xt7q2b8vf39z https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7q2b8vf39z/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1948-05 bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Basic Health Course for Secondary Schools of Kentucky", vol. XVI, no. 3, May 1948 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Basic Health Course for Secondary Schools of Kentucky", vol. XVI, no. 3, May 1948 1948 1948-05 2022 true xt7q2b8vf39z section xt7q2b8vf39z O Commonweali'h of Kentucky 0










Published by

Superintendent of Public Instruction








Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

Vol. XVI MAY, 1948 No. 3











ln addition to rendering assistance in planning“ the basic health
course in Kentucky high schools. an effort, has been made to provide
an outline for this course. This bulletin, prepared by C. \V. Hacken-
smith, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, deals with
many of the subjects which are so important in the development of
good health habits. I urgently recommend its use in the tent-hing of

health and healthful living in the swondary schools of this state.

Nil/H'i‘infrndun/ of Public Instruction




endent of Public Instruction

Published by the
Boswell B. Hodgkin

Department of Physical Education
Umvelslty of Kentucky









This bulletin has been organized to meet the requirement of the
Code for Health and Physical Education (SBE 53-2) effective the
opening of the school year 1948-49 which states that a basic health
course shall be taught in Kentucky secondary schools (grades 9 or 10).

As a general rule, teachers of health have their own ideas of What
constitutes and how they will provide health instruction. The materials
in this bulletin must not be viewed as the final word in health in-
struction but rather as a guide to be used on its own merits and limita-
tions or in combination with an accepted textbook.

Regardless of how the basic health course is employed by the
teacher of health, emphasis should be on local and state health needs .
and problems as well as national.

This bulletin was made possible through the interest and assist-
ance of Dr. L. E. Smith, Executive Secretary of the Kentucky Tuber-
culosis Association, and Mr. Hainbleton Tapp, former Director of
Health and Physical Education, Kentucky State Department of Edn-
cation. The author is also deeply indebted to the following people
for suggestions and criticisms of the various units in the basic health
course; Miss Martha Van Meter, Director of Health Education, Ken-
tucky State Department of Health; Dr. Don Cash Seaton, Head of
the Department of Physical Education, University of Kentucky;
Mr. John Robinson, Instructor, University High School; Dr. Static
Erickson, College of Agriculture and Home Economics; Dr. H. H.
Work, Mental Hygiene Clinic, Louisville; and Dr. E. M. Thompson,
Director of Public Health, Fayette County.

The author wishes also to express his appreciation to Dr. P. E.
Blacker-by, Commissioner of Health, and Dr. P. Q. Peterson, and
Dr. R. B. Fulks of the Kentucky State Department of Health, for
their assistance in securing much valuable materials used in the basic
health course.

Associate Professor of Physical Education
University of Kentucky







This bulletin is the last in a series of four designed to guide and
aid the teacher, pupil and administrator in meeting the provisions of
the Code for Health and Physical Education, to become operative at
the beginning of the school year 1948, 1949 in Kentucky.

The volume may be used in planning, establishing, presenting
and improving the general health program in the secondary schools
of the state. According to several health education specialists, the con-
tents of this work are excellent in every respect, and the Common-
wealth is fortunate that the author, Mr. Charles \V. Hackensmith, of
the Physical Education Department, University of Kentucky, was
willing to devote practically a year’s time to the strenuous task of
collecting data and preparing the bulletin.

Nor is Mr. Hackensmith alone to be praised. Dr. L. E. Smith,
Executive Secretary of the Kentucky Tuberculosis Association, recog-
nizing the importance of the work, succeeded in enlisting the aid of
the of the Association’s Board of Directors in appropriating funds
for the project. The University of Kentucky ’s President and Board
also deserve commendation for giving Mr. I’lackci’ismith leaves of
absence to execute the labor.

The four bulletins will mean much or little to the children of
Kentucky, depending upon the interest and determination of the
school administrators, particularly the superintendents. If these, tht‘
superintendents, will devote several faculty meetings, or better still
conduct workshops (prior to the beginning of the school year) to
make the principals and teachers thoroughly acquainted with the four
bulletins, the code and the bulletins can be an effective means of 95'
tablishing an eminently successful health and physical education pro-
gram in Kentucky—one which will achieve practical results in mak-
ing for healthier, happier, longer-lived citizens. If the superintendentS
will lead in launching the. program, keep vigilant and concerned as
to its success, neither the State Department of Education nor the
State Department of Health will have the least doubt as to uliniate
success. But the superintendent must take the lead, generate spirit
enthusiasm and determination for the program ’s success to his pl‘ln‘
cipals, supervisors and teachers.

