xt7q2b8vbd3v https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7q2b8vbd3v/data/mets.xml University of Kentucky 1916  books b92-156-29785574 English Pub. by order of Executive committee of Board of trustees of University of Kentucky, : [Lexington] : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. University of Kentucky Fiftieth anniversary of the University of Kentucky, 1866-1916  : proceedings of semi-centennial celebration, held in the chapel and on the grounds of institution, Oct. 14, 1916. text Fiftieth anniversary of the University of Kentucky, 1866-1916  : proceedings of semi-centennial celebration, held in the chapel and on the grounds of institution, Oct. 14, 1916. 1916 2002 true xt7q2b8vbd3v section xt7q2b8vbd3v 


             OF THE




Proceedings of semi-centennial cele-
bration, held in the chapel and on the
grounds of Institution Oct. 14, 1916.

Published by order of Executive Committee of Board of Trustees
         of University of Kentucky.

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    In the presence of a large gathering of representative
citizens and professional men and women of Kentucky and
other states, including alumni, former students, leaders in edu-
cational and civic life, the fiftieth anniversary of the founding
of the University of Kentucky was celebrated in the chapel and
on the grounds of that institution in Lexington, October 10,
    With oratory, feasting, reunions of former students, ath-
letic contests, pageant, and social gatherings, the occasion was
at once notable and unique, bringing together the most re-
markable gathering of friends of the Commonwealth's chief
institution of learning that had ever assembled upon its his-
toric grounds.
    The program of the occasion really opened October 13,
with what is known as the annual tug-of-war between the
freshman and sophomore classes, followed by a reception the
same evening for all visiting alumni.
    On the following morning the literary phases of the cele-
bration were preceded by a procession and pageant of the
student-body through the streets of the city, followed by lunch,
served upon the campus, to about one thousand guests and
friends of the University. The afternoon of the same day was
consumed with a formal dedication of the institution s athletic
grounds and a football contest between teams representing the
University of Kentucky and Vanderbilt University.
    The speakers of the day were: )r. Charles W. Dabney,
President of the University of Cincinnati, who spoke on
"Education the Supreme Issue;" Dr. James Kennedy Patter-
son, President Emeritus of the University, whose subject was



"Fifty Years of the University of Kentucky;" Charles R.
Brock, of Denver, Col., distinguished alumnus, who made the
address presenting to the University, on behalf of the alumni,
a portrait of Doctor Patterson. R. C. Stoll, who specially pre-
sented Doctor Patterson for conference of an honorary de-
gree; Professor F. Paul Anderson, Dean of the College of
Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, who presented the re-
mainder of the conferees for honorary degrees; Major John T.
Geary, of California, alunmus and officer in the United States
Army, who delivered the address dedicating the athletic field
to Richard C. Stoll, prominent alumnus and member of the
Board of Trustees, and Governor Augustus Owsley Stanley,
who made the address accepting the athletic dedicatory tablet
on behalf of the University and the State.
    The literary ceremonies of the day were opened in the
chapel of the University with President Henry Stites Barker
of the University, presiding.
    The Reverend Dr. Richard Henry Crossfield, President of
Transylvania College, invoked divine plessing in the follow-
   Our Heavenly Father, we come to ask thy rich mercy and thy
fullest grace to abide with us now. We thank thee for what thou
ha.rt done for this institution during the past fifty years; for the
richness in contribution that it has made, not only to our community
and State, but to our common country. We thank thee for its pres-
ent success and for its growing and gracious outlook.
   And now we ask thy divine blessing upon the occasion of this
golden jubilee, to rest on this institution of learning of the State of
Kentucky, for the good of higher education, in the name of Jesus
Christ our Lord, Amen.

