xt7pzg6g259b https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7pzg6g259b/data/mets.xml Transylvania Presbytery. 1793  books b922851n1672009 English W. Maxwell : Lexington, Ky. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. A narrative of Mr. Adam Rankin s trial, and remaks [sic] on the same; with some observation on his vindication. And a concluding address to professors of the Presbyterian denomination. Published by order of the Transylvania Presbytery. text A narrative of Mr. Adam Rankin s trial, and remaks [sic] on the same; with some observation on his vindication. And a concluding address to professors of the Presbyterian denomination. Published by order of the Transylvania Presbytery. 1793 2009 true xt7pzg6g259b section xt7pzg6g259b 
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Mr. ADA Ivi   RAN KlNs

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    .     . AND





G O N C L U D I N G     A D D R'E S S,

TO   P R O F E S S O 11 S OF THE


Published by order of the Transylvania Prcsbylcry.

   7 EX I N G T O f&

fainted by ^ MAXWELL & &2 


? AT a mee'ing of the Transylvania Presbytery,a   * ' Mr. Haggin's, October 7, 1789, sundry papers were presented to the Presbytery, containing several charges against Mr. Adam Rankin; on which it was resolved, that a Committee of three members, meet atSion rhurch, on the third Monday in November, to prepare the way for trial.

The Committee met according to appointment, proceeded to do some of the business before them, and adjourned to meet the second Thursday in next December, and met au^rding to adjournment. At these meetings they received the following charges,

Whereas Mr. Rankin, debars from the table of ilie Lord, all whoaajuiesce in Dr. Watts' preface ; it is given in as a farther part of the charge, by Samuel Blair, that Air. Rankin said, the Doctor's preface and! .psalms were all one. Witnesses, Robert Patterson, lames M'Dowell, lames Trotter.

Mr. Rankin affirmed the day, certain questions   ?vere given him to answer, '' That Mr. Rice is of the    opinion that Dr. Wratts denies the eternal existence of the Son of God."   The witnesses are as above. %W. Rankin said, "That Mr. Samuel Shannon, is V-errore his principles., a dangerous man, and lie would not come within the bounds of his '   Given in by  Col.  Patterson. Witness, v.ejl

. ( l\n. p,lair declares in a letter, "Thit :V/H: Rankin, charges the body of Presbyterian chVines.,-tfvith de' and blasphemy," The said Blair u .der* U*&> to support said charge by l]ie witnesses, ktfies 
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jM'Dowell, Robert Steel, Iosepli Walker, Tamc9 Trotter, Robert Patterson, lolin Maxwell, Robert V\ allace. 1 be above charge of deism and blasphemy is brought against the body of Presbyterian divines oil account of their using Dr. Watts' psalmody, and pas publicly said at Mount Sion, the first Sabbath ho preached there, alter his return from the general assembly.

I Samuel Flair, "Do charge Mr. Rankin, with pretending to an immediate revelation from Heaven, In a dream, which determined him not to use Dr. Watls' psalms and hymns." Witness, Alexander Maxwell.

.And with saying, "That the divine being had faised him upasan instrument to overthrow the use of Dr. Watts' psalmody in the church, and that he jvyOu'ld live to see the day, that he himself would da iu'"'    Witness, Robert StceK

Also wiih saying, "That every thing of importance to him,- was always beforehand revealed to him." Witness, Iohn Maxwell.

"And when a day was appointed to choose elders, lie refused to proceed to the choice, because ithad not as yet been revealed to him, that it was necessary to flou.''   Witnesses, Robert Steel, lames Trotter.

, Mf\ Rankin is charged by report,-with calling Walts' psalms the rebels of the king of Heaven. iT/7! Me^cs, lames Trimble, William Walker, Willie am Scott. *

   There were also certain questions written b Rahkifis o,i72 liana7, and given in as a charge lum.   The most material things contained ./'I are'as follow.   . '     . .<       / '       i'ht

W hen lie was asked by >yfca\t authorih-tojhc. general ..assembly, and whom Iif he answered, ."Tell me was trie ins'; 't9 ci Heaven; or of men, and I will tel            .-<"    taorify'.'I did these things.''' .