Hon. Boswell B. Hodgkin, State Superintemlcnt of Public 111'
struetion, and Mr. E. B. \Vhalin, present Director of Health Educfl'
tion in the State Department of Education, join me in expressing
gratitude to Mr. Hackensmith for his superb contribution to the




betterment of Kentucky. Oceasion is taken also to express appreciation
to Dr. Ellis F. Hartford (College of Education, University of Ken-
tucky) and to Dr. Don Cash Seaton (Physical Education Department,
University of Kentucky) for able contributions toward making the
bulletins possible. These bulletins compare favorably With the best
contributions done in the fields of health and physical education
throughout the nation. I am delighted to have had a part in the
notable endeavor.
Former Director of Health Education











INTRODUCTION .................................................................. 137
SECTION I PERSONAL HEALTH .......................................................... 149
Unit 1 Personal Hygiene ............................................ 151
Unit 2 Personal Health Appraisal .......................... 157
Unit 3 Dental Health .................................................. 164
SECTION II HEALTH PROTECTION ...................................................... 169
Unit 4 Safe Water Supply ........................................ 171
Unit 5 Protection of Milk .......................................... 175
Unit 6 Satisfactory Methods of Removal and
Disposal of Garbage and Sewage ................ 179
Unit 7 Heat, Ventilation and Light ........................ 183
Unit 8 Superstitions, Popular Beliefs, Home
Remedies and Health Advertisement ........ 188
SECTION III SAFEGUARDING HEALTH .............................................. 193
Unit 9 Communicable and Non-Communicable
Diseases ____________________________________________________________ 195
Unit 10 Health Professions and Agencies .............. 215
SECTION IV NUTRITION AND MENTAL HEALTH .......................... 223
Unit 11 Nutrition __________________________________________________________ 225
Unit 12 Mental Health .................................................. 234
SECTION V SAFETY AND FIRST AID ________________________________________________ 247
Unit 13 Safety 249
Unit 14 First Aid ____________________________________________________________ 263
SECTION VI TRAFFIC SAFETY EDUCATION ____________________________________ 275
Unit 15 Safety Education for Pedestrian
and Bicyclist ____________________________________________________ 277
Unit 16 Safety Education for the Driver and
Pupils in the Use of the School Bus ..: ....... 232
BIBLIOGRAPHY __________________________________________________________________ 294







The Code for Health and Physical Education1 effective Septem-
ber, 1948, states that health shall be included in each pupil’s program
of daily living and learning and that a specific course in basic health
shall be required of each pupil in the upper four years of high school,
preferably during the ninth or tenth year. It is evident that the
originators of the code were cognizant of the fact that all the health
instruction required for efficient participation in daily living in home
and community can not be encompassed in one compact course in
either the ninth or the tenth grade. The inference is, then, that much
of the health knowledge and learning experiences which can not be
treated in the basic course must evolve from health instruction in re-
lated areas.

It is the purpose of this Bulletin to present units of health in-
struction applicable to the ninth or tenth grades that will assist the
teacher of health in Kentucky secondary schools. The framework of the
units of the suggested basic health course for Kentucky secondary
schools has been constructed around the major health needs common
to Kentuckians.

The author determined the health needs of Kentucky youth and
adults through the following methods:

1. A study of the economical and social factors affecting the
health of the Kentucky citizen.


A review of the incidence of disease in Kentucky for the past
10 years, 1936—46, through records furnished by the Division
of Communicable Disease, State Department of Health.

3. A review of the Vital Statistic Report of the State Depart-

ment of Health, 1941—1946.

4. A tabulation and evaluation of the opinion of responsible in-
dividuals as to what constituted Kentucky’s chief health

a. Nine county health officers selected by the State Board
Of Health.

Stat] Kentucky. Code for Health and Physical Education. Frankfort, Kentucky:
D908 Department of Education, Division of Health and Physical Education,
Member 12, 1947. (Mimeographed)









1). Three hundred and thirty-seven secondary school admin-

l ‘ istrators.

ll 1 c. One hundred and forty—five secondary school health

: teachers.

a. A review of the health facts disclosed by the Committee for
Kentucky in its Report on H calf/I, compiled by the State De-
partment of Health, 1945.

v 6. A tabulation and evaluation of practices in health guidance,

supervision, and instruction from responses to a question-
ji naire _mailed to Kentucky high school administrators under
~ l the auspices of the State Department of Education.