    Tn his introductory remarks President Barker said:
    We have assembled today, my friends, to celebrate the fiftieth
anniversary of the University of Kentucky, its Golden Jubilee. In
order to do this we have assembled the faculty and student body;
we have called on our old "boys" far and near, and asked them to
come back and to participate in the joys of this occasion. They are
here. They have come from every point of the compass, and from
every part of the United States. Like homing pigeons, they have




followed their natural instincts on this day and returned to The
Old Kentucky Home, to their Alma Mater.
    We have asked many distinguished guests to participate in this
ceremony with us. We have brought men here from many walks
of life for the purpose of presenting to them honorary degrees.
    We have invited to make the leading speech of the occasion one
of the country's most distinguished educators. We have with us also
our President Emeritus, whose educational life almost spans that of
this University, to recite to you its history. None but him could tell
it. As President of this University I bid you welcome. We consider
that you have honored us by coming. We want you to feel that this
campus is yours; that these ceremonies are in part yours. We want
you to participate in everything that we have and do in the joy of
reunion; in the pleasure of revivified friendships; in our exultation,
and in our pride.
    I have now the pleasure to introduce to you the President of the
University of Cincinnati, a man of profound scholarship, a thinker,
leader, educator of few equals in America-Dr. C. W. Dabney.

    Presidlent Dabnev said:

    It is a great pleasure to bring you the greetings of the people
of Cincinnati and of her University upon the occasion of your Golden
Jubilee. Cincinnati is so unfortunate as to be situated on the other
side of the Ohio River, but she has a beautiful southern exposure and
receives many genial influences from the Kentucky side. The sun
that begins at this season of the year to shine upon us in Cincinnati
from above the southern hills is symbolic of the power and inspira-
tion which we receive from Kentucky. For we are indebted to you
for giving us many of your best ment to direct our affairs and your
loveliest women to rule our homes.
    We are glad. also, that while you make Lexington Your seat of
learning, you vnake Cincinnati your center cf trade. We welcome
your sons with their produce, as we do your daughters with their
dollars. Pive towns on your side of the river supply homes for our
people and sites for our factories, and whenever there is anything
we want to do and may not do in Cincinnati, we escape to this land
of liberty.
    Cincinnati is, therefore, sincerely and deeply interested in every-
thing that makes for the welfare of Lexington. She rejoices in every
evidence of your progress and congratulates you especially on the
power and influence attained by your University.
    Like most of the great agricultural states of the South. Ken-
tucky started late in developing a system of public education. But




thanks to the wisdom and courage of some of her sons you now have
an excellent system of schools, crowned by this great University,
whose semi-centennial we celebrate. To the men and women, who,
by their tireless labor and unselfish devotion, have accomplished
these splendid results, we bring our tribute today. To those who
have labored on the farms or in the shops during this half century
for the restoration and upbuilding of Kentucky we bring congratula-
tions, but to those who under great difficulties and discouragements
have built these schools and this great University we bring the
highest meed of praise. For they were the true builders of the
    Emerson has truly said that "an institution is the lengthened
shadow of one man." This is certainly true of this, as of most edu-
cational institutions. There is one man whose deeds we commem-
orate today above all others. As we call Thomas Jefferson father of
the University oi Virginia, Andrew D. White, father of Cornell, and
Daniel C. Gilman, father of Johns Hopkins University, so the people
of Kentucky will always call James Kennedy Patterson the father
of the University ol Kentucky. "Pater Universitatis Kentuckiensis"
Professor William B. Smith has already crowned him in the title of his
beautiful "Appreciation," and so he will ever be known in American
    Having the honor of being associated with you for many years
in the Association of Agricultural Colleges and in other educational
societies, and having often as a young college president sat at your
feet to honor you, I ask the privilege of bringing to you, President
Patterson, the greetings of your colleagues and admirers of the edu-
cational world, with their congratulations upon your splendid accom-
plishments in our common cause and their wishes that you may
have many more blessed years in which to contemplate the results
of your noble labors.
    No man, ladies and gentlemen, in the history of this State has
done so much for its education. Few have had so little with which
to begin such an undertaking, and no one ever encountered more
difficulties or faced them with more wisdom, courage and devotion.
It was President Patterson who first educated the people of Ken-
tucky to an appreciation of the importance of a state university. It
was he who fought all the battles of the college with the sectarians
and politicians: he who wrote all the laws and secured all the ap-
propriations for it. It was he who, single-handed, contended with
the legislature and with the courts. It was he who established the
university in the statutes as well as in the hearts of the people; and
finally, it was he who made all the plans, selected all the professors,
and directed all the interests of the university for forty-one years-