1^ his answers to others, U lT y>hmnfy 
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.debar from the table of the Lord, all who acquiesce *.n Dr. Watts' pre [ace." '    

. "1 can make it appear that he (Dr. Watts) dc^ nies Christ was the eternal Son of God; that he holds the precepts or the Old and New Testament are contrary,"

"1 profess myself a member of the Transylvania Presbytery; 1 do not join with all the members in full communion so long as they continue to counter fiance Watts' errors,

By order of the committee, Mr. Rankin arid au others concerned in the trial, were cited to attend the next stated session of the Presbytery : but instead of obeying this citation, Mr. Rankin left this country,' and-never returned until about the end of the year

1791-' ~ :

;At'a" presbyteiy, v^hich met at Cane-run churchy

on February 20,     .1.792. in consequence of certain information that Mr. Rankin was returned to this country, and probable information that he continu-s cd to act on the same principles as before his depart turey he and.ajl concerned in his trial, were order-1 edio be cited, to attend the next presbytery. . The presbytery met at Stoner-mouth ch    rcli, on* the 24th of April, : i?9i, and was continued by adt "ournmentstfnlil the 27th, M/.Ba.tkins. trial cam   on the 20th and continued the 26th. All persons, who had been, or were concerned in the trial were present, except three witnesses, one" of whom was. dud, , The witnesses were examined, their deposition- recorded and subscribed by them, which are as '      Ovv'a   . / ' -',    '\     ' ;

2gjj i; Patterson testificth, '  ' That at M'onn t Sion ;;  --->use, Mr. Rankin, being aslved whether, aivu'prefcice were all of a piece, or words       U: Mr% Rankin, answered ihe preface* -       'as'tocome after." . j

'Jf diG above-, '" "   .       -      lames Troller*




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Robert Steeltestijieth, "ThatMr. Rankin, atSlat} JBiee ting-house, soon after his return from the Northward in ,73.9, charged Dr, Watts, with holding that there was a contrast* between the Old and Nevr Testament; that he denied the eternal sonship of Jesus Christ, and that his favourites to the A/orthward    weie of the same opinion/'

Joseph Walker tcstifieth, "That Mr. Rankin, at Sion meeting-house soon afLer his return from th

Northward, in the year i?89 charged Dr. Watts with holding that mere was a contrast be!ween ihe Old and New' Testament; that he denied the eternal sonship of Jesus Christ, which he, the said Rankin, looted "pon blasphemy and deism, and that Dr. Watts'fnends to theNorhtward were ofthesameopU jiiou."

James Trotter and Rohert WflXlace tetified the a-bove, and the former that it was said publicly.

Robert Steel testificth, "That Mr. Rankin said the divine being had raised him up as an instrument to overthrow the use of Dr. Watts' psalmody in the jChnrch, and that he would live to see the day that Jie himself would do it/''

Robert Patterson testijieth, "That Mr. Rankin appointed a day for choosing elders, and when th   day came, Mr. Rankin-refused to proceed in the business of the day, because, he said, the expediency of it, had no L as yet been revealed to him, or words to that amount. _s

John Maxwell trstifieih, " That Mr. Rankin after his return from a presbytery in the old settlement, where he was called upon to answer to a charge exl tired against him; he asked Mr. Rankin how ters went. Mr. Rankin answered \ ery well: - hi he knew before lie went away, for every     ^   f importance to him, was always Beforehand eatecl to him."    

