xt7q5717mp90 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7q5717mp90/data/mets.xml Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station 1908 Title from cover.
Imprint varies. journals English Frankfort, Ky. : Capital Office, E. Polk Johnson, 1890-1948. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Annual report. 1908 text Annual report. 1908 1908 2011 true xt7q5717mp90 section xt7q5717mp90   S ` TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
F Ul ~' OF THE
It E l<€H'[LlCky Agricultural
I I Experiment Station
*= FOR TI—IE YEAR 1908
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 ‘ Letter ot Transmittal
Te His Excellency,
Hoiv. AUQUSTUSUE. Wiimsox,
_ Governor of Kelztucky.
Sir :-—— V
Under the authority of the Board of Control, and in accord-
ance with an_ act of Congress, approved March 2, 1887, entitled
"An Act to establish Agricultural Experiment Stations in connec-
i tion with the Agricultural Colleges established in the several states
under the provisions of an act approved July 2, 1862, and under
‘ the acts supplementary thereto," and of the act of the Legislature
C of the State of Kentucky, approved February 20, 1888, and en-
titled “An Act to accept the provisions of an Act passed by the
Congress of the United States, approved March 2, 1887, for the
establishment and maintenance of Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tions in connection with Agricultural Colleges established by the
several States and Territories under an Act of Congress, approved
July 2, 1862," I herewith submit the Twenty-First Animal Report
of thc Kentuclcy Agricultural Experiment Station.
Very respectfully,
M. A. Scovi·:i,i,, Dirm·Im·.

 ii zi? i·.
lj./V   t
    ; I State Umvers1ty I
_'  I w _ _
_; -_·_ s ft.; His Excellency, Gov. AUGUSTUS E. \VILLSON, cx-oflicio chairman.
i:fe·[`»*E " PRESIDENT JAMES K. PATTERsoN~ member cx—otlicio. t
    , , .’ . .. . .
i=i“i;Q.,_ ·. HoN. J 0rIN G. CRABBE Su ermtendent ot Public Instruction
_‘.T·{.,   J P 5
  member ex-officio. ·
lj‘?i§sfi:E.t BASIL M. BROOKS ESQ. Slaurrlitersville Webster Countv.
Qiill   J a J _ ..
  DAVID F. FRAZEE, ESQ., Lexington, Fayette County. .
  HON. FRANK HOPKINS P1`€SiZOI1Sl.)Tl1‘(" Flo Id Countv.
  ’ °’ ) “
  CHARLES B. NICHOLS `ESQ. Lexinoton Fa Iette Count .
 ,,_;. i ,¤ > ¤> > D Y V
 iw-` JUDGE ROBERT L. STOUT Versailles Woodford Count .
,r:’,£._r‘-:,_ } J y
  JUDGE HENRY S. BARRER Louisville Jefferson Count .
,.Ev;%;_;_   I } y
  HON. TIBBIS CARPENTER, Scottsville, Allen County.
  HON. \VILLIAM H. COX, Maysville, Mason County.
";l»'  ·*T{ ’ _ _ n.··
  DENNY P. SMITH, ESQ., Cadiz, Trigg County.
  i·_e HON. CLAUDE B. TERRELL Bedford Trimble Count I.
j~;;;—l;¤_ · _ I 3 }
  gz: HoN. CASSIUS M. CLAY, Paris, Bourbon County.
    _ I-IYWELL DAv1Es, ESQ., Kensee, Whitley County.
  RICHARD C. STOLL ESQ. Lexinvton Fa Vette Count .
  .§ i ) } D 3 5 y
  c Louis L. WVALKER, ESQ., Lancaster, Garrard County.
  R1oI—IARD N. WAT1-[EN, ESQ., Lebanon, Marion County.
Y   Q"  
  *5 .
e.   ` ' '
  A ricultural Ex eriment Station
mtjgx ew 
  . -
  D. F. FRAZEE, Lexington, Ly.
  C. B. NICHOLS, Lexington, Ky.
  25 _ . ..
