xt7q5717mm5j https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7q5717mm5j/data/mets.xml Smith, James, 1737-1812. 1907  books b92bsm59a19072009 English R. Clarke : Cincinnati, Ohio Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Indian captivities. Indians of North America --Social life and customs. An account of the remarkable occurrences in the life and travels of Col. James Smith, during his captivity with the Indians, in the years 1755,  56,  57,  58, &  59. With an appendix of illustrative notes. text An account of the remarkable occurrences in the life and travels of Col. James Smith, during his captivity with the Indians, in the years 1755,  56,  57,  58, &  59. With an appendix of illustrative notes. 1907 2009 true xt7q5717mm5j section xt7q5717mm5j 


Remarkable Occurrences


Col. James Smith



An Appendix of Illustrative Notes




WE select this as one of the reprints of our Ohio Valley Historical Series, believing that in it the Indian "Customs, Manners, Traditions, Theological Sentiments, Mode of Warfare, Military Tactics, Discipline, and Encampment, Treatment of Prisoners, etc., are better explained and more minutely related than has been heretofore done," as the author expresses himself in his title page. His vivid pictures of the vagrant, precarious lives of the Indians, little more than a century ago, in the then unbroken wilderness which has given place to the prosperous State of Ohio, written without any pretense to style or learning, bear every impress of truthfulness; and as a faithful record of an eyewitness of their condition, habits, etc., it deserves to be perpetuated. It has been several times reprinted, with more or less accuracy, but all the editions may now be classed among the scarce books.

James Smith was born in 1737, in Franklin county, Pennsylvania, at that time the backwoods frontier, the extreme limit of civilization. As might be expected, he received but a limited education in book-learning, but, as befitted a backwoods boy, he was well versed in wood-craft, active in the hunt, and inured to all the hardships and trials of a frontier life. At the age of eighteen, in 1755, he was taken captive by the Indians, was adopted into one of their families, and accompanied them in all their wanderings, till his escape in 1759. He returned to Conoeocheague early in 1760, and was received with great joy by his family and friends.

He settled himself at his old home in the ordinary routine 


of pioneer farming, and in May, 1763, married Miss Anne "Wilson, by whom he had seven children   four sons, Jonathan, William, James, and Robert; and three daughters, Jane, Elizabeth, and Rebecca. His subsequent adventures, as a leader of the Blackboys, in 1763 and 1769; his service as a lieutenant in Bouquet's expedition against the Ohio Indians in 1764; his exploring excursion into southern Kentucky in 1766, and his services during the Revolutionary war, in Avhich he earned and received the rank of colonel, are sufficiently detailed in his own narrative.

After the temporary peace lnade with the Indians in 1778, he removed to Westmoreland county. Pennsylvania, and settled on a farm on Jacob's creek. Here his wife died. Of her we know little, except that she was a good woman, and a devoted wife and mother. In 1785, he spent most of the summer in Kentucky, looking after some land claims; there he married his second wife, Mrs. Margaret Irvin,* nee Rodgers,

* The following account is given of Mrs. Irvin in the

edition of this work, published by Grigg & Elliot, in 1834:

"She was born in the year 1744, in Hanover county, Virginia. She was of a respectable family; her father and the Rev. Dr. Rodgers, of New York, were brothers' children. Her mother was sister to the Rev. James Caldwell, who was killed by the British and tories at Elizabeth Point, New Jersey. Her father removed, when she was a child, to what was then called Lunenburg, now Charlotte county, Virginia. She never went to school but three months, and that at the age of five years. At the expiration of that term the school ceased, and she had no opportunity to attend one afterward. Her mother, however, being an intelligent woman, and an excellent scholar, gave her lessons at home. On the 5th of November, 1764, she was married to Mr. Irvin, a respectable man, though in moderate circumstances. In the year 1777, when every true friend of his country felt it his duty to render some personal service, he and a neighbor, by the name of William Handy, agreed that they would enlist for the term of three years, and each to serve eighteen months; Irvin to serve the first half, and Handy the second.   Mr. Irvin



widow of Mr. Abraham Irvin, a woman of cultivated mind, with whom he lived happily until her decease in 1800. They had no children.   She had five by her former marriage.

Of Mr. Smith's affection for his first wife, the following incident bears witness. It was communicated to us by Rev. J. M. Smith, son of Mr. Smith's youngest son, Robert.

