xt7pk06wzt7x https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7pk06wzt7x/data/mets.xml Louisiana Louisiana Historical Records Survey 1941 Other creators include: United States. Work Projects Administration. Division of Community Service Programs. xvii, 183 p., 3 l. illus. (maps) 28 cm. "Publications prepared by the Louisiana Historical records survey, Division of community service programs, Work projects administration": p. 181-183. "Publications prepared by the Survey of federal archives, Division of community service programs, Work projects administration in Louisiana": 3 leaves at end. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call number FW 4.14:L 97c/2. books  English University, La., The Dept. of archives, Louisiana state university Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Louisiana Works Progress Administration Publications Inventory of the Church and Synagogue Archives of Louisiana, Jewish Congregations and Organizations. Prepared by the Louisiana Historical Records Survey, Division of Community Service Programs, Work Projects Administration text Inventory of the Church and Synagogue Archives of Louisiana, Jewish Congregations and Organizations. Prepared by the Louisiana Historical Records Survey, Division of Community Service Programs, Work Projects Administration 1941 2015 true xt7pk06wzt7x section xt7pk06wzt7x   K
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Qi'? T SE F ii 5 ‘af Atonement may have served the congregation, present rabbi, and officers of the
congregation. Each record series is described in a sub-entry. l
The Records gub-entries
Exact titles of records are given in upper case type; assigned
titles are in upper case but enclosed in brackets. An explanatory title
added beside an exact title is given initial capitals only and enclosed ,
in parentheses. The first and last dates of the record are shown in the
title line of the sub-entry. One date followed by two dashes signifies
that this record is current, as 1854--. Continuous records are shown
by a hyphen between the beginning and closing dates, as 1896-1903.
Gaps in the records are indicated by a comma between groups of inclusive
dates, as 1891-96, 1899-l9l3, 1917--,
Where no comment is made on the absence of previous or subsequent
records, no definite information on that point could be obtained. Where
no statement is made that a record was discontinued at the terminal date
shown in the entry, it could not be definitely established that such was
the case. If no comment is made on the condition of a records series,
it is assumed that the whole series is in good condition.
The dimensions of volumes, file boxes, and maps are given in inches.
Location of each records series is indicated when necessary.
3 V

 { xii
Editorial Notes
Spelling of Names fOr
Jewish names of congregations, cemeteries, and organizations appear JSWE
followed by their English equivalents in parentheses. There is no uni- the
form way of spelling the transliterated names; Shangari Chassed (Gates the-
of Mercy) is used in New Orleans while Shaarc Chesed {Gates of Mercy) is and
common in Baton Rouge. The word "societyh is spelled chevre and chevra.
These differences in spelling are accepted as the probable result of an gcve
effort to transliterate phonetically characters peculiar to the Hebrew WhO’
language. ggng
Citations gilc
··———-——· o
All citations to published works and magazine articles are given in L?u1
full the first time that one such appears in the Inventory. Thereafter Eg;
a shortened form is used. .
Citations to the acts of the Legislature and General Assemblies of ffll
the State of Louisiana refer to the act and section numbers, except for lisk
the years l8l3-27, 1830, 1832-35, and l838. The acts for these years A pf
are not numbered, hence citation is made to the page of the beginning of &§d€
the act in the official publication. The acts of the Legislative Council Of {
and Territorial Legislatures, l804-O5 through l9ll, are cited by the and
chapter numbers in Roman numerals and by page numbers in Arabic figures. thgi
Legal instruments are cited as they were found in the offices of the tbic
various parish recorders. This is a matter of local record-keeping; it ‘ `
varies from parish to parish. Obscure publications, pamphlets, and gain
» privately printed material are treated in the same manner as widely held lf ,
publications, but the location of a rare copy is given. All interviews tlgl