  R. C. STOLL, Lexington, Ky. _ ‘
  L. L. WVALKER, Lancaster, Ky. _
  J. K. PATTERSON, President of the University.
  M. A. SCOVELL, Director, Secretary.

M. A. SCOVBLL, Director and Chemist. _ 13 J
A. M. PETER, Chemist, Head of Chemical Division.
H. E. CURTIS, Chemist, Head of Fertilizer Division.
H. GARMAN, Entomologist and Botanist, Head ot Entomological
and Botanical Division.
W. H. SCHERFFILTS, Agrononiist, Head ot Agricultural Division.
R. M. Army, Head oLFood Division.
J. D. Ttinxicia, _Head of Feed Division.
J. O. LAB.xei’I, Chemist, Food Division. _
Miss M. L. l)ii`>i;.iiliei·.
lllmrxii l{1NN1·1v, Assistant Nnloinologisl and llolanist.
· 'I`. ll. BlIY.\N’l`, Assistant in Aninial llnsliandrv.
W. li C.\i:Y. Assisiant. `l·`ood Division.
ll. Woosi.i-iv. 'l`ol>a<·t·o l·lxI»o1·l (l`.   l)o]>:11·liiim·1i1 ,\Ql'l(‘lllllll'L*).
O. ll. (llllSllf>l.Al. Sim-ial Agent (l'. 9. lr)t‘]'lill'lIlll‘lll' .\Q`I'l(‘lllt\ll'l*).
Addi·i·ssot1lic· Rlation.
_l”{l·]XlN(l'l`()\'. l{l·lX'l`l`(`l{ Y.

    t F
r  {E,
  _ . The Kentucky Agncultural Experiment ·
    Station -
    In Account with the United States Appropriations.
    _ Hyrerr ADAMS
  `   Foxn. FUND.
    To Receipts from the Treasurer of the
s __.'   United States, as per appropriations for
  F   fiscal year ended June 30_, 1908, under acts _
  —.   of Congress approved March » 2, 1887 `
   . (Hatch Fund), and March 16, 1906
  _   '(Adams Fund.) . . : ....... - ............ $15,000.00 $9,000.00
Si1·i.g1;.;—, 5 Exiruxnrrunns:
  By sam-168 ......................... $10,628.33 $8,569.79
    Labor .............. A .... . ........ 60.98
  Publications ..................... 351.67 L .
  ‘l’ostage and stationery ............ 4819.+5 2.00 T
  F Freight and express ............... 173.82
    Heat, light, water and power ....... 868.77
  · ' Chemical supplies ................ 310.40
  Seeds, plants and sundry supplies. . . 371.81 26.89
    ‘ Library ......................... 7486.38
  Tools, implements and machinery . . . 128.25
  Furniture and fixtures ............ 39.7.00 20.25
  Scientific apparatus ....... . ....... 41.20.39 381.07
  Traveling expenses ............... 67.23
  (‘ontingent expenses .... . ........ 15.00
  Buildings and land ......   ........ 40.52
 i _ ’l'otal .................. . ...... $15,000.00 $0.000.00
gw  Q - _
  llic, t/lc untlcrsigziet/, duly appointed Auditors of the Corpora-
  tion, do hereby certify that we have examined the books and ae-
  counts ot the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station for the
  fiscal year ended June 30, 1908; that we have found the same well _
  ti? l

 ]{cn,LttcZ¢y .~lg1·[t·z1ltu.ml Ewperimcizt Station,. vii
kept and classified as above, that the receipts for the year from
tl1e Treasurer of the United States are shovvn to have been
$15,000.00 under theact of Congress of March 2, 1887, and
$9,000.00 under the act of Congress of March 16, 1906, _and the ·
corresponding disbursements $15,000.00 and $9,000.00, for all of
which proper vouchers jre on Hle and have been examined by us
and found correct.
.-lad we ]C’ll·I¥Hl07' certify that the expenditures have been solely
for the purposes set forth in the acts of Congress approved March
2, 1887, and March 16, 1906, and in accordance with the terms of
said acts, respectively.