a period of service never equalled before. We shall ever thank
God for the inspiration of President Patterson's example of devo-
    The state university is the real builder of the state. Some may
think the State of Kentucky is built at Frankfort. Not so. The
State of Kentucky is built in the homes, schools and churches scat-
tered all over these green hills and plains, stimulated and guided by
this university. Having this aim and this work, the state univer-
sity must be an institution of, by, and for all the people. It is not
an institution of any party, of any class, of any church. It is not
the university of the Democratic party, or of the Republican party;
it is not the college of the farmers only; it is not the college of the
mechanics only; it is certainly not the college of the rich-and I
hope it is not the college of the poor exclusively-it is the college
of all the people.
    Richard Rumbold, whom they slew in the time of James II be-
cause he was a Democrat, said, in his quaint way, that he never could
believe "that God had created a few thousand men already booted
and spurred, with millions of other men already saddled and bridled
for these few to ride." This is the essence of democracy. Thomas
Jefferson was cur Rumbold in the field of education. He did not be-
lieve that only a few men were born with talents to be developed and
that the rest of mankind was to be left to be driven by the few. He
therefore estahbished the first university of, by and for the people in
the world.
    The characteristic of the state university is that it democratizes
education-puts the highest education in the reach of all fit to take
it. It places the democracy of the mind on the same basis as the
democracy of tile man.
    The attitude of the various types of universities toward the
schools is the significant thing. The democracy begins with the
free schools and educates its citizens from below upward through
high schools and colleges, lifting all up in proportion to their abili-
ties and sending as many of the fit as possible to the university to
be made leaders of thought and action. The democratic system of
education gives every man the freest opportunity to become in the
fullest measure all for which nature fitted him. It produces, thus,
not a series of tyipe men, molded to fit particular places, but a world
of freely developed beings, strong to do the work for which their
Creator made them. This system produces not a few classes of good
workers, like the monarchial plan, but a great variety of strong men
and women, possessing a diversity of potentiality. Democracy gives
a chance to the poor as well as to the rich boy and demands of each
that he be the best and do the best he can. It aims, thus, not to



train the man to fit the place made for him, but to educate him to
make a large place in the world for him-self.
    Such are the aims of the American state university, the most
perfect type of university ever established. Such are the aims of
this University.
    One lesson this terrible war has branded as with a hot iron upon
the attention of the whole modern world is the importance of this
university of the people. If before the war any one doubted that
education was the most effective instrument of a people's develop-
ment, certainly no one doubts this now. Hereafter all economic,
social, civic, national and international problems will be brought
finally for solution to the university.
    This war has shown us, moreover, how governments can shape
the schools to train people to think and act as their rulers wish them
to. If the people continue to be free, they must control their own
schools and universities.
    This war has taught us Americans many things besides the
necessity of military preparedness. The need of industrial prepared-
ness is recognized by all. To secure this we must prepare social
justice and maintain peace between labor and capital. Before we
can establish social justice we must have enlightenment and good
will. Thus the necessity of preparedness runs through our whole
political, social and economical life. The fundamental element in
national preparedness is the preparation of the intellects and souls
of our people.
    First of all. the means and methods of the education of our peo-
ple need to be considered anew. At a time when the physical ener-
gies of a large part of the world are concentrated upon the prepara-
tion of the supplies of war, and when the minds of men are pro-
foundly interested in the development of wonderful new methods of
destruction, we are inclined to think of wealth, natural resources,
and technical skill to the exclusion of intellectual, moral, and
spiritual forces. Money, materials, and efficiency are not the only
things-the minds and souls of men need to be regenerated first.
    Wealth and technical knowledge are indeed essential to our con-
tinued industrial prosperity and progress, but education should be-
nothing less than the preparation for the whole life. It should intro-
duce the future citizens of the republic of freedom not merely to the
physical resources of the world and the methods of making them
into wealth and power, but also to the deeper interests and problems
of politics, thought and human life. It should acquaint the people
with the great ideals of mankind, as expressed in literature, with the
achievement.s of the race, as recorded in history, and with the nature
and laws of the world, as interpreted, philosophy and religion.




