xt7qbz618r88 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7qbz618r88/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1945-09 bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Measuring the Community School", vol. XIII, no. 7, September 1945 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Measuring the Community School", vol. XIII, no. 7, September 1945 1945 1945-09 2022 true xt7qbz618r88 section xt7qbz618r88  

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Published by


Superintendent of Public Instruction




Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

Vo|.X|ll SEPTEMBER, 1945 No. 7

















The teacher education program should provide the types of
experiences which will develop the kind of teacher needed ina
school which bases its learning program upon the needs and resources
of the community and the people—young and old. To keep teacher
education responsive to the needs of the learning programs in the
schools, it is essential that staffs of teacher education institutions
keep in close touch with the day-to—day problems faced by those who
work in learning programs at the. elementary and secondary level.

The Cooperative Study of Teacher Education has provided
situations which have enabled college staff members to work with
teachers at the elementary and secondary school levels on the
problems connected with learning programs in the schools. This
has placed college staff members into positions where they have
taken direct part in planning the work in the schools and helping
the plan work. These experiences have helped faculty members ill
colleges to evaluate their work in terms of the needs of the learning
programs in the schools. The study is directed by Richard E. Jag-
gers, Director of the Division of Teacher Education and Certi-

In 1944, criteria were worked out as guides in the evaluation of
the service of the schools. The seven cooperative areas in the studl
used these guides in formulating their plans of action. These plans
were published in October, 1944.

This bulletin gives a progress report. It describes what has
actually been accomplished in each area. These reports are published
here in order that they may offer suggestions to all persons who
are in a position to employ similar procedure in improving the
services of the schools.

Surpci'intcmlmt of Public Instruction
August 21, 1945





 e types of
zeded in a
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eep teacher
ams in the
' those who
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rd E. Jag-
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arsons W110
roving the



(An Introduction)

The Cooperative Study of Teacher Education is in its third
year. The first two years have been fruitful and they have moved
us all closer to the problems of education. People are working
together. in an attempt to base the program of activities in the
schools upon needs and resources. Cooperation, working together,

or Whatever you want to call the processes employed in develop- ,

ing the programs of the schools, has had its part.

This bulletin contains accounts of what has been taking place
in seven cooperative areas. Seven colleges have worked with six
counties and two individual schools in an attempt to find out what
kind of program is needed in the schools to help in developing that
program as far as possible, and to let the experiences gained in
the work be reflected in the program for the pre-service and in-
service education of teachers.

The seven cooperative enterprises consist of the following
Berea College and the Pulaski County Schools
Eastern State Teachers College and Bell County Schools
Morehead State Teachers College and the Carter County Schools
Murray State Teachers College and the Marshall County Schools

Univserlsity1 of Louisville and the Lowell School and the Valley
c 00

University of Kentucky and the Green County Schools

Western State Teachers College and the Hopkins County Schools
_ Each college has appointed a person to act as coordinator of
the CooperatiVe Study. This person works with the staff of the
school in planning programs and locating areas of action in making
the schools contribute to the quality of life. They bring to the
county staff members from the college when and where these
persons can contribute to the solution of any of the problems faced
{11 the schools. The coordinator helps in developing programs of
Ill-Service education through workshops, seminars, and problems
Courses. . ‘
Each year since the study began a General Work Conference
_ been held where persons from each of the cooperating areas
mlght come together to work on common problems. During these
conferences, a competent staff has been available.
puring the First Annual Conference in the fall of 1943, em-
313 Was placed upon cooperative planning. The college and




















cooperating counties and schools worked throughout the confer.
ence in formulating specific ways to make the school programs at,
the elementaryand secondary school levels tend to improve the
quality of living. The plans include ways and means whereby the
college staffs could work with counties and their communities in
planning and improving the services of the schools.