` (Signed) :
A C. B. Nrcnors, l
D. I?. Fnrxznn,
(Seal) (
’ Attest: V
D. C. L`1:.vxnn, 5

   1 I   . ` I
jr   é__ ·V. jeg; Kentucky Agucultural Expenment Stauon
  i .
._."`l‘·,§`_ .
    fyi;  FOR THE YEAR l908 .
  ._`>   HEPOIIT OF THE I)IllEUTOlt. I
,..1 rn`-iii ‘,,_ g.; `
  . . . .
1-;;. '~_>_ »-j;·1_;;l Tl10 \\‘UI'l( ol tl1e Station 111 1908 has been III&ll1ll_\` along the
  ‘r`   :'»L;‘¥i:‘·i   · , ._ ._ _- · ` V · · ”
;—_V_;r ,;%.11.; gs same ll11C5 as ClG¤(71]l¤O(l 111 lll) last Alllllltll Report and 1ll1(l(¥l' the
1.*   ";;1 . .
  same OI`g`tll1|Z2l1lOl1. There has been ]l121l'liC(l progress, lll')\\'C\`L‘I': and
  . ‘ material growtli in tl1e work ol"the several divisions, and some
  ‘V`‘      valuable results ll5l\`0 been o|>ta111edV, as will appear in tl1e l`ollowinq
§.`€_f--·SiQ‘,€—:l€‘f_ *’’‘ {Z brief Sll1I1ll'l‘l1`\" I I
&.¤·3—45i¤i=LL  ` ° · ` `
 ;:.—_  Tl1e l1eg*1slat11re which recently 2\flj011l'l1()(l passed a new food
s;-y;  _g. . _ _ . . _ _ ,
  b1ll, app1o1 ed 0ItU'(‘ll 13, 1908. This carries 2111 app1·op1·1at1on ot
    $30,000.00 ann11ally and the duty of its CHli0l`(?Oll]OI11 is given to the
  EXpe1‘1me11t Station. The new law €1l'll)l'?l(‘(‘S 11ot o11ly Foods, but  
  drinks of all kinds and drugs, so that it will impose additional .
1  '.·t*·'a`£;.1Q—¥e_.· {Q .. . . 4 _
  (ll1t`1€S and ]1GC0SS1tElJ[C the employinent ol. several extra el1e1n1sts,
°??Y‘ ·`··t ?;°·:?¤$E;é t“ TQ · . .. · · · · 7
  espeemlly those lli1D1ll]t1l' 11*1tl1 drugs and liquors. \\e shall also
  , have to have a 1n11nl>e1· of mspeetors 111 the lleld. ·
;&`#§?£§i:1(*¥1i i;%` --2: . . ,
  The b1ll, as presented by tl1e $111110]], was passed w1tl1o11t an
  ¥ll11Cl1(lll1GHt, receiving only t`o111· negative votes 111 the House and an
  · ` _ V · . . .
  11na111n10us 1ote 111 tl1e Senate. I l)0l1C\'C 1t 1S 0110 of the best laws
C  `§ 4 · _ . . _
    in tl1e COl11ltl'_\'. The ;lo1·111e1· il ood law gave 11S $10,500.00 per year.
:2:. *;??*;e. EQREF zi. _ . . `. _ _ ' “
  so that 0111 2l1)])l'O])1‘l2lJ[lO!], therefore, IS ]DC1‘G2lS(}(I $19.000.00 an-
ujg?    V . ·. _ .. . . I .
    1lllHll_\. The lllltlllllllll} with wlneh tl1e bill 11*as passed and tl1e
  lOCO])11OI1 aeeorded it by all pa1·t1es eoneerned show, I beheye, tl1e
v;#~x¤ · ¤  21 ;:1 · - _
  appree1at10n ol? lrll(‘ worl< done 11nde1· the old law ¥ll1(l tl1e desire
 ·"*'· »YL Z   I   5 · - — .
    to gl\`C the Station the funds to carry out tl1e work tl1o1·o11gl1l1’.
