xt7pk06wzb28 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7pk06wzb28/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1964 journals 141 English Lexington : Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Kentucky Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Progress report (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n.141 text Progress report (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n.141 1964 2014 true xt7pk06wzb28 section xt7pk06wzb28 -- 9
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Department of Agricultural Economics oncl School of Home Economics • Lexington


· Page
INTRODUCTION ................... 5
  PROCEDURE .................... 6
’ ANALYSIS AND RESULTS ............... 6
Responses to the Folder and the Black—and—White
V L Duplicated Letter ................ 6
Influence of Color .............. 6
What Was Done with the Recipes . ........ 7
Awareness and Use .............. 7
Attitudes ................. 8
_ Cottage Cheese Use and Recipe Preference ...... 8
Characteristics of Homemakers Who Responded to
Mailed Materials .............. 9
4 Responses to the Recipe Booklets ........... I0
Influence of Education ............. IO
Influence of Income .............. 11
l Opinions About Usefulness ........... 12
SUMMARY AND EVALUATION .............. 12
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................... 14
l APPENDIX ..................... I5 A

 ( Homemakers' Responses to
Mailed Cottage Cheese Recipes
(Color and Black-and-White Comparison)
The mail is widely used to transmit educational and advertising materials of all
sorts to homemakers. Do theypay attention to this kind of information? In this experi-
ment, 1, 000 homemakers were mailed unsolicited recipes on the use of cottage cheese.
· Half of them received a multi-colored folder printed on post card stock giving recipes
and also an envelope stuffer printed in color on 70-pound book paper, which also gave
recipes (see Appendix). The other half of the homemakers received the same recipes
V in a duplicated letter printed in black ink (no color) (see Appendix). The recipes
were identified only as having been prepared by the American Dairy Association Test
Kitchen. This material is for use by dairy companies and, ordinarily, would be distri-
buted by them under a name or brand imprint. The purpose was to determine (1) what
homemakers recalled about, and (2) what they did with mailed material in general and
recipes in particular. A further objective was to compare the effectiveness of the art
work printed in color with that of the duplicated letter printed in black ink. Data were
obtained from 754 women by telephone interviews.
The study was conducted in Lexington, a city having a metropolitanpopulation of
approximately 132, 000 . It is the county seat of Fayette county and an important education-
_ al, cultural and medical center. Commercial interests are primarily those servicing
business and light industry groups. Inrespect to employment, Lexington has a high pro-
portion of professional jobs and an expanding economy which has kept employmentrela-
tively high. Of the women in the study, 66 percent were full-time homemakers, while
34 percent were either part- or full-time workers away from home. In 1963 the average
family income of the households surveyed was $6, 680, and the average size of family
was 3. 4 persons. §/ Census data show the population of Lexington metropolitan area to
1Department of Agricultural Economics and School of Home Economics, cooperating. This publication V
is a contribution to the Southern Regional Project SM-13 (R) "Constuner Responses to Food Promotions and Edu-
cation." The direct mail media surveys involved the collaboration of the Agricultural Experiment Stations of
4 Alabama, Kentucky and South Carolina. This report is a portion of KEHUICKYIS contribution to the project.
2Assistant in Agricultural Economics, Professor of Agricultural Economics, and Assistant Professor of
Home Economics, respectively. The authors express appreciation to the American Dairy Association for furnish-
ing copies of the recipe booklet, "Creative Cooking With Cottage Cheese" and the multi-colored folders and cn-
velope stuffers. Appreciation is also extended to the University of Kentucky Computing Center for aid in the develop-
ment of the basic tables of the survey data. Acknowledgment is also made of the assistance of Dr. A. ]. Brown,
chairman, Department of Agricultural Economics, and Dr. Abby L. Marlatt, Professor of H¤mC B€0¤0mi€$ r
University of Kentucky.
3Data on family income, size offamily and the employment of homemakers check very closely with data
published in reports of the City-County Planning Commission of Lexington and Fayette county on approximately
the same dates. In this study, part-time work was defined as less than 35 hours per week, full-time employment
as 35 hours or more per week.