I: An exaniinatimi of. the health practices in (58 Kentucky sec

ondary schools through. visitation. These schools were chosen

by random sampling and representative of every section of
the state. The. health practices examined included :

l a. Healthful school living.

‘ b. School lunch program.


‘l The foregoing study indicates that Kentucky youth and adults
l are faced with such health needs as:



1 A. Communicable diseases, prevention and control.

1. Chickenpox (Varicella)
2. Diphtheria
3. Dysentery, Amebic (Amebiasis)
4. Dysentery, Bacillary (Shigellosis)
5. Gonorrhea
6. Hookworm (Ancylostomiasis)
7. Impetigo Contagiosa
8. Influenza
9. Malaria
10. Measles (Rubeola)
11. Meningococcus Meningitis
_ - 12. Mumps (Infectious Parotitis)
l: 13. Paratyphoid Fever
l‘. 14. Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
2 15. Pneumonia (All Forms)
16. Poliomyelitis
l7. Rabies
18. Rheumatic Fever (Sodoku)
19. ngworm (Dermatophytosis)
20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
21. Scabies (The Itch)
22. Scarlet Fever
23. Smallpox (Variola)
i 24. Sore Throat, Septic
25. Syphilis
i 26. Tetanus
i 27. Trachoma
i 28. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
29. Tularemia
30. Typhoid Fever
31. Undulant Fever (Brucellosis)
32. Vincent’s Infection







e for
3 De-


’ SEC-

)n of


B. Non-Communicable diseases

1. Heart Disease (All Forms)
Cerebral Hemorrhage
Cancer (All Forms)
Nephritis (All Forms)


0. Sanitation

1. School
2. Home
3. Community

D. Leisure-time pursuits
E. Nutrition
F. Personal hygiene
G. Lack of health service, personnel, and facilities
H. Mental hygiene
I. Prenatal care
J. Dental hygiene
K. Public health education
L. Maternal and child health
M. Alcohol, tobacco and drugs
N. Quackery and superstitions
0. Sex education
P. Safety education
Q. First aid ‘
R. Care of the physically handicapped
S. Preparation for marriage and parenthood

Method. and illaterials. A basic health course for the ninth or
tenth grade, as stipulated by the Code for Health and Physical Edu-
cation, must of necessity limit itself in scope and any attempt to en—
compass all of the Kentucky ’s health needs in a. semester ’5 course is a
sheer impossibility. The selection of health materials to serve as a
satisfactory guide for teachers in secondary schools, therefore, be-
comes a paramount problem.

The advice of authorities in the fields of mental health, dental
hygiene, nutrition, sanitation, and safety education and representa-
tives of health agencies was sought in an attempt to select the most
Pertinent and useful materials in the organization of a basic health
course. An evaluation was made of health bulletins secured from
various state departments of education. Plans of organization con—
tained in these bulletins and health materials suitable and applicable






to Kentucky were freely utilized. The sources from which valuable

material and guidance was secured included the following:







Illinois State Department of Education. A Program of Safety
Education for the Secondary Schools of Illinois, by Don Cash
Seaton. Circular No. 299a. Springfield, Illinois. 1939.
Minnesota Department of Education. Individual and Com-
mzmity Health. Junior High School Health and Safety Edu-
cation Curriculum Bulletin No. 16. Minneapolis, Minnesota

Mississippi State Department of Education. Manual for
Teaching Health for 1ch Schools of llI'ississippi. Bulletin
No. 118. Jackson, Mississippi. 1947.

Ohio State Department of Education. School and Commun-
ity H calth Education. Sponsored jointly by the Ohio Depart-
ment of Education and Department of Health. Columbus,
Ohio. 1946.

Oregon State Department of Education. Health Guide Units
for Oregon Teachers (Grades 7—12) by Howard S. Hoyman.
Salem, Oregon. 1946.

Texas State Department of Education. Guido to Safe Living
for Secondary Schools, Safety Education Including Driver
Education. Bulletin No. 462. Austin, Texas. 1945.