    My fellow-countrymen, it is a stupendous task we have under-
taken-this task of establishing a government of the people over a
whole continent and in various dependencies throughout the world,
but we dare not give it up. We must go forward with our work of
teaching the world equality and fraternity; and the only method of
doing this is by educating and spiritualizing the people. This is the
task of our schools and colleges. Let us consider one of its phases.
    My friends, human freedom-moral, political, social and indus-
trial freedom-realized through the home, the school, the shop, the
university, the city, and the state, the church and the various asso-
ciations of men and of nations, with all their interplay of influence,
is a tremendous concept. But nothing less will give the men of the
future complete liberty. The time was when men were satisfied with
the freedom in one or two of the-se relations, but our life has now
become so many-sided and complicated that liberty cannot be secured
through any one channel or in any two or three institutions.
    It has not been over an easy road that men have arrived at this
stage of imperfect liberty. It was only through ages of war and
struggle that we attained the measure of liberty we now possess.
There are no short-cuts to freedom. Complete liberty will be won
only through the application of knowledge and understanding, truth
and love, imagination and .sympathy, courage and devotion, to every
side of human life and every form of human relationship, interna-
tional as well as intra-national. The constructive energy of human
society works outward from the individual in ever-widening circles-
the township, the county, the state, the nation, the world-and then
back again through all these to the individual. Mankind is ready to
say, "Give me complete liberty or death."
    The democracy has in the past limited its activity too much to
organizations immediately surrounding the individual, to the neglect
of the broad questions touching the outer circle of human relations.
We concern ourselves intensely with the rights of the individual in
the shop or the city, and let amateur statesmen direct our business
with other nations. The time is at hand when we must cease this
policy of drift and undertake a broad and comprehensive treatment
of the problems of international life. Democracy, educated by the
sad lessons of this war, informed and enlightened by this larger
view of its duty. must drop his policy of "laissez faire" and abandon
the path of negation in international affairs. That policy may have
been wise when America was twenty days distant from all the world;
it would be madness in these days of steam warships and submarines,
of aeroplanes and Zeppelins. So long 'as our task was the breaking
of the bonds that bound mankind to the past the individualistic na-
tional policy was a useful and an opportune one; it is a use1ess Ana




untimely policy, now that our task is to maintain the peace of the
nations. If democracy does not forsake this narrow path, this
short-sighted policy, it will surely perish-a-s all reactionary systems
have perished-in impotence and anarchy.
    Students of the University of Kentucky, it is your duty also to
study and solve these problems, to meet and to overcome these dan-
gers. You and the other young men and women in the colleges and
universities of the country today will be leaders of the republic to-
morrow. Your task is to educate this people to be fit citizens of the
greater democracy. The children at present in the schools will
bring to fruition in the next generation the possibilities of the com-
ing peace. Yours it is, then, to decide whether the republic shall go
on or whether this greatest experiment in democracy shall end in
    Young men and women, this government carries the hopes of
the human race, and it is yours to preserve these hopes and bring
them to a glorious fruition. Shut off the beacon of "Liberty En-
lightening the World," at the portal of this republic and all the na-
tions are adrift again upon unknown seas. But save the republic,
establish forever the light of that beacon over the troubled waters
of the world, and one by one the ships of the nations will come sail-
ing in, drop anchor and be at rest in the harbor of universal demo-

    President Barker introducedI Doctor James K. Patterson
with the following:

    When the Jubilee Committee was arranging the programme to
celebrate the 50th anniversary of this University, quite properly it
came to the conclusion that the friends of the University should
have its history. There was but one man who ccouId give that his-
tory. I shall not take up your time in eulogizing the President Emeritus
of this University. You know him better than I. He has lived the
life of the University. He knows it as well as he knows his own
life. Therefore, the committee selected for this address President
Emeritus James Kennedy Patterson.