"My father's earliest recollections related to the habits of his father, which he told about as follows: His mother was buried on the farm, on a hill at some distance from the house, where some large oak trees had been left standing to mark and shade the family burying ground. Under the shade of these trees my grandfather had constructed a kind of booth, somewhat after the form of an Indian wigwam, but small in size. In this he had made a couch, upon which he would lie upon his back and read. To this retreat he was accustomed to take his little son, and there to read to him from the Holy Scriptures, and point out to him the grave of his mother. Their last visit to this hallowed spot made a very deep unentered upon duty, in company with many others from that section of the country. When they had marched to Dumfries, Va., before they joined the main army, they were ordered to halt and inoculate for the small-pox. Irvin neglected to inoculate, under the impression he had had the disease during infancy. The consequence was, he took the small-pox in the natural way, and died, leaving Mrs. Irvin, and five small children, four sons and a daughter.

In the fall of 1782, Mrs. Irvin removed, in company with a number of enterprising Virginians, to the wilds of Kentucky; and three years afterward intermarried with Col. Smith, by whom she had no issue. She died about the year 1SO0, in Bourbon county, Kentucky, in the 56th year of her age. She was a member of the Presbyterian church, and sustained through life an unblemished reputation. In early life she wrote but little, most of her productions being the fruits of her maturer years, and while she was the wife of Col. Smith. But little of her composition has ever been put to press; but her genius and taste were always acknowledged by those who had access to the productions of her pen. She had a happy talent for pastoral poetry, and many fugitive pieces ascribed to her will long be cherished and admired by the children of song. 


pression upon the mind of my father; he never referred to it without tears, even when he was an old man. They were about to remove to the State of Kentucky, and all other matters having been arranged, he took his little boy and repaired to the grave of his wife, which he was soon to leave forever, and there the two kneeled, side by side, and the widowed husband offered up his last prayer on behalf of his orphan child over the grave of the departed wife and mother. This done, leading his little son by the hand, he followed his family, who had already started from their old home to seek a new one in the wilds of Kentucky."

This was in 1788. He took with him, his wife and her children, and of his own children, James, William, Robert, and Rebecca, and settled on Cane Ridge, in Bourbon county, Kentucky, about seven miles from Paris.

Col. Smith was a man of very quiet and taciturn character, a reader and a thinker, and much given to religious reading and meditation. In him, however, the courage of opinion was fully developed, and when roused, he had more than ordinary talent in debate, so that among his new neighbors he soon became a man of mark. He was elected the same year a member of the convention which sat at Danville to confer about a separation from the State of Virginia, and afterward represented Bourbon county in the General Assembly of the State.

In religious matters Col. Smith was an enthusiast, and for some time took an active part in the Stoneite movement, which so excited the early church in Kentucky, for an account of which we must refer our readers to Davidson's History of the Presbyterian Church in Kentucky. He finally, however, returned to the Presbyterian church, and receiving licensure, or perhaps ordination, he spent much of his time in his later years as a missionary among the Indians, for 


which work his familiarity with Indian character eminently fitted him.

In 1802 he lived with his son James, to whom he had conveyed the copyright and the remaining copies of his work, and also twenty acres of land, for which the son had agreed "to decently support his father during his lifetime."

On his return from one of his missionary excursions into Tennessee, he found that his son James had during his absence joined the Shakers, and had gone with his family to a settlement which that sect had just formed on Tm*tle Creek, Ohio (near Lebanon). He followed, "to see what sort of people they were," lived with them only a short time, but long enough to be disgusted with the whole fraternity. His son James, who before joining the Shakers "was naturally friendly, a dutiful son, a kind husband and a tender father,'' seems to have changed his whole nature, and "appeared to be divested of natural affection toward his wife Polly and other connections." She, on going to visit some relatives with her father-in-law, was advertised by her husband as having left his "house and hoard without any just cause;" and on her return, at the instigation of the elders, he refused to receive her, or allow her to see her children, "without she would receive their testimony." Thus driven from the settlement, and from her husband and children, she returned to her friends in Kentucky. Col. Smith was greatly exasperated at the conduct of his son, and opened his batteries on the. leaders of the Shakers, exposing them socially, theologically, and politically, in a pamphlet entitled

"Remarkable Occurrences lately discovered among the People called Shakers: of a Treasonable and barbarous nature; or, Shakerism Developed. By James Smith. Paris (Ky.).   Printed by Joel R. Lyle."   (1810.) pp.24. 