James Trotter testijieth,    That Mr. Bafhn.w* pointed a day for choosing elders, when -the day; 
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came, Tie declined proceeding in the business of day, and ainong other reasons for so doing, gave on   that it had not yet been revealed to him, that it wad necessary, and one other reason, that where the session was large, it generally destroyed the influence of the head of the session, or words to that a mo nnta William Galloway, Bichard Steel and David Lo-

fan, testify, "That they do not recollect that they new of any person, being offended at any thing Mr, Rankin said on the day appointed for choosing elde:s, nor do they remember that Mr. Rankin said, any" thing from which it could be infered that he was directed in any part of his conduct, by extraordinary revelation.

James Trimble testi'fieth, "That Mr. Rank'u said, to the northward, at the Lord's table, he savf it spread from the one end to the other (he thinks the expression was, but not certain) with the rebels of the word of God."

William Seott deponent saith, he understood the expression to be "The rivals of the word of God.

David Logan and William Rankin deponents. Say, that they understood the expression to be, "rivals of the'word of God."

Mr. Rankin was allowed fullliberty to introducer what witnesses he thought necessary, and to answer Tor. and defend himself.

Hs acknowledged at least, the greater part of the     st; of the witnesses, which respects and proves hi '   . % -own out against Dr. Watts'psalmody,

xl of manifesting his sorrow, for his un-ires of his brethren, which censures ; '- , tall the ministers and christians ort

ear ** ver denomination, he endeavoured

*   enl- bate about the propriety of singing

VVitts i hymns, which he knew were gene-

rally ap t{J ' practised by the higher judicatures

of our <.       ,. ,>./   ' of which, therefore, the p res by* 
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fery of Transylvania, had no business to judge. Th(J use of th is psalmody, he migh t have protested against,', and left the church which generally approved of and practised it: but while he continued a member or that church, lies could not consistently expect,' that the presbytery would condemn a practice, which had the public and avowed approbation of the main body to which they belonged. The presbytery could' not have justified Mr* Rankin; without condemning" the main body as guilty of making the scriptures contradict themselves, and of deism and blasphemy:; which would have been as great an absurdity as for* an inferior civil court to censure, and condemn the proceedings of the supreme court. This kind of defence, then, . the preby tery could not admit- When Iflr. RankinyvcLS checked in this, or in things foreign to his proper defence, or in attempts to lead the presbytery wrong, he complained- that he could not get a.hearing in his own defence ; ..to which it was answered, that if he would speak, to the point in* hand, he should have full privilege to defend him,-' self; which accordingly he hadj and spoke a consi^ defable part of two days.

With respect to his pretensions to divine revelati* on, which was proved against him ; he acknowledged he told a certain dream or dreams,. but attempted-to exeplain them away, as signifying no more than' Certain inward exercises of the children of God ; and expressed his sorrow .for doing so as'a thing highly improper. But according to a part ofMr  r Rice's testimony'since taken, which says, that Mr. Rankhi'i formed him, " That it was made,known to' L^rii * dream, that he must inform Mr, Rice, thz* \' directed by his dreams.'   There could bj no great sincerity or consistency in this confession  'unless h   yueant to confess that his dream had deeded, him. lie frequently* denied that'he made zr< '-recensions to divine revelation, and said, -"Sue[^freedom- of expression I have not been -acquaint Yvithj tbatius ture things wereleyealed to mvy ' 
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i 'After his thus denying thai: he made any preUmCes' frf divine revelation, and denying tlie testimony of the witnesses proving such pretensions; he came toa jpause: upon which Mr. Crawford loseand spoke Lo this effect; ' I find myself itow in very peculiar circr.m-sftanres, and am bound in duty iind Conscience, a.' a member of Presbytery, and minister of thegospei, !o iifoy, that Mr. Rankin is declaringa positive falsehood,-which I knovv to be such, and of which he himself: must be conscious-, and if the Presbylcrv.-chnse it, I will explain myself. \ Mr. Rankin .object! to Mr., Crawford's being admitted as a witness; perhaps be*   ause he had not been previously cited, or because a member of presbytery; to which it was replied thatf a witness had been admitted under the same circumstances, in favour.of Mr i'Rankin* and at his demand.'. The Presbytery then voted that Mr. Crawford should be sworn, which was done; and his deposition is as lolloWS.                         ' t-,             /    -    