After careful consideration of Kentucky 7s health needs, the ad-
vice of state health authorities, representatives of health agencies, and
an evaluation of outstanding state courses of study, the author organ-
ized the basic health course for ninth or tenth grade pupils in Ken-
tucky secondary schools into the following sections, units, and topiCS:

Section I, Personal Health (30 class periods)


Unit I, Personal Hygiene

2. Unit II, Personal Health Appraisal


Unit III, Dental Health

Section II, Health Protection (30 class periods)

5"!“ 99’3"


Unit IV, Safe Water Supply

Unit V, Protection of Milk

Unit VI, Satisfactory Methods of Removal and Disposal of G31"
bage and Sewage

Unit VII, Heat, Ventilation, and Light

Unit VIII, Superstitions, Popular Beliefs, Home Remedies, and
Health Advertisements

Section III, Safe-guarding Health (30 class periods)


Unit IX, Communicable and Non—communicable Diseases
Unit X, Health Profession and Agencies









i). Section IV, Nutrition and Mental Health (30 class periods)
1. Unit XI, Nutrition
2. Unit XII, Mental Health

E. Section V, Safety Education and First Aid (30 class periods)
1. Unit XIII, Safety
2. Unit XIV, First Aid

F. Section VI, Traffic Safety Education (30 class periods)

1. Unit XV, Pedestrian and Bicyclist Education
2. Unit XVI, Driver Education and Pupil Use of the School Bus

(l. Bibliography

1. Teacher Reference
2. Pupil Reference
3. Health Agencies

The bulletin iSsued by the Kentucky State Department of Edn-
cation containing these units is not intended as a textbook. The bul-
letin is intended as a teacher guide to provide a fuller and richer
organized program in functional health. Teachers’ ideas vary greatly
as to What should be taught in health but the suggested units will, at
least, insure a fairly uniform program of health instruction. The units
are not inflexible and additions and changes will depend on the ability
and educational training of the health teacher as well as pupil in-
terest. The basic content in each unit has been presented in such a way
that teachers with little or no special training in health education can
follow it it' they read the references included at the conclusion of each
unit. Teachers with special training in health education should have

no difficulty in following the plan of the units and lecturing from

It is intended that each section should be teachable in 30 class
periods. The units within each section have been apportioned such
time as will permit them to come Within the 30-day time limit.
The allotment of days to each unit was done as fairly as possible under
the circumstances. Only actual teaching of the units will prove the
adequacy or inadequacy of the apportionment of time for each unit.

The author is cognizant of the tremendous amount of material
contained in the 16 units. It is hoped that in subjects such as general
science, science, home economics, biology, and others that treat health
phases of this course of study will continue to do so. It is imperative,
however, that the teacher of health in related areas shall have a clear
understanding with the health instructor about what shall be and
shall not be covered in their subject area.

The time allotment of 24 class periods for Unit XVI on Traffic
Safety Education is, without a doubt, Wholly inadequate for effective









teaching. Traffic education is too an important phase of youth’s high
school education to be compressed in a unit of 24 lessons. Should a di-
vision of labor be. effected and teachers of health in related areas re’
ducc the teaching time of the course of study on health instruction,
behind the wheel training for pupils may be satisfactorily included
and is provided for in the unit. The pupil’s training may be provided
through home-school cooperation, dual control cars furnished by auto-
mobile manufacturers, automobiles owned by motor clubs or garages
and loaned to the school, and dummy automobiles (a junk ear with
necessary parts intact).

Teacher references have been selected with care with a view to
provide information necessary for the successful teaching of the
various units. It is assumed that the school in part will provide the
teacher many of these references for her or his use. Where only a few
of the books can be secured through the school, the teacher is provided
many additional references which may be secured free or at small
charges from official and non-official organizations.

Pupil references include free materials from officials and non-
ot‘t‘icial health agencies and special books which might well be the
start of a health section in the school library. The textbooks included
as pupil reference at the cl0se of each unit were those books on health
instruction utilized and listed most. frequently by Kentucky teachers
in a. survey conducted by the author in the Spring" of 1947. It is hoped
that the teacher will coordinate the units of this course of study with
the text of his or her choice.

Organization for Health Instruction. A survey of health in-
struction and correlation of health instruction indicated that Ken-
tucky secondary schools use a variety of methods to organize health
instruction. In \Vyatt’s2 survey of health and physical education in
1946, he found that 40 per eent of the 484 high schools reporting
taught health as a specific subject, usually in the junior year, and
that only 13 per cent required the subject.