 be approximately 15 percent nonwhite, mostly Negro. While the levels of income and
education reported are somewhat above average, the city is not uniquely different from A
other urban populations. Differences which do exist are in degree rather than kind.fL_/ ·
The city telephone directory was used to obtain the sample. From its approxi-
mately 30, 000 listings, a 5 percent random sample of homemakers was drawn. Using
a random process, the sample of names was divided into three groups of 500 each. In .
March 1963, the duplicated letter was mailed to members of one of the groups. At the
same time, the multi-colored folder and the envelope stuffer were mailed to the second
group. The information in eachwas identical. The third list of 500 names was set aside
as a control. ‘
Within a four—week period after the material was mailed, atelephone survey was
conducted. Each homemaker was asked if she had received any material throughthe .
mail, and if so, did she remember what it was about. Also, she was asked about the »
use she had made of the material. Interviews were continued until 248 schedules were
obtained from homemakers known to have been mailed the letter, and 257 schedules
were obtained from homemakers who were mailed the folder. In addition, 249 home-
makers who had not received either a folder and stuffer or letter were asked questions
about mailed material including questions about cottage cheese recipes.§/ At the close
of the interview, each homemaker was asked, "WOL1ldy0L1 like to 1`€C€iV€ 3 cottage cheese _
or salad recipe booklet?" Six hundred fifty homemakers requested booklets. One—half .
of them were sent a booklet, "Creative Cooking with Cottage Cheese, " 9 which had a
four—color—process lithographed cover and color on other pages. The other half were
sent a booklet, "Salads, " 3/ which was printed entirely in black ink.
Responses to the Multi—Colored Folder and the .
Black—and—White Duplicated Letter
It was believed, when this study was undertaken, that the folder printed in color ` »
with enclosed envelope stuffer would be remembered more readily than the duplicated
letter printed inblack ink. It was also believed that the content of the folder and stuffer
would be recalled by a greater number than the content of the letter. Acorollary question
was whether the letter or the card would be the more informative. Almosthalf (49 per-
cent) remembered receiving the material, and 92 percent of these remembered that it
4Most cities and communities in Kentucky have families whose age, income, education, cultural and
other backgrounds parallel those found in Lexington. Families with similar characteristics have much in common
as consumers irrespective of their geographic location. To the extent that this is true, the findings of this study
have application in other cities.
5The control group could not have given correct answers to specific questions about the mailed recipes.
lt` any important number of this group had given correct or positive answers, considerable doubt would have been
raised about the validity ot results in this experiment.
U"Creative Cooking with Cottage Cheese, " G442-A American Dairy Association (328 received this).
7"Salatls, " University ot Kentucltzy Cooperative Extension Circular 45l-A (322 received this).

 was about dairy products. Of the women who were mailed the folder and envelope stuff-
er, 47 percent remembered receiving it, while 52 percent remembered receiving the
duplicated letter. According to the "t" test the difference in these two percentages was
not significant. Ofthe womenwho remembered receiving the folder and stuffer, 88 per-
cent recalled that they concerned dairy products, while of those women who remembered
receiving the letter, 96 percent recalled that itwas about dairy products. The difference
in these two percentages was significant at the 2 percent level in favor of the duplicated
letter (see Table l).
All Black- and— Color "t"
I-lomemakers White Letter Folder Value
Number of women responding 505 248 257 -—
Percent who recalled
receiving mailed recipes 49% 52% 47% 1. 06
Percent of these who re-
called the content 92% 96% 88% 2. 38
In the control group, only one homemaker said she had received a recipe folder
about dairy products. Accordingly, a basis was established for comparing the influence
of the folder and the duplicated letter.
Contrary to expectations, the use of color did not increase awareness ofreceigt
of these particular mailed recipes. Neither did it accelerate recall of the contents. _/
This suggests that if the homemaker is interested, the information can be printed in black
ink or in color and be equally well remembered. Possibly, the use of color makes the
. communication more pleasing but not necessarily more informative.
To explore the influence that the recipes had, each homemaker was asked whether
any ofthe recipes appealed to her, whether she prepared any of the recipes for her fam-
ily, and what she had done with the materials.
Eight percent of the homemakers said they had tried one or more of the recipes.
Seventy—one percent reported that they had saved the material. The remainder had
either given or thrown it away. Of all families participating, the folders were saved
by 74 percent and the letters by 70 percent. Apparently, many homemakers place a
high value on recipes, even if not used at once. The convenience of the folder (5 by 3
inches) may have been a factor responsible for the increased saving of the card.
Since the purpose in mailing the information was to make the homemaker aware
of cottage cheese and to encourage her to use it in different ways, a recall of nearly 50
8"Ihese findings are similar to those in (Anon. )"Recognition and Recall Values oIColor, " N. Y. Agr. Exp.
Sta. (Cornell) Communications Res. Bul. 3, p. 5 (1962).