* "Jam3/Cm.vford deponent saith* That,he invited Mr R.ankinX.0 assist him in administering the sacra-iieutof the Lord's supper ; that on the Friday before the sacrament, Mr. Rtankin gave him to know, that he could not come to the sacrament,1 if Dr. Watt's psalms and hymns were used, he could not join in communion.         ? Said deponent sailh, that he returned1 for answer, that it was. the mind of the;' session .* that the request could not be complied .with ; and accordingly Mr. R.ankin did not attend the sacra* ment.     I-ri^con-vers?'tion some lime after, indexing-., ton, said deponent sa'.th, that Mr. Bankik told hini: that having'prayed for direction, it was made known to hi    [na dream (the interpretation of which wa$ iuadekn'ovVn to him v\ith the fullestC"r;r\inty when K$ awoke) that he should nOf: attend    6 sacrament of thesupper thai he saw in bisdiean > t.e sacramentof the Lord's Puppsr admihl- fored by said deponent, and the great.;      hole dependence was la.d. on WattV psalms/ thai . fa.h  --1 i-v-mns yv\ it; inclwded in the' i'i- 
   presentation otlV.e psalms; tl.at in all matters of cos*, icqtience, l.c w as -u n.der an ex lis oroir. an divinedirec-fion ; ti.aL in consequence ofsiichciin clion l.c moved to and settled in lias country.   The deponent Saith, he Is not to be understood, as affirming the ab 1 a. is literal!) in the words of Mr. Rankin ; but that his words full) communicated the same ideas with the above.   Said deponent farther saith, that Mr. tianlin gave him to know that the use ofDr, Watts* psalms w ould be laid aside in the church ; the knowledge of this, he obtained in the same extraordinary way as above : that being ashed by the deponent, when this should come to pass, he would not fix the time. . Mr. Rankin, again denied that he had by any means told Mr. Crawford, that lie had madesucliprelei s> to divine*revelation, as Mr. Crawford's oath declares Jie did.   Mr. Rankin acknowledged ins sorrow tliaC he told his dreams, and his religious exercises; but cot that h'e told tliefn as divine revelation. Had there been no pretensions to divine revelation, there would have been no cause ofsorrow ; he that hatha d in his dreams, as to the matter of his request; that as lie was a weak man, God condescended '   ">' give him instruction in this way. i.c informed meofseveral instances ofhis being ihusdirected, viz-. r\ hatacertain debate, wdiich happened in ihe:byterv,. had been made known to him beforhand; that one* in the old settlement, finding himself at a lo^s .a> "knowwhether he ought to sing Watts' p-.alm- -r h^mns, he prayed for direction in that matter, and had his duty made known to him in a dream ;    thai i i the same way he was informed, that a certain ca id* date tot the gospel ministry, ough not to proceed in his trials; of w huh candidate, he had the evening befo-9 his dream, expressed his very good, opinion, and great desire that he should proceed .- he told me aI?o'Iiai he was directed in a dream to iutonnme, that he was thus directed la his dirjarns*. I was sensiblyaffe \ I by this informa*-io;:, and warned Mr Rankin oi t!i3 dangerous con j.'juenccs; that I apprehended he was pn dangerous ground, subject to be led into great errors and delusions. On which he said, he knewthafe those who had never experienced it, could form no judgement about it. 1 then desis'ed from warning him of ihe danger he wa^ in; but expressed my great di - probation of men's relying on their dreams for direction, in matters respecting sin and duty. Before we parted^ he requested me, three or four times that I would notdivuke vvhathe had told me. Assooriasho made this request, itstructk my mind, that I might pro-"ol.y see the day, when it would be my duty lo make ri; yet, as it yvas coinmitteded to me in the co^iidence of friendship, 1 resolved to keep the secret, until I should think myself called in duty to divulge it, To me it did not appear that we should long hold communion, and act harmoniously to* gether, while we had such different rules of direction,, as the sacred scriptures, and night visions, j

* Will the reader plefife to coir  pare this with p. 38.1. 
   '$  r. Vanh'n In the charge of dbine revelation, taicf    igairist him, argued that instead of one charge, il amounted to several (as may be likewise seen in his publication) that there was but one witness to support inost of these charges.