During the Second Annual Work Conference held in 1944,
emphasis was placed upon identifying the characteristics ofa
school which bases its program upon needs and resources. The
first half of the work conference was devoted to develop-
ing criteria for evaluating the community school as we define
community school. During the last half of the conference week,
each cooperating area planned its 1944-1945 program using the
evaluative criteria as guides. The results of the conference are
published in the September and October, 1944, Educational

It was the hope that many communities would use the Bulletin
——“Evaluating the Community School” as a guide in determining
whether the programs were organized on the basis of needs and
resources. The bulletin was very popular as evidenced by the fact
that the demand has been so great that the supply is completely

The Workshop for 1945 took the next step in our study. Since
we develop guides whereby we might recognize a community
school (according to our concept), it is logical this year to identify
the kind of staff we need for that kind of school. The major
problem of the 1945 workshop was to find the answers to the
following questions: '(1) What kind of teachers are needed to
lead in developing a program of learning based upon the news
and resources of the community; (2) What kind of experiences
should the colleges provide in the education of these teachers
both in-service and pre-service?

The study of these questions involved:

1. Identifying the characteristics of the staff needed for this kind
of school

2. Identifying the kinds of educational experience which need to
be provided to produce the desirable characteristlcs d

3. Evaluating the present college programs in the light of neede
educational experiences ‘

4. Planning a program which will tend to prepare the kmd do:
staff for the kind of a school which can base its program 1:5“
needs and resources to the end that the quality of 11v1ng
be improved






 he confer-
."ograms at,
1prove the
hereby the
uunities in

l in 1944,
stics of a
rces. The
» develop-
We define
:nce week,
using the
arence are

1e Bulletin
needs and
y the fact

dy. Since
;0 identify
.‘he major
am to the
needed to
the needs
: teachers

,‘ this kind
:h need to
of needed
kind of 3

gram 119°“
,iving may

It is important to remember that the colleges engaged in this
study are motivated by a desire to maintain close contact with
the intimate problems taced by mlministrators and teachers in
making the school serve to improve the quality of living. They
want the understanding gained by the faculties through their con—
tacts with these problems to be reflected in the courses in the
teacher education curriculums.

Cooperative Study of Teacher Education
















\Nhat has taken place in the seven areas of the cooperative
study is described by the persons who have had the leadership.
The reports were prepared by the coordinator, 01' the superinten-
dent, or both working together. In most instances the reports are
presented just as they have been written by the superintendents
and coordinators.



reports are



The cooperative educational endeavor of Berea College and
Pulaski County began in November, 1943. The rural schools were
more than half through; the attendance had taken a “nose dive”,
and the interest was waning. After a number of school visitations
by the superintendent, the attendance supervisor, and the co-
ordinator, we decided to visit as many of the schools as possible
and endeavor to build an esprit de corps among the school per-
sonnel. We began to look forward to a new year by removing
some of the snags of indifference and planning an educational
awakening. Excluding the planning which was done previous to
last year, this report covers the work accomplished in 1944-1945.

The Board of Education made a room available, which was
designated as the materials bureau. It served as the headquarters
for the four helping teachers whose employment was made pos—
sible by a joint action of the County Board of Education and Berea
College. Much free materials were made available to the teachers
through the materials bureau. These materials consisted of many
books which were purchased and donated, paper for art work,
mimeographed and hectographed data, bulletins, posters, etc.’ The
1‘00m was open each Saturday and a helping teacher was present
to assist the teachers who came. This room served as a planning

place for the helping teachers and the cordinator each Thursday

_ The Board of Education owns one 16 mm. sound projector. It
"1 in need of repair; consequently it was used only a few times.
A number of the schools purchased globes and maps. Posters are
used very extensively in the schools.

The County Board of Health works very closely with the
S‘chools, A health booth was set up at the summer workshop in
somerset. The Health Officer, Dr. Lachman, conducted special
Classes for the benefit of the teachers. One person from the State



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Health Department was present and assisted in the workshop for
a few days. A copy of the following letter from Dr. Lachman to
President Hutchins at the end of the school. conveys the idea of a
more effective health program.

“I am writing this unusual letter to acquaint you with the facts
of how the program arising from Berea College is aiding health
problems in Pulaski County. I am referring to the workshop, help-
ing teachers and the magnificent efforts of Dr. Graham.

