen offers several advantages over freshly tender developed at the Kentucky Station, if
extended semen. One advantage is that service from Faster Freezing Reres Beer /__  
any given bull would be on call atrall times. There *1*116 tester freezing rates Or 40 and 60 F Per minute "
could also bc a bank of semen from _ outstanding were rcomid to be Superior to the Stewer rate Of 20 F 5
sires that might be drawn from, long after the sires Per. mimite A {
were dead. From the economic standpoint, fewer bulls A hietrir, sigrrrrierrrrt difference was round among thc
“""'l‘l l)" "°°°`$S*u`Y tm fl gwml COW l°0l°“lutl°u· various collections from the same bull taken on differ- f T
ln contrast to the advantages there are disadvant- ent dates. Other pr,etrmrrrrrr_y Work rrr Kerrtuckv and gr
ages also in the usc of frozen rsemen.   the present the published Work from other Stations rndieare rr ‘
time the additional expense involved in processing mtnketi ttitterenee in the rreezebiirtv Ot Sperm from 4
and shipping is a prohibitive factor to most organiza- (tiitererrt butter ' sr
tions, The fact that fewer sircs could he used is also \yitii this basic research us rr irrrekerrrrrrrrt rr Kern T
a disadvantage in that there would be a tendency to trick`, tirrirr, tenders Should Hurt rr degimbie `to UO to raf
concentrate breeding to only a fewrbulls. This might iirrrtirri use ef frozen Semen they would be uric to
have adverse cllects if the wrong sircs were selected. Seieet tho trvrrtmerrt best Suited for each bun-
First use in England More work is needed, particularly in the field where la"
The first successful usc of frozen bovine semen was l"`*“€(ll“fl results could be 0l>t¥il¤€erm.ls fertilizer and lime recommenda-
`Q . . . . . · l
— important in determnnng the ab1l1ty ofthe soil to hold tions to he made on a more exact basis than is pos-
"`. nutrients in a form which is available to plants. The sible without such information.
_ i ollploxlmolo lolollvo lllllllollbllollllllg oalmolllos ol X-ray diffract;on and differential thermal analysis
Solllo llllllollalll oloY llllllolllls glo as lollowsi equipment recently installed at the Kentucky Agricul-
3 RelativeNutrient-lmlding tural Experiment Station permits accurate identifica-
5* K Ailnind C"f’f'(_°'lU tion of the minerals present in soils by recording thc
ao im e ......... . ......................................... , s .
1.1.11 .·t, _____   _ O2 X-rays that are reflected from the soil sample and the
P a oysi t .... . ...... . ........ . ................,.,. -
V ` A ¥{l1;¤U“0¤ll<>¤1t¢ ---·······---···----··········-··-······   reactions that occur as the sample is heated. These
e .......................,.................................... - . . . » . . . .
phlmitc O0 two methods are used in con]unct1on for identification
Vermicuhtc ....,,.................................,........ 100 (Cmthnued on Page I2)
}
it Kiaxrucxr FAR}! Axn Hoxns SCll·ZNCl·j—F.·\l,ll 1956 5
-5
h

 Variation in yield and quality
  A
of [0133600 gPOWI1 011  
different plots reveals J
I t f S °l St t  
IIlpOI' EIHCB O O1 I`llC llI°€ _;
Q
By WILLIAM G. SURVANT *7
It is probable that deteriorated soil structure is lim-     , •• _
iting the income received from many Kentucky farms. , cf),  5 V 7;
Recent studies at the Kentucky Agricultural Experi-           _ *
ment Station have shown that yield and quality of '°‘*” Z if    tl       °  _   I
tobacco are lowered when structure and related phys-  3 - ‘z>-. $_r ·  ag, -._;  r ‘·   \   _ Fw
. . · . . . `. H V   '`AA     '   ” "     `¤_ M
ical properties of soil have deteriorated. These stuthes {   ..   *2   .a. Q7  ,   e Li
. . . - , . ~     =>;      ’ " I av  ` ii—r . so ·
also reveal that intensive use of land for row crops * xy  {JQ-..__§     ****2   w e  t; P
results in less favorable structural conditions in so1ls.         a··_‘ g       ¤· ~·~      
On the Experiment Station Farm at Lexington, com-   ’        ‘     ‘.`‘       j `  · __-_   __,_   (  
parisons were made of yields and acre-value of to-   M            -      {
bacco grown on a soil when structure and related   ir .3, V E _=   I    i   ls
physical properties varied. There was a close correla-      _j Y V` _ “     _-`r   1      
tion of yield and quality of tobacco with such Soil j_   j     1 A ..‘·° ‘ t
properties as permeability ( rate at which water moves `.         j'     .-._   ‘·° 1 _   ``.-.   A r
through the soil) and degree of aggregation (propor- if   Y '7 lplpp     — .