used in citations are recorded in the files of the Statewide Records O H
Project. ggii
Louisiana Law Pertaining to Religious Organizations and
The charter issued to the Company of the West in l7l7 by the French -———
Crown represents one of the earlier legal documents in which religion in l_
Louisiana is mentioned. This instrument provided that the company should
be obligated to build churches at all settlements, further the salvation
of the inhabitants, including "the Indians, savages and negroes"; and to 2_
maintain approved ecclesiastics, "all under the authority of the Bishop
of Queboc...the parish priests and other ecclesiastics" to remain under 3_
V his "nomination and patronage." Such stipulations had not been imposed 4_
on the Crozat Company which had failed proviously.(l) 5_
Probably the best known of the Louisiana legal religious pronounce- g_
ments was the Code Noir (Black Code). This was published in 1724 on
order of Governor Bienville. Most of the code dealt with regulations
l. Roger Baudier, The Catholic Church in Louisiana, pp. 41,42. g_

Editorial Notes
for slaves. However, the first five sections ordered the expulsion of
,iOnS appear Jews from the colony, forbade the exercises of any church other than
is m0 uni_ the Roman Catholic, ordered that slaves be instructed and baptized in
Lgd (Gatgs the_Catholic faith, banned employment of any but Catholic overseers,
§*MCrCy) is and ordered cessation of all work on Sundays and holy days.(l)
and GhCvr&_ When the colony passed to Spanish domination in l769 the frame of
,Sult"E¥‘EH government adopted by the new officials centered about the governor
phe Hebrew who, in a kind of an inaugural address, called attention to new ordi- _
nances and regulations he intended. The power of the governor approached
absolutism.(2) Governor Alexander o'Rei1iy, first of the Spanish gov-
ernors, issued a set of instructions closely adhering to the practices
which had existed under the French.(3) Thus for all practical purposes,
the stringent provisions of the Code Noir remained in effect until
re given in Louisiana came to the possession; of the~United States in l803.(4) After
Thereaftgr the Louisiana Purchase the "Black Code" continued in cxistence,(5) but
the jurisdiction of the Constitution of the United States negated its
lembligs Of religious applications.(6)
except fOr _ Complete religious liberty came to the territory in lCC3, estab-
LSG years lished by the Congressional act enabling the taking of Louisiana,
Gginning Of approved by the president on October 3lst of that year. The act pro-
tive Council vided that powers conferred on officials appointed pending organization
_ by the of that territory "shall be exercised in such mannor...for maintaining
pic figures. and protecting the inhabitants of Louisiana in the free enjoyment of
ficés Of the their liberty, property and religion."(7) The same Congress added to ·
Geping; it this guarantee in March 1804 by restricting the newly created legislative 4
S, and council against passage of any law inconsistent with the Constitution of
WidGly held the United States or which would restrain any person on account of re-
intgrviews ligious opinions, profession, or worship "in all which he may be free
RGOOrdS to maintain his own, and not burthened for those of anotherJ(8) Con-
gressional action of l8ll, enabling the people of Louisiana to form a
constitution pursuant to admission into the union, included the provision
that the instrument should contain the fundamental principles of civil
and religious liberty.(9)
’the French --......................._.._....i......................................
rggggilxoilid 1. ltlceenlfortier, é History 2; Louisiana, 1, eyes.   & "Gode {
G Salvation Sgigé rublications oi the Louisiana Historical Society, IV (l908),
n_ 9 •
i;€’B?;;O;O 2. Coodspeed Publishing Co., Biographical and Historical Memoirs of
_ Louisiana, I, 35.
main under 3_ i§E€TT—Tg2·
QH 1mP¤Ssd 4. Henry E. Chambers, History of Louisiana, I, 155.
5. Cr. Terr. A., l806, XXXIll._—
l§;;nOUn°€' 6. Acts of the;8th,U. S. Congress, lst sess., ch. I, sec. l,
_O“ approved Oct. 31, 1803. For first executive assurance of full
“l&t1°¤S religious liberty see Clarence Edwin Carter, comp. and ed., The
Territorial Papers of the United States, IX (The Territory of——
..._..___ orieaas, 1so3-i2§, K   `
7. ldem.
2• S. Acts of the Sth U. S. Congress, lst sess., ch. XXXVIII, sec. 4,
approved Oct. Bl, 1803.
9. Acts of the llth U. S. Uongress, Bd sess., ch. XXI, see. 3,
approved Feb. 20, l§ll.