A separate course in health education has particular merit in the
senior high school and is recommended by Health in Schools3 as the
most effective means of providing an adequate instructional program
Subjects dealing with the field of biology are included in most high
school curricula and such a class can be increased in scope to include
a. variety of human conservation problems, both personal and com-


V 3Wyatt, Clarence Hodges. The Status of Health and Physical Education W
.SCI'OlldaTy «Schools '5'” Kentucky (1945-46). Frankfort, Kentucky: Kentucky De-
partment of Education Bulletin, July, 1946. VoL XIV, No. 5. p. 434.

3Health. .111, Schools, Twentieth Yearbook of the American Association 0‘
School Administrators. Washington, D. 0.: National Education Associationy e-
eemher, 1946, 1). 73.


a di-
3 re-

v to







munity, with biological'science serving as a background of explanation
for many of these problems. As pointed out in Health in, Schools.

The emphasis should be shifted [in biological courses in high
school] from bones and blood vessels to problems of living. Con-
cepts of racial improvement, public health, and adequate personal
and social living are the sources of curriculum materials. Such a
course is most profitable in the junior or senior year in high school.
It should meet daily for at least one semester, preferably for two,
and be recognized as on par with other school offerings. The
course might be called “Problems in Human Conservation,” “Human
Biology,” “Personal Living,” or something similar.‘

If health education is taught in the junior year, which is the prev-
elant custom in Kentucky secondary schools, it seems less desirable
to offer the course for one semester or a year. In this level, health is
better taught as an ongoing program throughout the three years on
a two-day a week basis, alternating with some other subject in the
curriculum. The course should be definitely coordinated with the
health topics treated in general science, science, social studies, Eng-
lish, physical education and other subjects to unify and avoid dupli-
cation of effort.

Many Kentucky secondary schools practice the alternation of
health instruction with physical education. The most common pro-
cedure is to schedule health class two days per week and physical
education three days. The average class period is 45 minutes per
meeting. There are definite advantages in this combination such as
(1) the simplification of scheduling classes where one group meets
in the gymnasium and the other in the classroom, (2) the close asso-
ciation of the physical education teacher with the pupils places them
in an excellent position to know their health needs, (3) the very
nature of the physical education period provides opportunities for
learning experiences in valuable health habits such as cleanliness,
safety, posture, and many others, and (4) the fact that sexes are
usually segregated for the activity period which provides opportunity
for the discussion of certain phases of body development inherent to
both groups.

This plan, however, also has its disadvantages in that (1) the
pupils resent being deprived of an activity period in order to study
health principles (2) the fact that some physical education teachers
assume the attitude that health instruction is just another burden,
(3) the tendency of schedule-makeis to overload physical education
class emollment which is a handicap to efficient teaching in both
health and physical education, (4) the lack of classrooms for instruc-
tion in health, books, library materials, and teaching aids, and (5) the

‘ Md» pp. 73-74.



fact that many physical education teachers are not too wellvtrained


i to teach the subject. The administrator can, however, eliminate many 1
of these disadvantages through, proper scheduling, employment of (
qualified teachers of health and physical education, and adequate

, 3 In Kentucky high schools health instruction is frequently cor-
' related with biology, general science, and science. In addition to this
fact, science majors indicated, at least an excellent foundation in the
basic sciences which should assist them in health instruction. Since
biology, general science, and science are taught each year, health in-
; } struction can be and is quite frequently, in Kentucky high schools,
i ' included in the course content. In his interviews with school admin-
1, istrators, the author frequently found that general science, Science,
l and health instruction are alternated during semesters. The ideal





j ~ would be to integrate health instruction units throughout the science a
or general courses, but such an approach requires a science teacher \
1‘. who is not too concerned with technicalities and who is alert to the 3
health needs and interests of boys and girls. c
. Whatever the method or organization, the instruction of health t
i must not be looked upon as an incidental affair but rather as a course L
a with the important task of helping pupils to improve living. For that t‘
. reason, administrators must give the course every chance to succeed as 'l
he would any other course in the curriculum. The practice of relegat- 0
ing the health instruction classes to the auditorium or gymnasium
should be abandoned and regular classrooms with classes no larger t
than the average, credit allowed on a par with other subjects, teach- o
ing materials provided, and teachers prepared in health education t
should be the modern trend if school administrators are really sincere a
i in their belief of the value of health instruction to healthful living. c
; ' In the organization of health classes that are taught each year, 11
‘ care must be exerted to avoid the overemphasis of general areas. If 11
fl health instruction is given in the junior high school level, personal 11
‘ health problems may be emphasized in the seventh grade, nutrition v
in the eighth grade, and safety and first aid in the ninth {Hilda
Flexibility is to be desired but monotonous repetition is to be avoided. 0
Method of Instruction” Many health teachers in Kentucky 560- n
ondary schools are already employing definite methods of instruC' fl
tion. The conduct of a class in health instruction does not differ 1113' a
‘ terially from the method used in other courses. The choice of method a
i will vary,'however, with the size of the class, maturity of the pupils; "
1 availability of source materials, teaching environment, and the train- 1"
ing and experience of the teacher. 11'