“Pulaski is one of the poorer counties bordering the foothills of
the Cumberlands. Superstition, tradition and lack of understanding
of modern health concepts are formidable barriers in our fight for
good health. Perhaps the best summary of health conditions here
can be obtained by examining the selective service figures where
we find 44 per cent of early selectees rejected because of poor phys-
ical and mental health. Health interest in schools were lacking.
Only 59 per cent of the children were vaccinated for smallpox. The
nurse would enter through the front door and the students depart
through the windows. '

“From the above you can tell that we were none too proud of
our school health. Then came Dr. Graham, the workshop, the help-
ing teachers, the advice and consul of Berea. We began to develop
a definite school program. Our nurses set up a demonstration booth
at the workshop with daily consultations with the teachers. lw15h
you could accompany us in a visit to the schools this year. Class-
rooms are clean, curtains hang from the windows, the school houses
are painted, handwashing facilities are available in many instances,
and there have been favorable advances in sanitation. Interest of
the teachers has increased and gravitated down to the students.
There is a widespread interest in health. A 'tuberculosisicampalg“
resulted in collection of $2500 compared to $400. Eighty per cent of
this amount was collected by the county schools. Last year we
examined close to 2000 students with over 600 examinations With the
parents present. Pre-school health, which I firmly believe to bet1
most important part of school health. found 3000 under SIX exam-
ined in two years. Many of the teachers aided in building and malfl'
taining clinics. The fifty hot lunch programs have resulted 111a
definite betterment of nutrition.

“It is my firm belief that one must sell health to the public. We
can’t make too much of an impression on the older generation—‘051r
hope lies in educating and instilling health habits in the schooS-
We have recently worked with the helping teachers in a tubercu-
losis campaign by distributing 600 tuberculin patch tests. It was
surprising and gratifying the number of adults who asked for t e
test after being told by the children.

“I wish to commend the fine work being done in the county-

. . . 0 ‘
Dr. Graham has been a coordinator and liaison officer, SO 35 3

speak, with our department. Mr. Raymond Wesley hassho‘l’n:
remarkable grasp of public health problems and the relationshlp i
the schools. Something has brought about a change If} Pu alb—
’ County. Our nurses have commented on the better teachlng mfhat
ods, they have noticed in all branches. The desire to assure 150
this fine work not go unnoticed promped this letter. I muSL {hop
admit that there is the selfish reason and hope that the WOT lielp
and Berea College projects continue, as they are such a great
to Pulaski County.” _ , I
/. fl , ., ., .


4“ ' . . . 1
Health was made one of the maJOr obJeCtIVCS for the seliOO

. . li—
yoar. The helping teachers reported the follownig accompllS





 rkshop for
rachman to
3 idea of a

th the facts

ding health ‘

:shop, help~

foothills of
ur fight for
iitidns here
ures where
poor phys-
ire vlacking.
illpox. The
cuts depart

)o proud of
p, the help-
to develop
*ation booth
rers. I wish
ear. Class-
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y instances.
Interest of
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5" campaign
per cent of
st year we
ns with the
eve to be 3
' six exarn-
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public. We
:he schools.
a tubercu-
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red for the

the countY- l

I‘, SO as it]
as Shhwntg
tions 11’ .
iin Pulaski
:hing meih'
assure that
: must also
3 workshop
great help

the school


ments. 0f the 151 schools in the county system, 118 had special
shelves for the lunches, 103 had shelves for drinking glasses, 97
practiced hand washing at noon, 94 reported clean toilets, 94 had
oiled floors, 71 had first-aid kits, and 68 had a school lunch pro-
gram. More than fifty of this number had hot lunches.

Pulaski County has no home demonstration agent, but it does
have an efficient and cooperative county agent. Approximately,
one-half of the schools have 4-H Clubs. The monthly programs are
normally held during school hours with the teacher and a. number
of the county agent’s office present. This past year the county
agent stressed food production and preservation. Berea College
assisted to the extent of offering two $50 awards to two schools
that would produce the most food. Seventy-five schools partici-
pated. Some eighteen agencies gave $25 War Bonds to winners in
a county-wide 4-H Club contest. This program culminated in a
banquet with the winners and sponsors present. The speaker came
from the University of Kentucky. The idea was so good that the
sponsors agreed to continue another year.