tion of the fine soil particles formed into stable crumbs \/;#°   ...·-i     ‘   st
or granules). The data in Table 1 show these rela- " °’   ‘°  `“ `   ‘ r
tiOuShipg_ Good yields of high quality tobacco like this require l`avor· ‘ V
able physical conditions in the soil in order for the plant
, _ te use the su > alv of nutriems effectively.
Table I.- The Response of Burley Tobacco to Variations ) ll ' '
in Degree of Aggregation and Permeability of a
Maury Silt Loan; Soil Table 2.-— The Influence on Degree oi` Aggregation and L
ii;i* "¤¤‘; ---- is--rr T;T; i"Ti' Permeability of a Maury Silt Loam Soil of Diiierent .
I)l:¥°`° p(,nm,umh,\. B`"l°`Y1°l”`°°" Intensities of Cropping ¢_
.~\g1Lre1.{ation to water U Yield .~\ere—value    
mee cc‘o m*4·‘m·"*r"c   r4·re"*L—·rm · ~ ,   , 6   . ——~—f n-· . °Z
65.6% 4.62 mem/1.r 2266 ii) $12.33 ,_-w¥2i‘*#£>&E-e2..-..2 ...... .. .   -i?*’*"i***`“*-‘· ew
.[2_Q¢%, r;_()1 " [888 " (Ogg lobacco after 50-yr. old bluegrass sod .... 65.6%   LH., lr. _ W] 
gg_5% 26;; " [757 " 714 Rotation of Tobacco-small grain-sod ........ 42.9% ‘. (   ifi *%@fY'l
165% {gg " (gh] " 474 Tobacco each year for 18 years .................. 29.5% in     $.01*
—- --——— — —--— ~ — -— - - - Tobacco each year for 50 years ................ 16.5%   mfé ri  
. . . . . . .   TQTTT  T   IT Y T T.   .'  Y m’*
'lhe intensity of use of land for row crops influences on 5omc PhY$*c¤l P1oPc1Uc$ et the ¤o1l 1* 511oWo io y
the physical properties of soil. The extent of deteriora- Tablc 2- ‘ _.(
tion of structure and related properties was determined Chcmgcs io fcmhtY r€S¤1¤¤g from thc ci`oPP1US SYS" b
on plots used for burley tobacco. These plots included; tcm mc not cUUYclY Ycspooslblc for dlgcrcoccs m gi`
(1) tobacco after a bluegrass sod over 50 years old; yields after Sed ci'oP$· This was mdlcatcd by comPm" ,-
(2) tobacco grown in a rotation with small grain and ing thc i`c$Poo$c of thc tobacco cl`oP to <1ift€r€r¤t fcc A
()I·Chnr(l grass vyith {Cd Cloygy;   tobacco vyhcsrg   llllty levels ()ll plots 1Iz`t\’lIlg 1l1Tl`21.VO1°}.1.l)l(i` Physical COI]- `
crop hm] hwh gl-hwh ouch yuh- fm- 18 Yams with H ditions resulting from intensive use with the response 4,
Cover Cmp hftm- Ouch Crop of thimcch. nm] (4) tO_ of the crop on unfertilized land on which physical l`
bacco wm.!-C this Crop hud hhhh gmwh (inch yeh]- fm- conditions were favorable. Table 3 summarizes the (_"
about 50 years with a cover crop after each crop of dum from fills comparison- _
tobacco. The influence of these cropping programs ((;(mmm(,(] 7,,, pugt, 12) N.,
~.