This brought out a rejoinder by Richard McNemar, one of their leaders, and Col. Smith again appeared in print, in a pamphlet of 44 pages, entitled

"Shakerism Detected; their Erroneous and Treasonable Proceedings, and False Publications contained in Different Newspapers, Exposed to Public View, by the depositions of ten different persons living in various parts of the State of Kentucky and Ohio, accompanied with remarks. By Col. James Smith, of Kentucky. Paris, Kentucky. Printed by Joel R, Lyle. 1810."

These, however, had no result so far as the son was concerned ; he remained with the Shakers; and Col. Smith spent the remainder of his clays, thus embittered by the unnatural conduct of his son, chiefly with his step-children, the Irvins, in Washington county, Kentucky, where he died in 1812.

The Indians had again become very troublesome in 1811, and a general Indian war was expected. Col. Smith, now too old for actual service,* but still having considerable of the old leaven of patriotism in him, wrote out and published a treatise on Indian warfare, of which the following is the title page:

"A Treatise on the Mode and Manner of Indian War, their Tactics, Discipline and Encampment, the various Methods they Practise, in order to obtain the Advantage, by Ambush, Surprise, Surrounding, &c. Ways and Means proposed to Prevent the Indians from obtaining the Advantage. A Chart, or Plan of Marching, and Encamping, laid down, whereby we may undoubtedly Surround them, if we have Men Suf-

*He made the attempt, however. In Niles' Register for September 26, 1812, he is said to have "gone to join the army, when he heard of the surrender of Hull." His son Robert raised a company of volunteers in Washington county, Ky. He was a tanner, and in order to uniform his company he tanned all their pantaloons in his vats. 


ficient. Also   A Brief Account of Twenty-three Campaigns, carried on against the Indians with the Events since the year 1755; Gov. Harrison's included. By Col. James Smith. Likewise   Some Abstracts selected from his Journal, while in Captivity with the Indians, relative to the "Wars: which was published many years ago, but few of them now to be found. Paris Kentucky. Printed by Joel R. Lyle.  1812." pp. 1, 59.

There is not much new matter in this volume. It is little more than those portions of his "captivity" relating to Indian warfare, rearranged and connected. No one could read it without being convinced of the wisdom of the tactics he suggests and even of their applicability to Indian warfare in these latter days.

"We must express our obligations to Miss Sarah M'Quaid, of Elizabeth, Pennsylvania, who was brought up in Jonathan Smith's family, and Rev. J. M. Smith, of McKeesport, Pennsylvania, for much of the material of this sketch; and also to Rev. Joel K. Lyle, of Lexington, for the use of the two Shaker pamphlets; and Mr. S. B. Elliott, of Cincinnati, for the pamphlet on Indian warfare.

Since the narrative was printed we have been favored by Mr. "Wm. M. Darlington of Pittsburgh with the valuable Notes printed in the Appendix on the localities, etc., mentioned by Col. Smith. They will be found to be of considerable interest, and add very much to the value of this republication. "We regret that they were received too late to refer to them in the text, but the pages are given with the Notes referring back to the Narrative, and the Index will be a ready reference to both the text and notes. 





(Now a Citizen of Bourbon County, Kentucky,)

during his captivity with the indians,

in the years 1755, '56, '57, '58, & '59,

In which the Customs, Manners, Traditions, Theological Sentiments, Mode of Warfare, Military Tactics, Discipline and Encampments, Treatment of Prisoners, &c. are better explained, and more minutely related, than has been heretofore done, by any author on that subject. Together with a Description of the Soil, Timber aud Waters, where he travelled with the Indians, during his captivity.

to which is added,

A Brief Account of some Very Uncommon Occurrences, which transpired after his return from captivity; as well as of the Different Campaigns carried on against the Indians to the westward of Fort Pitt, since the year 1755, to the present date.


LEXINGTON: Printed ry JOHN BRADFORD, on Main Street, 1799. 

IWAS strongly urged to publish the following work, immediately after my return from captivity, which was nearly forty years ago   but, as at that time the Americans were so little acquainted with Indian affairs, I apprehended a great part of it would be viewed as fable or romance.

As the Indians never attempted to prevent me either from reading or writing, I kept a Journal, which I revised shortly after my return from captivity, and which I have kept ever since: and as I have had but a moderate English education, have been advised to employ some person of liberal education to transcribe and embellish it   but believing that nature always outshines art, have thought, that occurrences truly and plainly stated, as they happened, would make the best history, be better understood, and most entertaining.