    ])Il1I8lOII of (I/i(’)Il.I${I_l/.~—TllC work of tl11s (IIVISIOH C0111])1`1SC(l
  tl1e more or less complete analysis of 897 samples, of 1vl11el1 679
*5511 5 —     R? \\'Ol`C soils
§_ !  $$*:1T     ` ` ‘
·9·  ··- "f- ¢5—=1T,»{ r V __ · · . . _ ,
  l`he 110111 (111 soils iiieluded partial analysis of 1176 sainples col-
  leeted 111 1900 111 1·o—operat1o11 w1tl1 the Ixentnelty Geological Survey
 S5. · 1.,5 ZY   , · · _ V V · _ `
 i t    ,\Ul(ll1_\. total nitrogeii and total pliospliorns were deteriniiied 011
‘   sf °·.;¥*r€¥s 1*  ? `
T1 eiiss ¤s_. 3~ ..
E .»*f ":=i·    

 [\'(?I1.[llCh'_U ;TgI'l·('l(HlIl'((t ]jl.l`/l(’)’tIlI(’}l[ Slulion. ix
all ot these samples and potassium dissolved bv hvtlroc-hlorie aeitl
ot 1.115 specific gravity and insoluble residue on about halt? of
them. ln o1·cler.to make the determinations of total phosphorus
[ more rapi(ll_v, a new.·method was devised by applying magnesium
nitrate l`or the oxidation ot the soil. This improvement was re-
ported to the Assoeiation ot Otlieial Agricultural Chemists and
tavorablv received. The soil samples analyzed inelude several of
i soils that are now being studied bv means ot pot experiments in
_ the greenhonsed These pot experiments are being eondueted in co-
_ operation with the State Survey and are in eharge ot Mr. S. (`.
i [tones ot the Survey. under the supervision ol` l)r. Peter. \\`hile it
_ is too soon to report results. it is interesting to note that Tennessee
F phosphate has given very marked increase ol' growthet all'alt`a,
` elover. wheat. oats and tohaeeo on the low phosphorus soils ot the
I \\'estern l{entnekv snbearhonilerons and eoal measures tormations.
. lt is also interesting to note that. as tar as the experiment has
X gone. the growth ot the plants in the pots has been. relatively.
l mueh as would have been predicted from the analvses. Another
1 · very striking result was the had ellieet ol` ealcium earbonate. even on
T A legumes, except where nsed in eonneetion with aeid phosphate.
Z The soils tested. however. were not aeid to an_v serious degree.
_ Mr. .\veritt was appointed lleteree on Soils ol` the Assoeiation
L ot Otlieial Agricultural (`hemists and has given much time to .\sso-
\ eiation work. espe·.·iall_v in developing the method tor total phos-
; phorus in soils alread_v mentioned.
V .*\ number ol` anal_vses ol' wheat were made in this laboratory
, bv Mr. ll'. ll. Sehertlius in eompletion oli his work on the protein
. content ot the wheat kernel. published in Bulletin No. 135.
~ 'l`he anal_vses ol` mineral waters made in the laborator_v ol' this
» llivision during the _vear are ineluded in this report. beginning
on page 187.
liirisiou of En/emo/oy/yy and /Io/on_z;.i'l`lie worl-; eovers quite
a wide range and is vielding some ver_v valuable pr.u·ti<·al as well
as seientitie results. The liollowlllg are some ot the principal sub!