Outside agencies assisted us in our work. The State Depart-

ment of Education helped us by members working in the county
from one to three days at a time. This assistance was greatly
appreciated. Some thirty different staff members from our col-
lege campus spent from one to six days learning and working in
the county. The coordinator has made it a point to be in the county
four days a week. He visited 146 of the 151 schools from July to
‘ A planning council was organized last spring. The personnel
ls composed chiefly of school people. The county agent and county
health officer are members. The service clubs such as the Kiwanis,
LIODS, Rotary, and Professional and Business Women have assisted
by making contributions especially to the school fair which was
held in October.

The county has an active Farm Bureau with a Board member
as the President. A cooperative store has been opened for the
farmers during the past year. Its main support is received through
the Farm Bureau.

Our school and community cannery was constructed in the
county in 19431944. This past year three more were built. These
canneries aid in the preservation of food for school lunch programs
and for private homes.

i School Improvement. The question of “If we make progress
I1 school and community improvement, how shall we know?” was











answered partially by the preparation of a questionnaire to be
filled out jointly by the teachers and pupils. Some checking was
done at the end of the school year with certain tangible evidences,

A major objective for the whole county school system was
beautification of buildings and grounds. The board furnished the
paint, but the school and community were responsible for using it.
A checkup revealed that 103 schools and 156 classrooms were
painted during the year, and that 44 schools were painted outside,
The Board had launched a program the previous year of painting
the outside of the buildings with the result that 2.]. schools were
painted. in a goodly number of schools curtains and shades hung
at the windows with replaced broken panes. Some 100 schools
had polished stoves. The stoves were made to stand alone bye
set of new legs to take the place of the broken ones. Seventy-three
schools grew flowers, and 40 set out trees and shrubs. Many of
these trees were named in honor of the local boys who were mem-
bers of our armed forces. The attractiveness, especially the clean-
liness, of the buildings was very much in evidence compared to
the previous year.

The first Friday of the school year was designated as clean-11p
day for the schools of the county. The school grounds in practically
every school district in the county were cleaned. Gullies were
filled in 94 school. yards. Fifty-tour schools reported building
walks. In one school the pupils built sleds 011 which the boys (ll‘llg
the stone for the walk from the steep‘hillside above the school.

Five Community Schools were established in the county at
the beginning of the school year. These teachers lived 111 the
neighborhood and worked on the idea of making the school ill?
community center. The community school was discussed in the
workshop and provisions were made so that a large number fit
the teachers could visit one of these established schools. More
teachers than was anticipated for the first year endeavored TU
make their school a vital part of the community.

The change in the teachers has been very perceptible. A former
teacher in Pulaski County, now a business man, remarked, “Teach
ing is becoming a profession in this county. I can see a big change
in one year.”

The Board of Education is earnestly endeavoring to improve
the teachers. At the end of the school year, 1943-1944, the teacherS
were urged to attend some teacher training institution. Qumf‘l
few did. A five weeks workshop was conducted in Somerset “’th
an enrollment of 153. This group of teachers shared in the plan”





._..,_._ "a



 nairc to be
iecking was
e evidences.

system was
lrnished the
tor using it.
rooms were
ted outside.
of painting
chools were
;hades hung
100 schools
alone bya

Many of
were men-
57 the clean-
ompared to

as clean-up
rullies were
3d building
a boys drug
3 school.
county at
red in tile
school the
sscd in the
number 0f
>01s. M0“
eavored t0

2. A former .

d, “TeflCh‘
big change

to improve
19, teachers
7 Quite a
rerset with
l the plall‘


ning of the school program for 1944-1945. Too, they were given
$5 per month for attending school in 1944. The enrollment in the
M.C.E.A. and K.E.A. was 100 per cent. The superintendent has
the Pulaski County Teachers’ Association to conduct the monthly
teachers’ meetings, at which time he used only a small portion of
the period for announcements and instructions.