The state of the case is this, which the Presbytery? laid before Mr,"Bankin,, in ihc time of ids trial 'iz* iliscjaini, and the ground of claim to divine fevda-fcion,:' he told to different persons, at different u ; ; Sometimes it was a dream, ' again by .sayingit w.. ,o-vealed," or things were revealed to him. ' These things    were told as a secret generally , in some cases secrecy requested by him." Therefore .'one "witness mostly jnight be expected; notwithstanding, it is but one charge,"viz : of pretending to divine revelation, and several witnesses to support it,'with these additional  ... :.:    ..   ..;  u-4^

v.    ,        ...                  -      -T                           /  -. *       . 
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%s follows : "If the minister when he appearsyv ill not jponfess; but denies.the facts alledgcd against Itlkrij if on hearing the witnesses the charges appear important and well supported, the. Presbyter) must nevertheless censure him ; and suspender depose him, according to the nature of the offence-."

The Preshvtcrv having heard the witnesses, and plr. Rankins defence, drew up a summai) or wli X was proved against him, and judged him censurable'? v\ Inch is contained in \he following extract of li\m 'minutes,

'    Whereas it has been proved before this Pros by fety that the Rev. Adan Ranjiin has declared and said that he is the subject ot extraordinary divine revelation, tlrath.e has taken the same, as a director in pari, in the discharge of his ministerial function, and in all matters of importance, and has been the means of preventing him from joining in communion with those who were


IJ   in the, use of Dr. Watts' psalm's, and that he calls Dr, \\\ Watts;' psalms, the rivals of the word of God, and say*, ) himself   he does, ' fnot joiq withsome of the raeiu-

Ipers of this Presbytery m 'communion, oolong as they countenance Dr. \Vaits'- errors', with otherdeciarati^ bus, and things proved, of the like nature, as appears / from the depositions takch: therefore the Presbytery ' judge satdjt'ikfr.R'ankia\' penstffaMe," To which it may bo added (which is also prpvod by the Witnesses, and more than acknowledged in his vindication) that lie charged the body of Presbyterian divines, with deism and'blaSohcmyl      " ' "   -:-' * '"

TliePiesbytety having fudged as above, railed In Mr* Raty\ia, to acknowledge the things proved against jiim^fe^iriised-:a.;.idsaid,   VI-appeal to God, Angels and men, that. I protest against'the proceeding of Preshytery; and'will be np longer a member of' the* Transylvania Pr'esbytery ; aruj immediately went out.

The Presbytery fhen wholly suspended Mr. Rankin. from the exercise of the ministerial function, until $j*eliexj:stated ses^pt^          > 
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They suspended him until the ne^f staged .?rP$3^ JPery, that ho might have time coolly to console] mat .ters, ami recall the declaration he had made, if ha .should be so disposed.

At a Presbytery which met at Rode run church, October 2. 17 J2, and was continued b  . adjourh-jjnentsuntil lhe 6th. authentic informaLiou was received, thar Mr. A'-Jam Rankin, aereeable to the dec! a-ralion he had made 011 the dayofh.'s suspension, ha-i       lually separated himself from the Transy Ivan ia P es-i bytery, and from the church, of which he was forrn--   tly a member, and was forming separate socie'ies; .thev. ihcrefo"*, not merelv for the things proved fgainst him, at his trial, but for these, Ills schisraa! leal .proceeding1; deposed him.   The sentence is as follow s-" Whereas Mr, Adam Rankin was suspended die

.last stated session of Precbvferv., and the present ses-.