6 l.. e  *2 —.f¤·ti». X   . .\.··’
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». .< .‘..     F. ·   -·1 *   ·f’·  it  i w   si     °~ 
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lr .. U. yjqs ,. . . .,   `   . rs
 ··~ as   ‘v·. .      .4   VV; is   \ .’v·   \ #0. > ter-P   » ~- Pg? - »• ‘·‘
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l  gs    “‘ =’·c    leaf    ‘‘‘'       "`ii} ?'*’•‘··l`餑*` all ~%lllW x ,4:0,
is  ~  ¤·=»··· ‘ ¤$       . “ T·:-4:*3%.  *7 e  ' {ger. cf! —. t " FE? . lf §"§.` ‘ vf
‘   "“.’iC` IW     ~—" *~c’i2s"  A     ~~\   ll" `   qc W’°‘· al “··· · "
§  [ . As.  ‘ ~=·‘· *“~— Z  I    ··   .. .?ic»;~‘ \· l -e¤..·i§.2A..&4f$l.s..‘ ·*¤l7¤z». .Iil;··'3}•c.I.’ A
Fig. l.- This shows the tunneling of crunefly larvae iu the Fig, 2,- Muddy trails which dry into a hard crust nntrk the
· gr top 2 inches ol` soil. A dime shows the relative size of larvae siii·1’ai:€ iimiviiy of rraiieily larvae. This activity occurs at
and the tunnels, iiighi,
`V T0 ppgvgut (laluagg [0 lggpgdgza churning the surface of the soil; their `muddy trails _
t~ _ d . dried into a hard crust (Fig. 2). All of tlus activity
1 stan s, entomologists seek . _ , . D,
· prevented the lespedeza from getminating. 11ect
ie feeding also occurred, as revealed by close examina-
tion of plants and the stomach contents of larvae.
t Cranefly Larvae
~“ Insecticide Sprays
' `     A small plot test was conducted in a uniformly in·
( fested 7-acre lespedeza field. Population counts of 85
_ to 100 larvae per square foot in the top 2 inches of
ll? l· ('· l{0l)l{l(’Ul;Z soil were common. On March 27 plots 0.01 acre in
&* size were sprayed, using a compressed air sprayer
. Kentucky farmers should be alert in the fall to de- €(llllPP€(l Wllll ll lllll Pllllelll Tesisl llOZZl€ lllld lll°‘
tect signs of the swarming craneflies, particularly in PlYlllg 50 glllllllls Ol SPYRY llllxlllle Pol llCl°· rlllle l`°‘
` l' lespedeza fields. The flies lay eggs during October $llll$ Ol lllls lest lll? Pl`€‘S€`lllCfl lll Tlllllo l·
and N0Y€mb€1l’ Yvlllcll later hatch into maggots that Table l.- Control of (Iranelly Larvae Infesting Cerminating
may seriously affect lespedeza stands. LCsl,cd€,l,
*` C1‘&1ll€l’ll€S l`l;1V€ ge‘llGl`i1lly ll()t l)€‘€l] COllSl(l€1'6‘(l S€l`1-    IQ;-"·
+ ous economic pests, and few references can be found (T§$¤l·¤;;¤l;;¤};§“
_ _ _ _ HC H B 1 `¢ ' “' fri . .  *74**72 "   fg I
 J 4 in the literature of economic ventomology. In scattered **7 ,1.()mPhm€’ 45,ZE_M` 5 lb 102 7
  instances, however, real infestations have arisen; a 2_ Brig 10% wp_ og ll) ig)5 rss;
smug, notable example of this is the range cranefly which 3. DDT, 50% WP, 3 ll> 213 ll;
= - ·   · -. ·;-»‘ "2 22l ('—
  has sometnnes appeared nt (r2llll’()I`lll21 ranges, pastures     Q}; ’U all;} ms QH
. Q · . 1 A , · 0 , ......· · <
>m llllll tillllll- rs. ntmtimm 15% w1¤,o.-as m os
E ln Kentucky, reports of cranefly larvae (sometimes LQltcck—no trgilnfnt rgw L7iiW—g l Ugg gr
r l`€l‘il`l`€"l lo as “l€*llll€l"l*‘Cl"’lS”l dlllllg fltllllagc lo les' t»$i$°ip.‘1lL`?§l?é`p°i£§‘5`SiSZ.‘Z$€°t‘E{`Zi§L"§l`$hLEEY.lCc ‘Z.'2°5·»`L€`tH%T§ p‘é¥`Z‘S$£
f nedeza had been SC3.tt€1'€(l lll f1`€ u€11C until 3, hegv on March 27. Temperature means for test period: Max., 61°, Min., 3B°
l
_ _ _ _ F. Total precipitation for 3-day period: 0.13 inch.