 S xiv
Editorial Notes
Peculiarly there was no specific provision in the Louisiana Consti- Egcsf
tution of 1812 covering freedom of worship. The Louisiana Supreme Court for Q
in a church case years later held that such inclusion was not necessary, Cond,
that the subject had been settled by solemn compact between the original l92l`
states and the people of Louisiana as indicated by the various acts of Setté
Congress.(l) This first Constitution, in the preamble, did proclaim its b tk
ordination "to secure...the right of life, liberty and property." Giro]
Further, it exempted from military service, on certain payment, persons in 1,
belonging to religious societies whose tenets forbade them to carry `
arms.(2) The right also was given by implication in the establishment ;;§;€
of an unhampered press, granting privilege of freely speaking, writing, Cert,
or printing on any subject.(3) The latter remained unchanged in the ment
constitutions of 1845 and 1852, but any reference to religious liberty Chang
was still omitted. ·
Then the Constitution of 1868 proclaimed that "every person has the giggi
right to worship God according to the dictates of his conscience."(4) prin,
This was followed by the Constitution of 1879 which said that "no law regu]
shall be passed respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting nOn_1
the free exercise thereof...and that no preference shall ever be given Othel
to, nor discrimination made against any church, sect or creed of reli— In 1S
gion or any form of religious faith or worship."(5) Identical safe- pro 6
guards are contained in the constitutions of 1898, 1913, and l92l.(@) GOn£$
Other peculiarities of the Constitution of 1812 were prohibition bed k
of a minister becoming governor (7) and the ineligibility of any GOSPQ
minister, priest, or religious teacher for a seat in the legislature propé
or "any office of profit or trust under this state."(8) The discrimi- purpc
nation against ministers serving as governor was continued in 1845 On t,
with additional prohibition relating to the office of lieutenant gov- any U
ernor.(9) The provision was dropped in 1852, revived by the conven— Stitl
tion of 1864, but excluded in subsequent constitutions, men of the cept
cloth being eligible today for thc chief exeoutive’s chair. The bar princ
against pastors in the legislature and in other offices was not
written into the 1845 Constitution or thereafter.
Incorporation of churches, religious societies, cemetery associa-
tions and the like was effected during the early Louisiana statehood
1. Nardens of the Church of St. Louis v. Blanc, Bishop, 8 Rob. 51
lMerritt_El—85binson, Ebmpi, Cases in the Supreme Court of Louisi-
ana, VIII, 51); Benjamin Gall Dart,—Constitutions of the—8tate of
. Lguisiana and Selected Federal Laws, p. ll. —— —~_ '””*‘
2. cease., isi?   iii, Sec. 22. l_ C
3. Ibid., art. VI, sec. 21. 2_ (
4. Const., 1858, art. 12. 3_ I
5. Const., 1879, art. 4; ibid., art. 51. 4e I
5. Const., 1898, arts. 4, 53; Const., 1913, arts. 4, 53; Const., 1921, 5_ I
art. I, sec. 4.
7. Const., 1812, art. IV, sec. 6. gz j
8. Ibid., art. 22. E
9. CQHSJC., 1845, 1`.1"'t. 42. 8. I
9. C

Editorial Notes
ana COnSti_ by special act of the legislature. The convention of 1845 wrote into
, Temé Court the second constitution a regulation ending this procedure and providing
pneggsgary for the passage of general laws covering such issuance.(l) A similar
yhe Ori;in&i condition was in subsequent constitutions and prevails under that of
[S &CtS&Of 192l.(2) Thus enabled, the legislature of 1847 enacted a general statute
’FOO1&im its setting out that articles of incorporation should be certified as legal
¢y·" by the district attorney, then approved by the governor, and finally
t p€TSOnS enrolled by the secretary of state.(3) The process was changed slightly
T éarry in 1803 with the law calling for six or more incorporators and a certain
blishmgnt secuence for designation of domicile, purposes, names of officers, etc.
Writing, This latter act also provided that incorporation was completed with
’in fhg ’ certification by the district attorney and the recording of the instru-
LS liberty ment with the parish recorder at the place of domicile.(4) No material
changes in the method were made until 1914 when the general law under
which all societies and associations are chartered today came into being.