>ion unarlmously approves of said judgment, ami Mr. Rankin, since his suspension, has not been sur>.

jfeci to his brethren iu the f ord; but has preached as. frequently since, as before his suspension ; has been

.forming a number of congregations, and administer* ed the sealing ordinances of the gospel repeatedly,

:a-n.dhavingsuffcien!" reason to beHeve -hat he is de'er-

.mired to goon in.the same course, this Presbytery,

.do unanimously declare that s?M tftornQzhJiin has no right to exercise any-of the duties of the m in is! e rial function., at any time, nor in any place"; and that

..as he was set apart to. the ofGce ofa gospel minister^

    and the discharge of the duties of the same, by the.

r officers of die Presbyterian church; so by "the same' . authority (being until now a minister and munber or this Presbytery, under suspension) the saj<    Bice is*     taken from him, and he forbid to discharge any oflne

. dutiesofthe same, and it is herebydone, ahddeelar-cdtobedone, by thai" authority which Christ the head h.:;h given his church and his congregations, or pas-

,    0prai charge is declcared".Vacant."

fan order was made thatthg above sen teiicebc pub^ 
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iMiecf in the congregations, u;;der :!.   cfre c f this rresbytery.

Mr. Crawford, according to order, transmit.'ed a ' copyof3/r. Rankin's suspension to him in do time,' ' and Mr. Rice, senthiiu a copy of his'being depose \.

Having given this com pen lious narrative of Mr%. f- Rankiti.s trial, we would pruc*td L* Atc-kjf ai'ew i'# JWa5 oa the same.



. THOUGH there was much said in the course of %fr.Rankin's trial about Dr. Watts, an' his imitation1 pf the psalms; it was not because he thought differently from his brethren on this subject, that he was7 tried and censured. It is hereby declared that his particular sentiments merely in the use of psalmody,' \vere never considered as any ground of censure, or sufficient cause of alienation of affection: he was censured for unchiistian and unchailtable reflections on, his brethren, for theii use of Dr. Watts' psalms and' hymns, his charging them on this account, with de ism, blasphemy, &.c. and that after he had agreed withsome ofthcin' to exercise mutual forbearance, , Those who'spread contrary reports, Cannot produce* a single'evidence for it, and those wdio believe it, d   it on the most unwarrantable foundation.