 percent and a trial by 8 percent of the homemakers indicate that mailed materials are
an effective device for creating awareness. However, the sender of mailed material
hopes to do more than merely create awareness; he wants to focus attention on the pro-
duct and to increase its sale. If sales are a prime objective, increased purchases would V
have to cover the cost of the materials and the postage to make it worthwhile.
It was hypothesized that once the homemaker was aware of the product and was
reminded of ways to use it, she would be encouraged to purchase the item and would have
it on hand at the time of the interview. It was further hypothesized that the attractive .
card-folder printed in color would have more impact than would the duplicated letter
printed inblack ink and, if the mailed material had any effect, the homemakers who re-
ceived it would be more likely to have cottage cheese on hand thanwould those of the
control group who had not received this reminder. Accordingly, the question was asked
of each homemaker: "Do you have any cottage cheese onhand‘?" This inventory showed
that 51 percent of the white and 36 percent of the Negro respondents had cottage cheese
on hand. Similar, but greater, differences were noted in a previous study.?] Percent-
ages varied slightly in favor of the nonexposed or control group, but the tests of signifi- -
canoe showed no difference between the folder, letter and control groups. It must be
concluded that the mailed recipes either had no overriding impact on purchases among
surveyed families, or if they did, the inventory question in the survey failed to measure
it. w At the same time, it must be recognized that increasing the variety of uses and
continued awareness resulting from the mailed media are positive factors which may be
reflected in longer-run sales. A favorable attitude is the first step in expanding the
market and creating new or additional sales. i
Generally, the attitude of the homemakers in the study was favorable toward cottage
cheese so far as its cost is concerned. When asked, "What are the reasons you do not
serve cottage cheese?", none of the women interviewed mentioned that cottage cheese
was too expensive to serve. It was found that all members in 67 percent of the families
interviewed liked cottage cheese. Sixty—nine percent indicated that they served it at
least once a week. Only 4 percent of all families never served it. On the other hand,
when asked why the recipes failed to appeal to them, over one-third (37 percent) said
that it was because their family members did not like cottage cheese. In these fam-
ilies, usually itwas the children (47 percent) and husband (34percent) who did not like it. ‘ I
Only 15 percent of the homemakers reported that they themselves did not like cottage
cheese. Twelve percent of the families said the recipes did not appeal because they
were satisfied with the status quo and never tried new recipes. Although only 8 percent
indicated that they had already tried one or more of the recipes, others said that they
planned to but had not had time. This is understandable as the interviewing was done
within a four—week period after the material was mailed out.
When the homemaker was asked how she used cottage cheese, a combination .
with "lruit" ranked first, "plain" second, and "in salads with vegetables" third. About
9Roberts, _Iohn B. "Consu1nptionofMi].kandDairyProducts." Ky. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 660, p. 16 (1958).
[0No information was obtained on the size of package or amounts being consumed. Moreover, itis recog-
nired that the study was made during the Lenten season, and that cottage cheese is among acceptable products ad-
vertised and promoted by dairy interests and others. No special,out-of—ordinary promotion occurred, however, at
the time of this study. Recipes were supplementary to what was considered to be a normal marketing situation for
the particular season.

Color Duplicatcd
Total Folder Letter
-- Percent 
Frozen fruit salad (recipe only) 27 21 34
Peach and grape emerald (color picture) 22 23 21
Peach and cottage cheese (color picture) 11 13 8
Cottage cheese and scrambled eggs
(recipe only) 7 7 6
Creamy cheese dressing (recipe only) 6 9 2
Cottage cheese pancakes (recipe only) 5 4 6
All recipes liked equally well 22 23 23
10 percent used it in snacks and a lesser percentage in cooked dishes. When these uses
were compared with preferences for the specific recipes in the mailed material, there
appeared to be a considerable parallel.
In the group receiving the duplicated letter, the frozen fruit salad was first, with
the peach and grape emerald second. With the group of homemakers who received the
folder printed in color, the peach and grape emerald recipe, illustrated in color, was
first choice. The frozen fruit salad recipe wasa close second, even though it was not
illustrated in color, while the peach and cottage cheese combination illustrated in color
(no recipe) was third (Table 2). When the overall preferences of the homemakers were
studied, the frozen fruit salad was found to have been selected more often than either of
the two recipes illustrated in color.
The comparison of preference for given recipes and reported actual use reveal-
eda surprisingly large consumption of plain cottage cheese. For the other uses, there
was a high correlation between cottage cheese and fruits. The more"unusual" or "special-
ty" uses had much less appeal. While new uses and/or modification of old recipes hold
some promise for expanding markets, many homemakers are hesitant to try them. Ac-
cordingly, efforts to get wider acceptance of customary uses are more promising. The
approach would indicate that cottage cheese promotional efforts might well be directed
toward finding out how to get the husband and the children to use it. Quick and easy-to-
fix snack food might have this appeal and, thus, increase use.
When results were analyzed in relation to such factors as employment status,
age and education of the homemakers and per capita income of family members, any
differences between the effectiveness of black—and-white versus color were insignifi-
cant; but the relation of these factors to general awareness of mailed materials was of
interest to the authors. Homemakers who did not work outside the home paid more at-
tention to the unsolicited material they received in the mail than did the women who
worked part or full time away from home. Ten percent more of the full—time home-
makers (54 percent as compared with 44 percent) remembered receiving the recipes.