`SOn Egg the Procedure remains virtually unchanged, but the statute was enlarged,
°n$€‘ i4? principally regarding dues collected in lieu of stock issuance and the
_Oh?;iti¥g regulation of the latter, use of a seal, holding of property, placing of
_ be éven non-trading corporations under jurisdiction of courts on parity with
Of igli_ other corporations, and the method of obtaining charter amendments.(5)
j S&fS_ In 1924 the legislature passed an amendatory measure limiting value of
igzl (@) property to be held by church corporations to $1,000,000. Likewise it
lhibiéion continued in effect an earlier prohibition against acceptance of death-
&ny bed bequests (articulo mortis) by a corporation or "minister of the
Slgturp Gospel for himself or the benefit of a church corporation."(6) Church
`V ¥‘Z property used exclusively for religious, educational or charitable _
°;;j;*ml“ purposes is tax exempt (7) and no corporation franchise tax is imposed
L ‘ on these groups.(8) Donations from the public treasury to any church or
‘&nt gOv_ any minister, either directly or indirectly, are forbidden by the Con-
COHv€n` stitution of 1921 as are donations for charitable or benevolent uses eX-
ighghgar cept to designated institutions under state authority.(9) This last
,0t principle also prevailed in the constitutions of 1879. 1898, and 1913.
· associa- V
—~————-———-—— v
nb. 51
>f Louisi-
Etate of
1. Const., 1845, art. 123.
2. Const., 1921, art. IV, sec. 4.
3. La. A., 1847, #207.
L O 4. La. A., 1853, #832.
ISM l~2l· 5. La. A., 1914, #254.
6. La. A., 1924, #Q90.
7. La. A., 1877, E.S., #82. See also Const., 1921, art. X, sec. 4 as
amended by La. 11., mae, ,¢@'T ""`
8. La. A., 1935, lst E.S., #10.
9. Const., 1921, art, IV, sec. 8.

N 3
A Inva

Foreword .............................. v
Preface ............................... vii
Abbreviations, Symbols, and Glossary ..... . .......... ix
Editorial Notes . . . ........................ xi
Historical Sketch of the Jews in Louisiana ............. 1
Map of Jewish Congregations in Louisiana .............. 18
Inventory of the Archives of Jewish Congregations
in Louisiana ........................... 19
Map of Jewish Cemeteries in Louisiana ................ 6O
Inventory of the Archives of Jewish Cemeteries in
Louisiana _ _ ........,.......... . ...... 6l
Map of Jewish Organizations and Institutions in
Louisiana ............................ . 75
Inventory of the Archives of Jewish Organizations and .
Institutions in Louisiana ......... . ........... 77
Bibliography .........,.................. IQB
Chronological Table . . . . ..................... 155 A
Index ................................ 163
List of Survey Publications ..................... 181
xvii I
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Gathered in 2l congregations (1) the Jews in Louisiana now worship
in synagogues which entailed a financial outlay greater, with a single
exception, than that in any of the 14 southern and southwestern states.
(2) The approximately 16,000 Jews in Louisiana (3) can trace their
history back to the earliest activities of the French colony,(4) a terri-
tory from which the race was ordered expelled in l724.(5) The ban ex-
tended 79 years until the establishment of full religious liberty with
the Louisiana Purchase in l803.(6)
The reasons for migration, date of arrival, and conditions of settle-
ment of the first Jews in Louisiana, following the founding of New Orleans
in l7l8,(7) are not known. On November 13, 1718, immigrants sailing from
France aboard the Count of Toulouse included Jacob David, shoemaker, and
Romain David, tailor, bound for the new country. The Davids had been re-
cruited as a part of a company headed for the Dubreuil concession or
plantation (8) above New Orleans. They arrived about New Year‘s 1719, the
voyage in those days requiring some six weeks.(9) By May of 1719 two
other ships had put out for the colony. Robert Jacobs and wife, together
with a soldier, Louis Solomon, were among the passengers.(l0) The desti-
nies of these people remain unknown to history. Their names do not appear
in a census of Louisiana for 1721 although Dubreuil is listed as a land-
owner at the village of Tchoupitoulas. Neither are such names found in a
census of Natchitoches for l722.(l1) Although a scattering few arrived,
Jews in any number did not reach these early Louisiana settlements.(l2)
This was primarily due to issuance of Code Noir (The Black Code) by
Bienville on September 10, 1724, which—code_dealt principally with regu-
lation of slaves, but included an order of expulsion of Jews from the
l. U. S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Religious Bodies, 1936, Jewish
Congregations, Bulletin 72, p. 3. _— _-_*__
2. Ibid., p. 5.
3. American Jewish Yearb