jeets to which attention was given this vear:
lCxperiments with tohaeeo in (`hrislian (`onntv. having For
“ their objeet. the demonstration ol' the ell`eetiveness ot spraying with

 scr-i V ‘    
· I . i___; y Q x T·wem$y-]‘irst Amrual Reportof the »
it   C t arsenites as com ared with dustin , and with removing tobacco
_, _, · O
-_     · worms b hand. Ex erinients in siraving an orchard in Hardin
. r , .. ei
,   ·L wl County, being a continuation of work started in 190*7 and reported
  ;__   l in Bulletin No. 133. Experiments with forage plants at Hindman
  SCE?  in Knott County. Experiments with forage plants on the Experi-
A . Q,     ment Farm, at Lexington, being a continuation of work that has
V   fj   been in progress for a number of years. Experiments with systems
  ii} A     of rotation being a continuation of work that has been carried on
L .- vg.! \— , C)
j"jj}~_Y`     g for some years in co—operation with the United States Department
L Y_;‘i   {   of Agriculture. A study of` the li‘t`e—history and habits of the corn V
  ‘V.`   _ i. ear worm. A study of themorphology and relationships of bac-
  ."·V {   lei terial organisms roducin nodules on the roots of alfalfa and
._ ._'___;».;; 5. »   D
    · sweet clover. A study of the organisms causing rotting of tobacco
  __·.   is in the field and a form of house-burn in the curing shed. An
L_  examination of seeds under the Kentucky pure seed law. .\n in-
  fp spection of the Kentucky nurseries.
    d · . · .
  Among the most important results obtained from the work
rr-13  _   . . - .,..
  .._‘ _ done during the year are the definite establishment ot a relation  
    >— between the organism causing nodules on the roots of sweet clover
.?.T·§};e€*¢‘}g··   ;~ and that rodueing nodules on alfalfa and also between the organ-
ik       F ¤ > ¤
  isms causing nodules on the roots of red clover and those of wlute
l·r;»~T ?;;¤Z4 ‘—e`?`;5~ D
  clover. We have secured proof, also, that the organism associated
  with the two latter plants is different from that associated with
.=:_ _;.3¢Ek,.# ..&§’ fi _
 gg the two former and is not transferable from one to the other In
if :i};’;, “r`.§°*` ;»3§ =5 . .
 ;. our studv of the life-histor r of the corn ear worm we have deter-
  . ~ ’
  mined the number of broods produced during a season and have
  iracticallv com Jletcd the life-historv for this localitv. one feature
Pe __$,.·_.;., "   l ·/ ., _ ,
  only of importance remaining to be settled. In our work with
=1¥€"?+E:·· ;5P*§'?—§. ` - . . . . _
  the organism causing the rotting of tobacco, we have found that it
·?é?;?L,;  — {   “€· . . . . ` . ” . .
    is identical with one causing the rotting of cabbage which was
k-;..?;;·» n a y,   0 ra r> 2
L4  I ·\§;_,  g. ‘f , _ _
 is described by Professor Carman manv years ago when beginning
 ~?? ""  ¢<;?7‘-?  . . “ ` . .
   _ =>V  work here at this Station. These results have been obtained in the
div  J  
 Sys;   course of work done under the Adams Act.
  - . . . .
  Some work done incidentally, recently with the idea of pub- ·
  lishiug a farmers’ bulletin consists in the studv of the life-histor r
F$%‘:a§§¤};  ei;  F “ ’ ·/ ·
 · of the army-worm which did considerable mischief in the State
Bi   **'¤WnL  ’ - . . . .
eF"?.;·.iZ `v $.2v  last siring, and of the life-lustorv of a minute hothouse insect.
¤e$`§¤_.i    Q G ~
 ‘ *;— a $2;;  
    ¤A~  —  
V.`-     FT
.5f_1iilf}   .Q.
`·?` =·~i?:i~  E
E `f `·;—,  

 Kczztuicky Agricultural Ll;7JZ)(’7'tIIl8lZf S'e'alion. xi
one of the genus Aleyrodes, which has proved very destructive to
tobacco, tomatoes, clovers, and the like, when grown under glass.
Bulletin No. 137, on the army-worm, has been published.
Many bacteriological examinations of drinking water have
been made for the State Board of Health and for individuals.
Division of Agr01z0·my.»—Tl1e following were the principal lines ·
of work of this division. Tobacco expcriinents in both the Burley
and Dark Tobacco Districts consisting of variety tests, inbreeding
and cross breeding and improvement by grading the seed. A bul- .
letin covering this work is in the hands of the printer at present.