Pupils grow. A visitor asked a pupil in one of the Pulaski
County schools if he had always liked school. He replied, “I can’t
say that I have.” When he was asked, “Do you like school this
year?”, he answered, “Yes, we’re doing things this year.” The
answer of this pupil is typical of literally hundreds of boys and
girls in Pulaski County. The pupils are participating in the school
program to the extent of planning, executing the plans, and evaluat-
ing the results. Yes, the pupils did things this year.

More boys and girls should be in school in Pulaski County,
but the County ranks favorably among the other mountain counties.
1111943-1944 only 77 per cent of boys and girls of school age were
enrolled. ‘Of this group 13.5 per cent dropped out of school. Only
8per cent of the total school enrollment were in high school, and
20 per cent of these pupils dropped out. In 1944—1945, the enroll-
ment in all schools was 84 per cent. The high school enrollment
was the same as the previous year, that is three out of four were
not in attendance. Eighty-two schools reported a 100 per cent
enrollment this year.

The attendance was more encouraging than the enrollment.
The attendance in 1943-1944 for the first month, middle month,
and last month was 88.7, 78.7, and 65.4 per cent respectively. For
1944-1945, it increased to 95, 83.8, and 73.6 per cent. This fact
seems to indicate that a good way to increase the attendance is
to improve the schools.

The Board of Education is working diligently to improve the
schools. It is advancing nobly, but there is much to be done. An
effort is being made to equalize the pupil-teacher ratio. An extra
teacher was placed in each of two schools which were crowded
the previous year. The qualified teachers are located first; then
the emergency teachers are placed in order to complete the list.

The most important improvement made by the Board in 1944-
_1945 was the launching of the helping teacher program. The help-
111g teachers were carefully selected and trained in the local work-
tlhopl Very careful planning and evaluating were carried 011 by

1€se helping teachers in cooperation with the superintendent, and














the coordinator. These helping teachers worked, and much was
accomplished in the schools.

A committee of the planning council worked out a guide on the
conservation of natural and human resources in Pulaski County.
The chairman of the committee taught this course in the workshop.
One of the major objectives for all of the schools was conservation.
Each teacher was supplied with a mimeographed guide and urged to
stress this idea in her school community.

Five of the college staff devoted one or more days to the work-
shop in Somerset. The department of agriculture donated a pure-
bred Duroc Jersey boar to a 4—H Club in one of the more remote sec-
tions of the county with the idea of increasing pork production.
Each staff member of Berea College spent some time in the county
during the year. Five members of the Department of Education,
two from the English, two from the history, two from the admin-
istration, and one each from the departments of sociology, health,
physical education, home economics, religion, and business were in
the county. These persons worked in the county from one day to
one week. The interest of the faculty toward this cooperative edu-
cational enterprise is increasing.

The college and the county are looking forward to a successful
year in 1945—1946. We have not finished our labors. In fact, we
have just begun to work. With the various agencies and institutions
pulling harmoniously together, Pulaski County and Berea College
will accomplish much within the next ten years.

RAYMOND WESLEY, County Superintendent
CHAS. C. GRAHAM, Coordinator


 ouch was

de on the
, County.
urged to

he work-
l a pure-
note see-
e county
3 admin-
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were in
3 day to
We edu«

fact, we





The purpose of this report is to give the progress of the Eastern-
I-lell County Cooperative Study of Teacher Education that has been
under way since the summer of 1943. The major purpose of the
study has been to develop a program designed to improve the qual-
ity of living in Bell County through the schools. While it is the
consensus of opinion of the people connected with the study that
progress has been made in developing better school and community
relations in Bell County during the past two years, it is also true
that there are likely many intangible elements of progress that can-
not be easily measured or evaluated. Except in a general way,
therefore, this report will not deal with the so-called intangible
aspects of the experiment but will present “evidences of progress”
that can, for the most part, be observed and verified. '

The report is as follows:

There are Evidences that types of materials used in the learning

_ program are improved:

1. An excellent beginning toward the establishment and ex-
pansion of a materials bureau has been made in the county.

a. An “Educator ’s Index of Free Materials” is available
to teachers from the superintendent’s office.

b. Magazines, bulletins, teacher ’s aids, free helps and sug-
gestions for teachers, and other useful materials are
assembled in the superintendent’s office for the use of