    President Patterson said:

    In 1865 there existed in Kentucky four or five denominational
colleges, each of which was doing good academic work along the
old classical lines. Before the outbreak of the Civil War keen rivalry
stimulated competition and kept standards high. They did not rank
with the old colleges of the east but what work they did, they did




well. The degree of A. B. still suggested some Latin and Greek in
its curriculum, and that of B. S. some physical and chemical science.
The Chair of Philosophy was considered the chair of honor and the
ability with which it was filled gave dignity and prestige to the in-
    In 1862 Congress made liberal provision for instruction in those
branches of learning related to agriculture and the mechanic arts
"without excluding other scientific and classical studies and includ-
ing military tactics in such manner as the Legislatures of the states
may respectively prescribe in order to promote the liberal and prac-
tical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and
professions of life."
    For this purpose Congress granted public lands in proportion to
representation in Congress. The allotment to Kentucky was 330,000
acres, an area amounting to over 515 square miles. The State did
not consider itself prepared at that time to establish such a college
a.s the organic laws contemplated and the dignity of the Common-
wealth required, upon an independent basis, and readily acceded to
the proposal of the recently consolidated Kentucky and Transylvania
Universities to engraft her college upon the new institution as one
of its associated colleges. In 1865 this union was effected and in
October, 1866, the Agricultural and Mechanical College, known for
many years as State College, and which has since grown into the
University of Kentucky, opened its doors for matriculation of stud-
ents. The income of the new University was about 25,000. of which
9,900 belonged to the Agricultural and Mechanical College and was
applied to its sole and exclusive use. Few of its matriculates were
ready for college work. Five-sixths of its students were in the pre-
paratory departm ent, a department then indispensable, because of
the backwardness- of education in the State. Outside of Louisville,
so far as I am anv.-re, no high school at that time existed. For some
years the alliance worked well. Education was in consequence of
the war prostrate in the south and west. Students flocked in from
Kentucky and the adjacent states. In 1870 the matriculation reached
its maxi num 767. of which the Agricultural and Mechanical College
had 300. But religious dissension over the management and policy
of the institution by the governing board began to loom up. The
quarrels were carried into the General Assembly. Failing to elimi-
nate John B. Bowman, the Creator of the Consolidation, a man of
more liberal views and of larger ideas on education than those held
by the majority of his co-religionists, the Christian church withdrew
its patronage, causing thereby a rapid decline in attendance and
reputation. The crisis culminated in 1878 when the Legislature
intervened and withdrew the Agricultural and Mechanical College




from its unfortunate connection. When the separation took place
the Agricultural and Mechanical College was nowhere. It had neither
land nor buildings, nor equipment; nothing except 9,900, the income
derived from the invested funds which had accrued from the sale of
the land scrip given by Congress for its endowment. The General
Assembly of 1S78 appointed a commission to locate it. This com-
mission advertised for bids. Bowling Green and Lexington were the
only competitors. The former offered an alliance with Ogden Col-
lege and 30,000 in bonds for the purchase of land. The latter offered
its city park as a site for buildings, and the city and county added
to this offer 30,(00 in bond-s for the erection of buildings or the pur-
chase of land. The latter, after much opposition from its old part-
ner the Kentu.-lty University, was accepted by the Legislature. John
B. Bowman had failed to realize his expectation of a great univer-
sity which should give a lead to education in the south and southwest,
but he had created conditions unconsciously which resulted in the
establishment of a greater University founded exclusively on secular
lines and which should ere the close of the century assert and vindi-
date the principle of State aid for higher education, and of State
control of State institutions. Let us not hesitate in the celebration
of this, our jubilee, to award the meed of praise which is his due
to John B. Bowman, the stalwart champion of higher education in
    After its location had been determined the General Assembly of
1880 ccn:3iderefl the question of future endowment and adequate main-
tenance. Various plans were proposed. Amid strong opposition
from the denominational colleges the General Assembly passed by
small majorities an act giving it annuaily the proceeds of a tax of
one-half of one cent on each hundred dollars of taxable property
owned by white persons in the Commonwealth. The income was
thus at once increased from 9,900 per annum to 27,500.

                       Period of Opposition.