t of



l as





Methods of teaching listed below are in use at the present time
by Kentucky health teachers and much of the material has been
drawn from their reports.

1. Discussion.- As a general rule high school pupils will gain
much from a well-conducted class discussion. Pupils will have an
opportunity to fill gaps in their health knowledge and to question
health practices based on beliefs that are not substantiated by scien-
tific or authoritative facts. These discussions may be led by groups
under pupil leaders as well as the teachers. Several Kentucky health
teachers employ a panel or round-table discussion which are interest:
ing and can be used occasionally. I

2. Activities and Projects: Activities growing out of interests
and the solution to problems arising from discussion or reading pro-
vide excellent opportunities for pupils to work in real situations. As
an example, the question of certification of milk may lead to a group
visit to the local dairy company, or a reported prevalence of Rocky
Mountain Spotted Fever in the area may stimulate reading on the
cause and prevention of the disease. This method permits the teacher
to break away from the formalistic type of teaching and helps to
build initiative and self-direction in pupils. Projects should be care—
fully planned and enough time permitted to carry them to completion.
These projects may be either group or individual and several may be
conducted simultaneously in the same class.

Kentucky health teachers, if the survey of methods employed in
teaching health is a criterion, do not fully appreciate the significance
0t community health resources as a valuable aid in originating activi-
ties and projects that provide learning experiences. Many teachers
admit that health agencies in the community are deeply interested in
0001381‘ati11g but few take advantage of this fact. \Vhen community
health agencies and facilities are utilized in activities or projects,
however, the health teacher must make careful arrangement with the
Darties concerned and either acknowledge his or her appreciation
Verbally or preferably by letter for the indulgence shown.

3. Provision of Scientific Material.- The library or the teach-
t‘l‘Ts classroom should make available to pupils books; pamphlets,
magazines, monographs and bulletins to assist pupils in working out
their problems. Much of the material of official organizations such
as the Kentucky State Department of Health and its divisions as well
a? lion-official organizations such as the Kentucky Tuberculosis Asso-
Clatlon, National Safety Council, and the National Dairy Council have

limhllcations that will add much to the school library 01‘ CIHSSVOOW
materials on health. N




4. Audio-Visual Instruction: The value of audio—Visual and
visual aids in the teaching of health has been established in many
Kentucky high schools. These aids include graphs, charts, posters,
slides, silent and sound motion pictures, specimens, objects, and many
others which help in effective teaching. Again, many of these audio-
visual and visual aids are available to teachers free or at a low cost
if they will but take the. initiative to write official and non-official
organizations. All materials, however, especially from commercial
sources, are not satisfactory for claserom teaching and an evaluation
committee or the school administrator and teacher should judge the
propriety of utilizing" various commercial materials,

Posters and charts become worse from wea' after use year in
and out. Some of these teaching devices have value for many years it'
stored away properly after use and conditioned before use. \Vhen the
material arrives through the mail, it should be rolled in reverse to
make it flat and bordered with scotch tape to avoid tearing. In storing.
posters and charts should be kept flat, enclosed in heavy wrapping
paper and the paper held secure with scotch tape. A storage place
may be an ordinary paper carton or wooden box kept in a dry area.

Before the opening: of the school year 1948, the University of
Kentucky Extension Department: will. have compiled a list of health
films available to Kentucky schools. School administrators may well
consider the matter of renting or purchasing a projecto- as well as
making arrangements for a satisfactory projection room. The pro-
jector will not only be valuable to health instruction but also to the
rest. of the instructional program of the school. Many films on file
at the University of Kentucky Extension Department5 are recrea-
tional as well as educational and rental charges are held at a

5. Special Lectures and Demolislmlions: This method of in-
struction is frequ