0. Mimeographed lists of free and inexpensive materials
are sent to teachers at the beginning of each year—
original copies furnished by Misses Evans, Lee, and
Wingo of Eastern Kentucky State Teachers Colleges

(1. A small professional library of books on the “Commun-
ity School”, furnished by funds from the General Edu-
cation Board, has been placed in the superintendent’s
Office for the benefit of teachers. .

e. In recent years a good beginning has been made toward
the establishment of circulating school libraries. Since
1943, approximately one thousand volumes of chil-














dren’s books have been purchased. In addition 160
copies of each of the following books have been pur-
chased: “The Wishing Well”, “Anything Can Hap.
pen”, “Down the River Boat ”, “Neighbors on the
Hill”, “Through the Green Gate”, “Five and One-
Half Club” and “After the Sun Sets”; also, forty
copies of “Our America” and ten copies of each of the
following: “Traveling New Trails”, “Driving the
Reading Road”, “Experiencing New Trails”, and
“Progress on Reading Road”.

For the first time in the history of Bell County, the Bell
County Board of Education has bought Dre-primers
for use in the schools—fifteen hundred copies of
“Rides and Slides” were purchased this year and will
be available for the school year 1945—46.

Throughout the county, teachers are beginning to make

more use of visual aids.

‘d .




Many schools have pictures for sehoolroom decorations;
also picture books for the pupils.

All high schools have facilities for showing motion pie-
tures and slides.

Many schools have maps which have either been pur-
chased by the local school or furnished by the County
Board of Education.

In the past two years, partly as a result of the Bell
County \Vorkshops, teachers have made and used read-
ing charts, flash cards, number charts, color charts
phrase cards, experience reading charts, matching
cards, and puzzles, clocks for learning to tell time.
health and nutrition charts, phonic cards, and charts
of local and state government.

Field trips are more widelyyused than formerly.

3. Community resources are used more frequently in teach-
ing in many schools.

There are evidences that community agencies are used more


1. County health department.


Since 1942-43, the county health doctor and nurse
have given 4085 typhoid immunizations, 2511 small-
pox immunizations, 882 diphtheria immunizations, 106





.dition 160
been pup.
Gall Hap.
‘rs on the
and One.
;lso, forty
E1011 0f the
iving the
ils”, and

', the Bell
topics of
and will

to make
)rations ,-
tion pic-

een pur-
County '

he Bell
d read-
l time,


, 106






whooping cough immunizations, and 580 tuberculin

Local county health officials make sanitary inspec-
tions of schools, give health talks, furnish free health
bulletins, and give other instructions relative to
problems of health.

Through the cooperation of the local health depart-
ment and the State Board of Health, all teachers (106)
in the 1944 Bell County Workshop took the tuber»
eulin test.

The local health department has cooperated in the
Bell County Workshops for the past three years as an
agency of instruction.

In the 1944 workshop a member of the State Depart-
ment of Health, Miss Bessie Ball served as full—time
staff consultant.

Through the cooperation of the local health depart-
ment, in the past three years, 36 crippled children
have been sent to the hospital; 11 children have
been furnished glasses through the cooperation of
the Kiwanis and Lions Clubs of Pineville.

. Extent to which the library is improved and used. '

Many schools have established libraries for the first
time and many other schools have added volumes to
an already existing library nucleus.

An excellent beginning toward the establishment of
a materials bureau in the superintendent’s office has
been made.

During the school year, 1943-44, forty traveling
libraries composed of twenty to thirty volumes each
were furnished by the County Board of Education.
Wood boxes in the form of suitcases were constructed
for this purpose. These traveling libraries were taken
from the superintendent’s office, kept in the school
for one month, returned to the office, and another
set checked out. Because the wood boxes were heavy
and unwieldy, and the choice of books provided in
these small traveling libraries was not sufficiently
varied, this procedure did not prove entirely satis-

As a result, a new procedure was set up during the










school year, 1944—45. All books formerly in the “suit-
case” traveling libraries were catalogued in one
central library in the superintendent’s office. Teach-
ers were allowed to check out books from this central
library, keep them in their schools for a month,