Corn experiments consisting of ear-to—row tests, a comparison of
corn grown from deep kernels as against shallow ones, a com-
parison ot corn grown from the weak and imperfect germination
as against a strong gerrnina,tion. Variety tests consisting of nfteen
varieties. Controlling the breeding of corn, illustrated by using
paper bags to cover the shoots before the silks appeared. This
feature of the work was conducted principally to secure illustra-
tions for f2].]’]1]€l'S> institute work. Wheat experiments consisting of
a continuation of the varietyitests which we have been conducting
for a number of years. lIead—to—row comparison ot' yields in a
number of varieties. Oat experiments consisting of .1 large number
of hybrids being tried to see which is best suited for Kentucky
soil and climatic conditions, the seed being furnished by the United
States Bureau of Plant Industry. Alfalfa experiments consisting
of a comparison of spring and fall sowing. Potato experiments
p consisting of a comparison of different methods of cultivation and
_ different methods of cutting the seed.
p The grading of tobacco seed for our own use, also the grading
g of them for farmers who send them to the Station. The growing
; of tobacco seed under paper bags to prevent crossing, which is
F giving practical and beneficial results.
t The Division has published Bulletin 135, on wheat.
Divisioziv of Anininf Hnsband1·y.—Tlic following feeding ex-
_ periments with swine have been completed during the year:
, 1. Finishing hogs for the market that were farrowed in the
Q spring and allowed the run of a bluegrass and clover pasture during
A the summer. These hogs were fed in the following manner:

   { i   ~ ` ras
  V V   ‘ _ .g
r ‘ V `   gi
( l i9.V_# VQ xii Trzt·eV1zty-yirst Amwul Report of the  
i   . 1 e Lot 4: (7 hogs) corn meal. _ A `
._   Y V Lot 5 (*7 hogs) corn meal, 10 parts, digester tankage, 1 part. by
_   ·1 i S` These were —a continuation of similar experiments carried on .
  V— __   ( the fall and winter before. · .
-     i_·· l The iellowing feeding tests with pigs, placed in the dry lot at
`. V' l VV L' , , ,
··       weaning time are now in Jrogress:
I ,Vr *0 3 O _ _
._;.,       Lot 2 (o pigs) corn meal, 9 parts, digester tankage, 1 part.
;__;fQ . Y?  i " Lot 3 (5 pigs) corn meal, 4 parts, soy beans, 1 part. ·
    W Lot 6 10 ries corn meal and middlin-(gg- Lot 8 (#1 pigs) corn meal. .
,;jL—..;.V2c£:¤_ 2. §__ Lot 9 (4 pigs) middlings at the beginning and middle parts
QY;"Y  ‘ of the feeding period and corn meal and middlings during the
  ;‘:s‘.`1];' ·_ lz .
_,§§;c;;:e  ge, latter period.
· .   ..-~.1"   *+5* V
*`— -i°€ ?"Z’ Q:-.;1·` le - . · · · · ·
    i..,; Lot 10 (9 nes. runts to be fed under the best ol conditions
  . ... ,1..,   . ¤ .
r- ‘ .,;.;;‘       · · · ‘
 tg; to determine what gains can be secured and cost of the same in
  ‘`'=' ft?. feeding runts.
  `· O ,/
!:~»’s, ` ;_·_‘\·l,!~l,-» _ _' . . . . . . . 4
tis? >g;y·;$;.g‘ V   The investiwation relative to infectious abortion among horses _
; ‘- _.."".j`·`_( I · E` b Cl
  °"· ;[_;.; and cattle has been- mshed during the year as far as time would
l.:€`.`_ };¢'.‘j:5§  rpirytir · G "
  ..-c—-       1>¤r¤¤t·
55     iss   . . . .
  This De artment is making a com uarison of the number of
 '”:`»-i—.`-~Z**1: 1`i— ‘·;:ii—: G
 gji germs found in a given quantitv of millv obtained from the Experi-
»:3‘;*:Av%¤   ’ . . ' . . . .
  ment Station dairy and that produced in dairies conducted in a
  less cleanly manner. Both ae1·obic and anaerobic germs are talceu
  into consideration.