In the different Indian speeches copied into this work, I have not only imitated their own style, or mode of speaking, but have also preserved the ideas meant to be communicated in those speeches   In common conversation, I have used my own style, but preserved their ideas. The principal advantage that I expect will result to the public, from the publication of the following sheets, is the observations on the Indian mode of 


warfare. Experience has taught the Americans the necessity of adopting their mode, and the more perfect we are in that mode, the better we shall he ahle to defend ourselves against them, when defence is necessary.


Bourbon County, June 1st, 1799. 

IN May 1755, the province of Pennsylvania, agreed to send ont three hundred men, in order to cut a waggon road from Fort London, to join Baddock's road, near the Turkey Foot, or three forks of Yoho-gania. My brother-in-law, William Smith esq. of Conococheague, was appointed commissioner, to have the oversight of these road-cutters.

Though I was at that time only eighteen years of age, I had fallen violently in love with a young lady, whom I apprehended was possessed of a large share of both beauty and virtue; but being born between Venus and Mars, I concluded I must also leave my dear fair one, and go out with this company of road-cutters, to see the event of this campaign; but still expecting that some time in the course of this summer, I should again return to the arms of my beloved.

We went on with the road, without interruption, until near the Allegheny Mountain; when I was sent back, in order to hurry up some provision waggons that were on the way after us; I proceeded down the road as far as the crossings of Juniata, where, finding the waggons were coming on as fast as possible, I returned up the road again towards the Allegheny Mountain, in


Col. James Smith.

company with one Arnold Vigoras. About four or five miles above Bedford, three Indians had made a blind of bushes, stuck in the ground, as though they grew naturally, where they concealed themselves, about fifteen yards from the road. When we came opposite to them, they fired upon us, at this short distance, and killed my fellow traveller, yet their bullets did not touch me; but my horse making a violent start, threw me, and the Indians immediately ran up, and took me prisoner. The one that laid hold on me was a Cana-fatauga, the other two were Delawares. One of them could speak English, and asked me if there were any more white men coming after? I told them not any near, that I knew of. Two of these Indians stood by me, whilst the other scalped my comrade: they then set off and ran at a smart rate, through the woods, for about fifteen miles, and that night we slept on the Ale-gheny Mountain, without fire.

The next morning they divided the last of their provision which they had brought from Fort DuQuesne, and gave me an equal share, which was about two or three ounces of mouldy biscuit   this and a young Ground-Hog, about as large as a Babbit, roasted, and also equally divided, was all the provision we had until we came to the Loyal-Hannan, which was about fifty miles; and a great part of the way we came through exceeding rocky Laurel-thickets, without any path. When we came to the West side of Laurel Hill, they 
   Remarkable Occurrences, Etc.


gave the scalp halloo, as usual, which is a long yell or halloo, for every scalp or prisoner they have in possession; the last of these scalp halloos was followed with quick and sudden, shrill shouts of joy and triumph. On their performing this, we were answered by the firing of a number of guns on the Loyal-Hannan, one after another, quicker than one could count, by another party of Indians, who were encamped near where Ligoneer now stands. As we advanced near this party, they increased with repeated shouts of joy and triumph; but I did not share with them in their excessive mirth. When we came to this camp, we found they had plenty of Turkeys and other meat, there; and though I never before eat venison without bread or salt, yet as I was hungry, it relished very well. There we lay that night, and the next morning the whole of us marched on our way for Fort DuQuesne. The night after we joined another camp of Indians, with nearly the same ceremony, attended with great noise, and apparent joy, among all, except one. The next morning we continued our march, and in the afternoon we came in full view of the fort, which stood on the point, near where Fort Pitt now stands. We then made a halt on the bank of the Alegheny, and repeated the scalp halloo, which was answered by the firing of all the firelocks in the hands of both Indians and French who were in and about the fort, in the aforesaid manner, and also the great guns, which were followed by the continued 

Col. James Smith.

shouts and yells of the different savage tribes who were then collected there.

