FoRTirETH ANNIVERSARY. which the contributions even of the South Euro- pean, with his "ephemeral ideals". (to quote from Education and Empire) have been of supreme and matchless importance. But not to dwell on the obvious, it may be further affirmed that Science, Learning, and Philosophy have been conceived on the continent in a way sufficiently different from the Anglo-Saxon to justify its concurrent exist- ence. There is, in fact, heard distinctly on the continent a certain upper harmonic, a certain overtone that is not often recognized so clearly on the Islands. A few illustrations will make this plain. Newton and Leibnitz invented the In- finitesimal Calculus independently. With the former it was and remained till the last a mere instrument for the solution of mechanical prob- lems; as a self-contained mathematical doctrine it never came to birth in his thoughts, he divulged it onlv to a few intimate friends, in his great work Principia Philosophiap Natural i he studiously suppressed all allusion to his use of it, and not for many years did he discover his invention to the world. But Leibnitz from the first was con- cerned with the method as a method, as a doctrine of pure mathematics and full of philosophic im- port; he gave his thoughts freely to the world and set up a mathematical movement that speedily reached the most brilliant and extensive results. The point is that Newton's interest lay wholly in the applications, while Leibnitz was primarily inter- ested in the method itself. On the other hand, the Leibnitzian school far outstripped the Newtonian in the applications as well as in the theory of the Calculus. Consider also the case of David Hume. 126