" infestation occurred in Graves county in the early
V spring of 1953. The larvae, identified as Tipula cutie- Llle lll$lOlY $llldl€S» llllllle Qlllllllg 1953 llllll l95‘l»
..’ fans Say, generally were {Ouml in lespedem Helds Or revealed that the adult fhes mate and lay eggs in Octo-
, in such fields where spring oats were seeded in old ll€l` llllll €llllY Nlwelllllcl`- Tllc Cgi-is lllllcll lll l to 3
, lespedeza fields. The organic matter from the previous weeks. llllll lll€ l¥ll`Vll€ lllwlllllll l`llPllllY lll _llll’ $Pl`llll¥
l season had formed a thin, rotting mat on the soil sur- Wlllill lll€Y lll) lll€ll` lllllllll$€l`· rlll“Y l`l’llCll lllll glllwlll
*74 face, and the larvae were tunneling and honeycombing lll llle llll(lllll* lll lllc $lllllllll`l` “’lll`ll llll’Y lllllll sells 4
tht. top Sgvoyal inches of Soil (Fil ly C(mSl(lCml)l€ to 12 inches below the surface and remain inactive
" damage also occurred as the result of their habit of (C,,,,,i,,,“.([ ml paw, H)
sl Kmrrucitr Faust Axn lloxuc SClliNCli—lTAl.l. 1956 7
¢
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Highest early tobacco plant   =;..     '»»_ 3 .;Vl .     _,-_. Z A     A1 1   -·v» ; »»V°’‘ A  
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to Control Weeds      a    ~ ~t‘      c;a a       V    1   ·
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Xlethyl l)l`()Illl(l(’, a gas lumtgaut used to l<1ll weed-           y  ,.. .  ".~     •’
_ W k   ` :1   .`     .,1   ' ,~-‘ j;·· .5 ‘   1¥ és ’ '        
seed 111 burley tobacco beds, showed the best results     1 11     `,t ‘   V;_’   I
· · . .     .,   ‘ _ _ ‘   ·"°   ' '   "  ".\'  ‘   __jv».. **’; · 1 ; ;·1q·:_ " 
lll fllt‘ Spflllg, Ltlltl I)t‘l`lUlflt‘(l lllgllest ezll'ly-pltlllt I)1'0-   {pf t§:£&A@·   1 . -==·     wr-   _
(lll(JlZl()Il, ll(J(,‘()l`(llllg to tests tlllS year at the Kentucky   `" ·· ,    ;*!·<,`     V
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ll 1< tl tlll( sp1111g._ttsts, Illtlly 1101111t t, vapam, .( _   I .. T 1 1 I , E,   is ~ 4,.;-  W, _ ,
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l()ll, tlllt tl y tl LO 10 Wtle llb(( , says   F. F1€€ll];1ll, _O   ..   11 _={.  _1   _.»,w_ W ~  .   -  
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