      . . . · .
  lnvestigations with regard to sheep scab are now in progress.
    Y   , . . ` . . `
‘:~2r;=3»r;a·a   'lests are being made with regard to the effectiveness of lime and
  ‘s¥§<;g— ;,.=é= ‘ V  if - . ‘ ‘ . .
    number of tags issued during the vear was 996.373. Nl lule the re- `
pass  <  j  gif . . . . ' . .
sn-  $$3 ceipis lor the vear lell oil` <·ons|derablv. tluere was quite au increase
rf·€$’§?‘Z.i vv. ne;   ' · '
i "`* :’>§¢s;.· *:%*3 Ig  
`i`?¥iV*:· .  ,i?·?Pi‘s.r
  it `ivr ( __    

 Kentueiry elgricultural Eavperiment Station. xiii
in the number of brands and in the number of iirms, as well as
_t in the number of analyses made.
m ` The results ot the year’s work will be found `in Bulletins Nos.
136 and 138. "
at /)i1:isi01t of Food (`·lO}ltil‘(}t.—Tl1C1'(2 were collected by our in-
spectors 1361 samples of food stuffs and of these 1318 were
analyzed g 391 sample`s were found to be adultcrated and 127 ·
samples, though adulterated, were so labeled.
’1`he bakeries ot the State were thorou<‘>·hlv ins >ected and found
_ D .¤
to be i11 bad condition. As bread is eenerallv eaten without being
reheated, the sanitary conditions surrounding its manufacture and
rrescrvation should be caretullv guarded. We itound in numerous
[.i< \ .x D 7
I instances, that the bakeries were in close, contined cellars, without
IC . . . . ‘ . , .
proper ventilation and without being screened lroni tires. In sonic
cases persons slept in places where the bread was made and but
me little attention was paid to the handling of bread alter it was
IN made, it often being handled by persons who were dirty in person _
and tilthy in dress. 'l.‘hree hundred and three slaughter houses were
ses ins >ected and in most everv instance unhv<>‘ienie surroundin ·- I   ’ t ey
V Y...·_ :_   * _ A A  
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  Kentucky Agncultural Experiment Station. .
Qi., ..Q.Q.;.?§Qj,_;, BOARD on CONTROL
  __»—     ` GEO. B. KINKEAD, -Ch·air.man, Lexington, Ky. I
g   r_ D. F. FRAZEE, Lexington, Ky.
;   =._·   _.*’ j C. B. NICHOLS, Lexington, Ky. ··
    C. M. CLAY, Paris, Ky. `
  J. K. PATTERSON, President of the College.
  M. A. SCOVELL, Director, Secretary. ’
    Q‘g}$f'{ " E VZ; · .
t_£{gjji.}~  _ STATION OFFICERS
    Ml. A. SCOVELL, Director and Chemi-st.
  ._'.   A. M. PETER, Chemist, Head of, Chemical Division-
<.,__._,_: _;,§wl; "
  ·H. E. CURTIS, Chemist, Head of Fertilizer Division. ·.
  H. GARMAN, Enitomologist and Botanist, Head of Entomological _
    · and Botanical Division.
  W. H. SCHERFFIUS, Agronomist, Head of Agricultural Division. I
  _ R. M. ALLEN, Head of Food Division.-
    J. D. TURNER, Head of Feed Division.
  J. O. LaBACH, Chemist, Food Division.
    MISS M. L. DIDLAKE, Assistan·t Entomologistt and Botanist.
    S. D. AVERITT, Assistant Chemist.
    o. M. siaann, Assistant Chemist.
  MISS LILLIE LISTON, Stenographer, Food Division.
    E. C. VAUGHN, Assistant Entomologist and Botanist.
  GEORGE ROBERTS, Assistant Chemist, Fertilizers.
