FoRTirETH ANNIVERSARY.



which the contributions even of the South Euro-
pean, with his "ephemeral ideals". (to quote from
Education and Empire) have been of supreme and
matchless importance. But not to dwell on the
obvious, it may be further affirmed that Science,
Learning, and Philosophy have been conceived on
the continent in a way sufficiently different from
the Anglo-Saxon to justify its concurrent exist-
ence. There is, in fact, heard distinctly on the
continent a certain upper harmonic, a certain
overtone that is not often recognized so clearly on
the Islands. A few illustrations will make this
plain. Newton and Leibnitz invented the In-
finitesimal Calculus independently. With the
former it was and remained till the last a mere
instrument for the solution of mechanical prob-
lems; as a self-contained mathematical doctrine
it never came to birth in his thoughts, he divulged
it onlv to a few intimate friends, in his great work
Principia Philosophiap Natural i he studiously
suppressed all allusion to his use of it, and not
for many years did he discover his invention to
the world. But Leibnitz from the first was con-
cerned with the method as a method, as a doctrine
of pure mathematics and full of philosophic im-
port; he gave his thoughts freely to the world and
set up a mathematical movement that speedily
reached the most brilliant and extensive results.
The point is that Newton's interest lay wholly in
the applications, while Leibnitz was primarily inter-
ested in the method itself. On the other hand, the
Leibnitzian school far outstripped the Newtonian
in the applications as well as in the theory of the
Calculus. Consider also the case of David Hume.



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