As I was at this time unacquainted with this mode of firing and yelling of the savages, I concluded that there were thousands of Indians there, ready to receive General Braddock; but what added to my surprise, I saw numbers running towards me, stripped naked, excepting breech-clouts, and painted in the most hideous manner, of various colors, though the principal color was vermillion, or a bright red; yet there was annexed to this, black, brown, blue, &c. As they approached, they formed themselves into two long ranks, about two or three rods apart. I was told by an Indian that could speak English, that I must run betwixt these ranks, and that they would flog me all the way, as I ran, and if I ran quick, it would be so much the better, as they would quit when I got to the end of the ranks. There appeared to be a general rejoicing around me, yet I could find nothing like joy in my breast; but I started to the race with all the resolution and vigor I was capable of exerting, and found that it was as I had been told, for I was flogged the whole way. "When I had got near the end of the lines, I was struck with something that appeared to me to be a stick, or the handle of a tommahawk, which caused me to fall to the ground. On my recovering my senses, I endeavored to renew my race; but as I arose, some one cast sand in my eyes, which blinded me so, that I could not see 
   Remarkable Occurrences, Etc.     9'

where to rim. They continued beating me most intolerably, until I was at length insensible; but before 1 lost my senses, I remember my wishing them to strike the fatal blow, for I thought they intended killing me,, but apprehended they were too long about it.

The first thing I remember was my being in the fort,, amidst the French and Indians, and a French doctor standing by me, who had opened a vein in my left arm: after which the interpreter asked me how I did, I told him I felt much pain; the doctor then washed my wounds, and the bruised -places of my body, with French brandy. As I felt faint, and the brandy smelt well, I asked for some inwardly, but the doctor told me, by the interpreter, that it did not suit my case.

When they found I could speak, a number of Indians came around me, and examined me with threats of' cruel death, if I did not tell the truth. The first question they asked me, was, how many men were there in the party that were coining froih Pennsylvania, to join Braddock? I told them the truth, that there were three hundred. The next question was, were they well armed? I told them they were all well armed, (meaning the arm of flesh) for they had only about thirty guns among the whole of them; which, if the Indians had known, they would certainly have gone and cut them all off; therefore I could not in conscience let them know the defenceless situation of these road-cutters.   I was then sent to the hospital, and carefully

8 . 

Col. James Smith.

attended by the doctors, and recovered quicker than what I expected.

Some time after I was there, I was visited by the Delaware Indian already mentioned, who was at the taking of me, and could speak some English. Though he spoke but bad English, yet I found him to be a man of considerable understanding. I asked him if I had done any thing that had offended the Indians, which    caused them to treat me so unmercifully? He said no, it was only an old custom the Indians had, and it was like how do you do; after that he said I would be well used. I asked him if I should be admitted to remain with the French? He said no   and told me that as soon as I recovered, I must not only go with the Indians, but must be made an Indian myself. I asked him what news from Braddock's army? He said the Indians spied them every day, and he shewed me by making marks on the ground with a stick, that Brad-dock's army was advancing in very close order, and that the Indians would surround them, take trees, and (as he expressed it) shoot um down all one pigeon.

Shortly after this, on the 9th day of July 1755, in the morning I heard a great stir in the fort. As 1 could then walk with a staff in my hand, I went out of the door which was just by the wall of the fort, and stood upon the wall and viewed the Indians in a huddle before the gate, where were barrels of powder, bullets, flints, &c, and every one taking what suited; I saw 
   Remarkable Occurrences, Etc.


the Indians also march off in rank intire   likewise the French Canadians, and some regulars, after viewing the Indians and French in different positions, I computed them to be about four hundred, and wondered that they attempted to go out against Braddock with so small a party. I was then in high hopes that I would soon see them flying before the British troops, and that General Braddock. would take the fort and rescue me.

I remained anxious to know the event of this day; and in the afternoon I again observed a great noise and commotion in the fort, and though at that time I could not understand French, yet I found it was the voice of Joy and triumph, and feared that they had received what I called bad news.

I had observed some of the old country soldiers speak Dutch, as I spoke Dutch I went to one of them and asked him what was the news? he told me that a runner had just arrived, who said that Braddock would    certainly be defeated; that the Indians and French had surrounded him, and were concealed behind trees and in gullies, and kept a constant fire upon the English, and that they saw the English falling in heaps, and if they did not take the river which was the only gap, and make their escape, there would not be one man left alive before sun down. Some time after this I heard a number of scalp halloos and saw a company of Indians and French coming in. I observed they had a great many bloody scalps, grenadiers' caps, British 

Col. James Smith.

canteens, bayonets, &c, with them. They brought the news that Braddock was defeated. After that another company came in which appeared to be about one hundred, and chiefly Indians, and it seemed to me that almost every one of this company was carrying scalps; after this came another company with a number of waggon-horses, and also a great many scalps. Those that were coming in, and those that had arrived, kept a constant firing of small amis, and also the great guns in the fort, which were accompanied with the most hedeous shouts and yells from all quarters; so that it appeared to me as if the infernal regions had broke loose.