 Young homemakers (under 30) were most aware of the recipes. This awareness
decreased as age increased, with women 50 and over paying least attention (59 percent
as compared with 40 percent). Moreover, as the homemaker's education increased, a- A
wareness increased. Forty—two percent who had completed the eighth grade or less _
remembered receiving the material, while 62 percent of those at the college level re-
membered it. Women in families with per capita incomes of $1, 200—$2, 400 were more
alert to mailed media than were women in either lower or higher income groups.
These findings might indicate that the most profitable targetfor mailed advertising
would be the young, wel1—educated, middle—income homemakers who were not employed
outside the home.
Response to The Recipe Booklets
Evaluation of the effectiveness of black—and—white versus color in mailed ad- . I
vertising materials was pursued further by measuring responses to queries about the
recipe booklets which were sent to the 650 study participants who requested them. Both
publications were judged to be attractive in design and similar in clarity of illustration
and content. Enclosed with each booklet was a letter thanking the homemaker for her
cooperation in the survey and asking her two multiple-choice questions concerning her
attitude toward the booklet.Q/ Also enclosed was a self-addressed, stamped envelope.
The homemaker was asked to give her first impression of the booklet by checking one I
answer to each question, then making comments if she cared to do so. ‘
The hypothesis was that 10 to 15 percent would return the letter which was en-
closed with the "Creative Cooking with Cottage Cheese" booklet and the "Salads" book-
let and that the booklet printed in color would meet with greater approval than the one
printed in black ink. Actually, there was no appreciable difference in the number of
letters returned from those receiving each; 34 percent returned the letter sent with the
"Salads" recipe booklet, while a 30 percent return was received from those receiving
the booklet, "Creative Cooking with Cottage Cheese." Favorable comments were made
about both booklets.
Factors which appeared to affect the homemaker's response to the booklet were
her education and the per capita income of her family. '
From those homemakers with a grade school education who received the booklet
printed in color, a 16 percent return was received. This can be compared with 28 per-
cent from those with a high school education and 41 percent from the homemakers who
had attended or completed college (Table 3).
Of homemakers with a grade school education receiving "Salads" (no color), 24 .
percent returned the letter as compared with a 29 and 44 percent return from thosewith
high school education and those who had attended or completed college, respectively.
The difference was greatest at the grade school level where 8 percent more of those who
had received the black—and—white material than of those who received the material in
color were impressed enough to return the letter.
11 _
Sec copy ot letter in Appendix.

I-Iomemakers Vxfho Homemakers Who I-Iomemakers Who
All Homemakers Returned Enclosed Received Black-and- Received Colored
D Educational Receiving Booklet Letter White Booklet Booklet
t Level (650) (207) (322) (328)
j No. No. % No. 96 No. %
Grade school 87 17 20 9 24 8 16
High school 332 93 28 49 29 44 28
Some or all of
college 216 93 43 49 44 44 41
s No information 15 4 —— 2 —— 2 —-
Total 650 207 32 109 34 98 30
The relationship of family income to returns and comments on the recipe booklets
was similar to that found when the homemakers were grouped by education. The response
from homemakers with less than $1, 200 per capita income and from those with less than
eight years of formal schoolingwas 21 and 20 percent, respectively. Of those with high-
er per capita income, 35 to 40 percent responded (Table 4). An examination of Tables
3 and 4 together shows that education was amore discriminating factor thanincome level
in identifying the homemakers who were motivated to report reactions to the recipe
booklets . 12/
I-iomemakers \/Vho Homemakers Who I·lomcmu1-erts,]ohn B, "Souree:4
of information and Food Buying Decisions." Ky, Agr, Exp, Sta. Southern Coop. Series Bu]. 85 (1963).
l 1