  E. S. GOOD, Animal Husbandman, Head of Animal Husbandry
t;it_$§‘?  al: ’  . E . . .
  eg; { . Division. ·
      J. VV. NUTTER, Assistant in Dairying.
   gw Miss o. L. omocmo, siteuegt-ephet. _
    H. D. SPEARS, Assistant Chemist, Feeds. ‘
    .MISS ANNA WALLIS, Stenographer.
  E. F. vvoRTH1NGToN, Superintendent Farm.
    MISS KATHERINE HOPSON, Stenographer.
~ · ‘ 2  .
    The Bulletins of the Station will be mailed free to any citizen of
    5 Kentucky who sends his name and address to the Station for this
.·-   M ---;¤~ ~=.¤ me .
  t ; Correspondents will please notify the Director of changes in their
    postotiice address, or of failure to receive the bulletins.
    ‘ Lexin t K
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`43_ __3-,     l

1. Spraying Apple Trees Before as Compared with
._ Spraying After Blooming.
By H. GARMAN, Entomologist and Botanist.
With a view to showing the effect of arsenate of lead as com-
pared with Paris green in checking the injuries of the codling moth,
and to show the effectiveness of spraying with these mixtures when
the trees are in full bloom, as compared with spraying after the
petals have fallen, the experiments described below were carried
out in 1907.in the apple orchard owned by Mr. G. C. Scheible, of
· Tip-Top, Hardin County, Kentucky.
ml The orchard occupies about_ twenty-Eve acres of land, and con-
m_ · sists in great part of Ben Davis, Rome Beauty, York Imperial and
Maiden’s Blush. The large number of thrifty trees of the same
variety and age in the orchard renders it particularly well suited
for experimental work of this sort, and with the care bestowed on
thespraying by Mr. Seheible and his men, and again in harvesting
the fruit so that it could bc examined carefully, it was possible to
get data of some interest and value. The season was, however, a
peculiar one, and spraying did not show anywhere in the State
the` decided improvement in quality of the fruit that it generally
fry does. After the blossoms expanded in the spring, a cold spell of
weather, with several frosts, and some snow at times, kept them
in a stationary condition for weeks. At one time the partly ex-
panded blossoms could be found adhering to each other in com-
pact clumps as a result of the freezing. It seemed then that no
crop would set. Even after the first applications were made, it
appeared probable that every young apple would fall, as many of
them did fall later. The crop was light as a consequence, and this
l Of was especially true of the Ben Davis, which commonly bears some
lhig fruit when other varieties fail completely. The only variety that
set a full crop was York Imperial, the trees of which were loaded
ieir with very fine smooth apples.
The apples were picked and examined September 12th. Fol-
lowing is the plan of the experiments, together with details of

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   -`.   ‘
    i   I   I Ben DMS _ V
      Arsenate of lead. (I lb. to 10 gals. w·ater; 3 gals. per tree).
    i Sprayed when in full bloom: April 11 and May 11 (3 trees).
    Sprayed after petals fell: April 29 and May 11 (3* trees).
 [Y Paris green and lime. (4% oz. Faris green, 1 lb..lime, 40 gals.
  ‘ water; 2 gals. per tree).
  Sprayed when in full bloom: April 9 and April 29 (3 trees).
  Sprayed after petals fell: April 29 and May 11 (3 trees). ·
  l Rome Beauty
  Arsenate of lead. (1 lb. to 10 gals. water; 3 gals. per tree).
  · · "..»=. jg; [>.g.F;;. _
  Sprayed when in full bloom: April 29 and May 11 (3 trees).
  Sprayed after petals fell: May 11 and May 23 (3 trees).
  Paris green and lime. _(4%. oi. Paris green, 1 lb. lime, 40 gals.
  water; 2 gals. per tree). .
  Sprayed when in full bloom: _April 29 and May 23 (3 trees).
    { A Sprayed after petals fell: May 11 and May 23 (3 trees).
  g Bordeaux mixture and Paris green. (5-6 lbs. copper sulphate, 4-8
  T _ lbs. lime, 5 oz. Paris green).
      Sprayed after petals fell: Between May 11 and May 23.
    *0ne York Imperial tree was sprayed with these trees under the
  %C   V supp