    It was hoped th'at the strong opposition which the one-half cent
tax had encountered throughout the State and in the Legislature of
1880 would gradually subside and finally disappear after the ad-
journment of the General Assembly. Not so, however. The denomi-
national colleges formed the nucleus of an opposition which grew
rather than diminished and the members of the late General Assem-
bly who had voted against the tax stimulated the hostility to the col-
lege. The pulpits of the Presbyterian, the Baptist, the Christian and
the Methodist rang with the "iniquity and injustice of the tax," and
made it an issue in the next election. It was quite apparent that












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when the next General Assembly should convene the existence of the
tax would be imperilled with the odds strongly against the college.
    I happened to be in Louisville on the 18th of November, 1881.
Former business relations with the Courier-Journal suggested that
Mr. Watterson be invited to make the address of dedication of the
college building then in process of erection. While in the Courier-
Journal office, at night, waiting for an interview, the managing editor
brought me a copy of an article signed by representatives of the col-
leges, viz.: Central University, Kentucky University, and Centre,
Georgetown, Kentucky Wesleyan, and Bethel Colleges, which would
appear in the issue of the following morning. Thi.s manifesto was
addressed to the people of Kentucky, but was especially intended for
the members of the General Assembly who would convene in Frank-
fort on the 28th of November. The paper was adroitly and ably
drawn, embodying much that was germane to education as then exist-
ing in Kentucky. Its appearance was so timed that it was expected
to reach the members-elect of the General Assembly at their homes
before setting out for Frankfort. The brief interval intervening would
scarcely. it was thought, leave time for a reply and thus public
opinion would in great measure be formed before the Assembly
    With this conviction I determined to remain in Louisville an-
other day and answer it before my return. The manifesto of the col-
leges appeared in the issue of the 19th and my reply on the morn-
ing of the 20th of November and the same post which carried the
attack carried in most cases the defense. The assailants happily
were placed on the defensive and kept there.
    By individual letters addressed to the Senators before the 18th of
November, I had anticipated most of the vital points in the manifesto
and had done much to explain and conciliate. I argued that while
the denominational colleges had done a great and an indispensable
work in laying the foundation of the classical and liberal education
which the Commonwealth required, that the time had come for a
new departure in education for the endowment of which Congress
had made provision; that Kentucky's allotment of land had been
practically wasted, that it devolved upon the State having accepted
the trust to make good the deficiency caused by mismanagement, and
that the Agricultural and Mechanical College had neither the dis-
position nor the intention to interfere with the work of the existing
colleges, that the new institution to the maintenance of which the
State was committed should make provision not only for the classical
and liberal education which Congress contemplated but for those
sciertific subjects which lie at the foundation of modern agricultural
and industrial development, and that provision for the endowment




of re.search followed as a necessary consequence, museums, labora-
tories and mechanical appliances unknown to the collegiate work of
the existing colleges were indispensable, and that whereas the former
thought in hundreds of dollars the latter must think in thousands and
tens of thousands. Endowment by private benefaction might suffice
for the colleges of the olden time, but endowment by the State was
an absolute necessity for the college and university of the modern
    When the Legislature assembled the outlook was gloomy in the
extreme. Blanten and Dudley, and Beatty, Miller and Wagner were
there representing the colleges. Dozens of letters for the members
came in by every mail protesting against the iniquity and the con-
tinuance of the tax. To add to our embarrassment we had been
misled by our architects. The buildings were only half completed
and the money was all expended. It became apparent that unless
we could borrow money to complete the half erected buildings we
must suspend operations. Moreover, if our embarrassments should
become known the General Assembly would hesitate to provide money
for an institution which, its opponents would argue, did not know how
to spend judiciously what they had. The banks refu-sed to lend ex-
cept on personal security-inasmuch as the college having only a
contingent interest in the property given by the city had nothing
to mortgage. In this emergency I hypothecated with the Northern
Bank, my own collaterals, borrowed the money and placed it in
the hands of the executive committee to carry on the work on the
buildings and took the notes of the University for repayment, well
knowing that if the one-half cent tax were repealed, I should lose all.
Indeed the Senator from Fayette said to me, "You have done a very
foolish thing. The Legislature is likely to repeal the tax and in that
event you will lose all." Dr. Ormond Beatty, President of Centre
College, presented before a crowded audience of Senators and Rep-
resentatives the argument for the repeal of the tax. He character-
ized it as "unwise, unjust, excessive, oppressive." When his argu-
ment was completed the belief was strong that the tax was doomed.
It fell to me to make the argument for the college which I did a
few days later. When the audience adjourned sentiment had appar-
ently changed and the tide had evidently begun