When the homemakers who received the bookletprinted in color were asked, "How
do you feel about the individual recipes‘?", 88 percent said that they were impressed I
with them and thought they were worth saving, 53/ while 12 percent said they were of
limited usefulness or were indifferent to them. When the same question was asked
about the black—and—white booklet, 90 percent were impressed and 10 percent were in-
When asked the question, "Generally, for what occasions do you think the recipes
in the booklet are intended?", 82 percent of the homemakers reporting their evaluation
of "Salads" felt that its contents were intended to meet the demand for "all occasions, "
yet 18 percent felt that the primary value would be for special occasions and guests. In
contrast, 70 percent of those receiving "Creative Cooking with Cottage Cheese," felt ‘ .
that the information was well suited for all—occasion and family meals. Thirty percent r ·
thought of it primarily in connection with guest meals (Table 5).
Black-and—White Color
Booklet Booklet  
llomemaker's Impression (109 §/ (98 LV
Percent g
Thought booklet gave suggestions for
all—occasl0n and family meals 82 70 "
Thought booklet gave ideas for guest .
and special meals 18 30
2/ Number of homemakers who returned the enclosed letter l I
This raises the question of whether color was the factor which influencedthe
homemakers to feel that this booklet was fancier and more elaborate and not so useful i
for all occasions as the black—and—white one. Itwas equally true that "Salads" contained
recipes that would appeal primarily for special occasions.
Telephone interviews revealed that 49 percent of a sample of homemakers who
had been mailed unsolicited recipes remembered having received them, and 92 percent
of these knew that the recipes concerned dairy products. Eight percenthad tried one or
more of the recipes, 70 percent reported saving the material, and the others had given .
or thrown it away. Folders printed in color were saved more than the duplicated letter
printed in black ink, but the difference was not marked.
No generalization about color as applied to mailed media is made from this ex-
periment. But, contrary to expectation, the use of a card—folder of recipes printed in
color did not increase awareness over the same recipes on a duplicated letter format
(no color); neither did color accelerate recall of the contents of materials. A significant
point is that, once the homemaker is interested or motivated, the information printed in
black ink or in color will be equally well remembered.
13ln the analysis, Questions l and 2, and 3 and 4 in Question A zmdl and 3 in Question Bwere combined.
See questions in letter in Appendix.
12 -

 Essentially, the same findings are valid with respect to the recipe booklets sent
on request. These publications were equally well received. Color may have made one
of them more attractive but not necessarily more informative. Because of this, home-
makers might prefer one over the other, irrespective of identical information and con-
tent. No attempt was made in this study to measure such preferences.
. In connection with acceptability of the mailed material, several points came to
the fore: First, the awareness and interest of the homemakers increased as their edu-
` cational level rose from grade school through high school and college. Second, their
interest decreased with age, being least among women 50 years and over and greatest
· among young women (under 30). Third, homemakers from middle-income families paid
more attention to mailed materials than did those from either the low- or the high-income
groups. And finally, the nonworking homemakers read their mail and remembered its
A content to a greater extent than those who worked part or full time away from home.
_ " These factors suggest that selectivitywith respect to the above—mentioned characteristics
would be an effective way to reduce wasted money in mailed media of this sort.
When asked, "Do you have any cottage cheese on hand ?, " abouthalf of the white
_ and a little more than a third of the Negro sample said "yes." These proportions were
` no different for the nonexposed or control group. It must be concluded that either the
‘ mailed recipes had no overriding impact on sales or that the inventory survey failed to
measure it. This does not deny, however, that awareness, knowledge of use and favor-
able attitudes were positive results—the first step in creating new and additional sales .
, The most importantreason given for not serving cottage cheese was that someone
in the family did not like it. Nonusers were children in 47 percent and husbands in 34
percent of the cases reported. While new uses and modification of old recipes hold
some promise, many homemakers will still not try them. Accordingly, wider accept-
ance of customary uses and finding out how to get men and children to like cottage cheese
hold great promise. Attractive, quick and easy-to-fix snacks might have this appeal and
increase the use of cottage cheese. The quality of the product usually lends itself to be
used plain, as a bedtime snack for all ages, an afternoon pep-up for youngsters arriving
A home from school, and for party snacks.

Birren, F., "What‘s the Real Value of Color in Advertising?" Advertising
Agency Magazine, 50:60 (May 24, 1959).
Wulp, J. E. , "Color: How Much? How Often? How Effective ?", Printers Ink, O
258:21 (Jan. 1957). ·
Anon. "What Words in anAd Cannot Say," Business Week, May 14, 1960, pp. 45
through 46.
Anon. Attention and Retention Values of Color, N.Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) I
Communications Res. Bul. 1 (1960).
Anon. Recoggition and Recall Values of Color, N.Y. Agr. Exp. Sta. (Cornell) I
Communications Res. Bul. 3 (1962).
Anon. Is Color Necessary? University of Illinois College of Agricultural Com-
- munication Research Report 11 (1962).

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