About sun down I beheld a small party coming in with about a dozen prisoners, stripped naked, with their hands tied behind their backs, and their faces, and part of their bodies blacked   these prisoners they burned to death on the bank of Alegheny Biver opposite to the fort. I stood on the fort wall until I beheld them begin to burn one of these men, they had him' tied to a stake and kept touching him with fire-brands, red-hot irons, etc., and he screeming in a most doleful manner,   the Indians in the mean time yelling like infernal spirits. As this scene appeared too shocking for me to behold, I retired to my lodging both sore and sorry.

When I came into my lodgings I saw Buff el's Seven Sermons, which they had brought from the field of 
   Remarkable Occurrences, Etc.


battle, which a Frenchman made a present of to me. From the best information I could receive there were only seven Indians and four French killed in this battle, and five hundred British lay dead in the field; besides what were killed in the river on their retreat.

The morning after the battle I saw Braddock's artilery brought into the fort, the same day I also saw several Indians in British-officers' dress with sash, half-moon, laced hats, &c, which the British then wore.

A few days after this the Indians demanded me and I was obliged to go with them. I was not yet well able to march, but they took me in a canoe, up the Alegheny Biver to an Indian town that was on the north side of the river, about forty miles above Fort DuQuesne. Here I remained about three weeks, and was then taken to an Indian town on the west branch of Muskingum, about twenty miles above the forks, which was called Tullihas, inhabited by Delawares, Caughnewagas and Mohicans.   On our rout betwixt the aforesaid towns, the country was chiefly black-oak and white-oak land, which appeared generally to be good wheat land, chiefly second and third rate, intermixed with some rich bottoms.

The day after my arrival at the aforesaid town, a number of Indians collected about me, and one of them began to pull the hair out of my head. He had some ashes on a piece of bark, in which he frequently diped his fingers in order to take the firmer hold, and so he 

Col. James Smith.

went on, as if he had been plucking a turkey, until he had all the hair clean out of my head, except a small spot about three or four inches square on my crown; this they cut off with a pair of scissors, excepting three locks, which they dressed up in their own mode. Two of these they wraped round with a narrow beaded garter made by themselves for that purpose, and the other they platted at full length, and then stuck it full of silver broches. After this they bored my nose and ears, and fixed me off with ear rings and nose jewels, then they ordered me to strip off my clothes and put on a breech-clout, which I did; then they painted my head, face and body in various colors. They put a large belt of wampom on my neck, and silver bands on my hands and right arm; and so an old chief led me out in the street and gave the alarm hallo, coo-wigh, several times repeated quick, and on this all that were in the town came running and stood round the old chief, who held me by the hand in the midst. As I at that time knew nothing of their mode of adoption, and had seen them put to death all they had taken, and as I never could find that they saved a man alive at Braddock's defeat, I made no doubt but they were about putting me to death in some cruel manner. The old chief holding me by the hand made a long speech very loud, and when he had done he handed me to three young squaws, who led me by the hand down the bank into the river until the water was up to our middle.   The squaws 
   Remarkable Occurrences, Etc.


then made signs to me to plunge myself into the water, but I did not understand them; I thought that the result of the council was that I should be drowned, and that these young ladies were to be the executioners. They all three laid violent hold of me, and I for some time opposed them with all my might, which occasioned loud laughter by the multitude that were on the bank of the river. At length one of the squaws made out to speak a little English (for I believe they began to be afraid of me) and said, no hurt you; on this I gave myself up to their ladyships, who were as good as their word; for though they plunged me under water, and washed and rubbed me severely, yet I could not say they hurt me much.

These young women then led me up to the council house, where some of the tribe were ready with new     cloths for me. They gave me a new ruffled shirt, which I put on, also a pair of leggins done off with ribbons and beads, likewise a pair of mockasons, and garters dressed with beads, Porcupine-quills, and red hair-also a tinsel laced cappo. They again painted my head and face with various colors, and tied a bunch of red feathers to one of these l