Mr. Rankin by profession, and part of his prao* rice, acknowleged himself to be a minister and mem1" ber of the Presbyterian church, and of .Transylvania rresbytery, until his trial. . lir this church he was li-   censed preach the gospel, and ordained a minister, -and pfc^eSsed himself a member of the Transylvania Presbyter)', given under his own hand, as a minister of this church he acted in this country: on the morning before his trial he took his seat in Presbytery: his declaring, after he knew the opinion of Presbytery, that he would be no longer a member, evidently implied thej^uuie thing',   But notwith- 
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tanning this, heh d for some time before been undent jaimding ihechdi ecersOi bis brethren, enraging them' Willi.great..errors in doctrine, and throwing heavy1 censuies uponthcin, sometimes 111 private conversation, at others, in the most insinuating manner in public* ami thusunder themask:of friendship, act-, lug the part of an cut hp. .   If he believed any of his brethren, Lo be.fim.daiiien'tairy erionipus, and could not! Otherwise reclaim them, it -..as his duly to enter process against then:, and Lo conduct it agreeable to the Word of God, ai ci ibe   'i reel ory of our church.    1 hisy he was bourn. ,o do, both, as christian and a minister of the gospel; or ij he Apprehended the mam body of the ecclesiastical^mlicature to be so coriupt, as to' preclude all piobabury ofa fair and impartial trial, Ire ought no ionger to have professed himself a member, or minister ofoiif churchy but peaceably to have* withdrawn       If alter his suspension, he' thought the Presbytery   had . proceeded irregularly,' or fudged, wrong, he should nave appealed to the Synod. -.This became necessary, in order to preserve consistency % since he v.as a professed member ot PrCsbyteiy, until they judged firm worthy of censure. . If he knew the 5"ynod of Virgin fa to be so partial, as to preclude all hope of/us     e, why profess any connexion witli that body ? If he, beforehand,, saw the whole bodv. to be so corrupt, he must be'f6rehand, have been determined not to continue in communion: why theri profess to be a member? Was i: not that Presbytery ni'ght be obliged to do, what he wai determined at any rate should be done ;"' that he might have an op}-pertunity to complain of the hardship, in .order to move coihpassi'/' > This we think is impliedin what .lie says page 53 of his defence." " Alt'" things were g-.  wn lipe foi a jupaiaLion, and Presbytery helped to such Assireahlt steps as made all things evident to the sensible and conscientious/'     It may likewise, ve apprehend, be  inferred horn page 69. i5 lirsjtj jfceS, - 'A  cw<2U-   to may things i&Mt\ fiankin'/ 
   defence he could not, consistent with the character* of an honest conscientious man, have continued a member of Presbytery, or Synod ; but was in duty bound to seperate : this he saw, and tins he virtually acknowledges. \ For what purpose then, we say, did he declare himself a member?.why blame-Presbytery''for putting him in a situation, which he was obliged to be in, By his ovvn principles ? why blame Presbytery for excluding him from communion, when he could hot continue in communion with them without sin?   -,\    -             .        ..- .;: \  > 'n

When Mr..    . Rankin first became a preacher, lie knew very .well, that his brethren, almost without exception, approved of the use ofWatts** psalms and hymns in divine praise; which is the great and fundamental error,-as it makes the - scripture clash with itself.     He informs us page 09 of. his defence, " That since he entered on the ministery he had not, to ' his knowledge, made a single .change ' in any* point ofprinciple*",;: If wewere the same, and hexvas the same,; how strange that he should form anycon-nexionwith us ! he must have believed- then as he does now, that his brethren were guilty of gross and fundamental errors: was he npt therefore extremely to blame to enter the gospel ministry in a church so very corrupt?; yvould it not then it known, and does it not now carry the face of great deception? he certainly knew that they must renounce their principles, or he his [ or else     the ^connexion must break, and a separation inevitably take place. If he/had changedni-j opinion (whichhe says he had riot) and concluded.that to be wrong, which he had before thought.right, !or-:that to be-a fundamental error, wdiich he had before esteemed less essential-, so that he.could not in conscience have continued in com-lnunion,-he ought to have protested against their errors, and withdrawn from all connexion with them. Before his trial, he was fully acquainted with the sentiments of die Synod ofNew-YorL and Philadelphia, and 
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d.  the General Assembly, us well as the rulesofeonri^tj? to Which they intended to adhere, it appears from many things in his publication, that his design was not to continue in connexion; yet lor some^end or pther, he would acknowledge himself a member of Transylvania Presbytcry, though he intended to go out, he would not go, until he was driven out.

Those who joined Mr. Rankin in his state of sc-peration formed themselves into a judicature which they called the House. This..house judged and ac-. qui ted Mr. Rankin, as not censurable in any part of his conduct ; and therefore, at least implicitly, condemned the proceedings of Presbytery, without even hearing them in their own defence.   Thus they assumed the prerogative of Synod, or rather acted as absolute independents.   They stand detatched, as Mr. Rankin expresses it page6oih, not only from all communion,   but   front     all   commuication   with. any society.    They placed a man at. their head as their teacher who  had   no  right  to,, preach the    gospel,    not    administer    its ordinances, because suspended, and afterwards deposed, by the disciplinary sentence of the same church which first licensed, ami ordained him-.   He assumed theofnee ofa gospel minister without the order, or appointment of any church on earth, except the house w hicH . rejudged andac