xt7qjq0ssg30 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7qjq0ssg30/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1947 journals 3_05 English Lexington, Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky fruit notes v.3 n.05. text Kentucky fruit notes v.3 n.05. 1947 2014 true xt7qjq0ssg30 section xt7qjq0ssg30 ¤N8
_ ‘ Vol. 3 ljeeemher, 1947 No. 5
’ KENTUCKY FRUIT NOTES
°°m‘ W. D. Armstrong, Horticulturist, Editor
nded ·
tfteld
wail-
Sztnd w[];\'[‘ \’A|{l|·j'[‘Y \V||J|, Y()[j ne:n=zero temperatures resulted in
llm- l»LANrl~·» much <·rown and root injury to
now, . v_ _ ' _ non-mulehed strawberries over the
peru lhe llortletlltural Department el pmt,-C State
the l~Z<·ntu<·l.1nr1t<»n and lrlneeton. whmt M, c]_(_,lt it is Suggested that
Tell; with apples. peaches. :;tran·l>erri··s. mL_"i_ji];d _'t'1YU{`, bé Mken 10 the
YU] wu ·; ; ; ·<· ·‘ · " M4 ' E
ming ?i"p*é *‘wl_‘_ hi ‘_})lijT.l_;>`_i'H“{l‘l ll"   pateh in October or early November
l)mll‘·l)"‘1"`1"‘!’ HH? " ( "‘,° ` and the vsnes clipped so that the
rrlrrns. The results oi these trials _l__,l_,_ will mak up me mu mmq
·,rt~ for the llllllllllitllllll of Ken-     . ,    
‘ . _   _ . . ._ and eernnnate an; giam before
·—“`l*‘·'."* ··"" ·."" ‘“ “*“‘l ."’ llT‘* spl-t-urine, This en-;;n·.· is then ready
&¤0me ;:r;;ter;a1 and vslll be gladly furnish- in <_N_L_,1(i M hw November O1. Carb.
lt the ttl on reqtlest. lf the results of these D__L_i{m}3(_l_ 'whcla `it poems that thb
CI‘0p trials are txsetl ··r Ci.1llSllllL‘(l hy those u_Im)LQ]_,xm__O wm gf; dmvn to 15_
gp;-ay plannins; tn set l`!‘l1ll_l1`¢J¢‘fi- \`lll¤`$- (W tutor; Thpgg dates, varv and may
' thi? l;t~rr¥‘ plantsi rnneh tnne and money he ‘iM{;l_ in Somhcrn Kghmcky and
ISE U *4*** °“` $m"`(‘ t· rlitr in thc northern ‘ ` O
_ _ `   _   _ _     · portion. me
; and _ Klan; r.u._se.lt·s pix e smh gloxx- und OHV half WHS of Straw pm. acre
`°f°'€ “?¥.‘l°""I‘Y’““"?‘ ."f *’“*' "“‘l M ""’ sten; abottt right for the Purchase
‘]‘{“"‘_l""’. §“°"." "¥“"l"¥‘ “‘QE`_."f Art-a. ann about 2 tons around
MMC INI M`?) N >°ll`(t.lm‘ \‘m°` llenderson. Greenville. and Bowl-
tzes to plzznt. Alany varieties are not mu GI.,_(_,. ard {mm 2 {O 212 tons
your suxtahle for plantrng in lxentneky wry MTC mrmmd Louisvmc and Cm,
gpjn ann some are faxlnres. generally. m,tl_,t
many .·\lso. re1r.en;E»er that ¤·x·er-sizecl ` `   i______l_,.
H- the trees transplant with diffienlty and
ly re, t`e*.\‘ stxrvive. and that most eem- ()l{(,Il;\KD l\llCE PLENTIFUL
rnereial orehardists prefer young. _ ,   _ _· _
1nc~din1n~sixed trees. MVTI I`*Emud‘y Olchqudlsts me
___ __)_J __" r_ri i familiar \\`lll`l Orehzlrd HUGE and the
ast 30 , , ` _ damage they can cause to fruit
to 6, S'1R;\\\ BLRRY MULC ll plgqutiupg Those who are not fa- _
. i_ _ _   .·   _; . ddO
'E can Loeperatlve innlelnnex tests made ‘mll‘u “1U}vth”°C D?<_t` “Ou1.
more   . .   . . . .. . , , well to stuox the habits and customs
mth eornlnereral >llZl\\l)(‘ll} grow- { l.   ·i Q EYCU Gxwcrienced
ers and started in 1938 indicate U ]mg?l
.¤ltlt\ ~t.r.t. xxl pax a rancstnnt . _ _,
tthat . - . . . .- ‘ ~ . t> nrevent serious 1rl]ui\ to some
profit mel sprme ninlehing. For Pl ._ _, MMX l_\__ ‘q l was
Fqtprc the Sl-rear period. fall mulehint; has M mml FAU") L NCT `UCA . ,
lllZll’lg DI-Udua,Cd Hm .l,.t,l..l_ U Ut- 30 (j1__lu_< the experlellee of Llll CXQCUCITT g10}\·
b · . " ` ` " 4 ` ` ~~ —· ` Henderson during the win-
e") pei acre more than spring inuleh- *1 _“*{“mJ- LH, Am C__u_l;, Januar`,
lllg. The greatest inerease was tlll im U. ‘?D' )‘_f / `I _· - I  
···t~e »· -.   ’ U . · .· .. { examination rex ealed tnat 1ll1C€ in
wat. ptr ..t1t. lll tt spun, o __ _   _l_ m.ul_cd about
llllll. following; a pt·r—1t»qt rerwu rpm- rudlvd el >w¤<_1u> >_ _J' N ld A _
pt~r—;mu—CS wpm U, rrr and I2 r,(._ 100 apple trees ti to 0 _} ears 0 . _p-
1 . , .   . . wliewtiens of both zine phosphide
on Attn nnh no snmx on the l— ‘_ · ` . _ _ wd umu Gram A
;;r<>t1ml. As a resnlt of that Cold ‘_‘“__*‘l°l°l“ $1.19;* `;;l_h,p;t5ppCd°£m._
ll<`l`lilll>¤l“ll“* ld] qu .`· ` ,
  . ,- ‘ , , . . . . thrr inrurv but it did not. of course.
-·l`lC ltrlled or the eroxxn and roots _ -4 _ _ -} _— 1, lm dmw tO thc UCQQ
were so badly injured that very l*`l°·“‘ UL °‘lm`l*"_ _ _ `
lfl\\` l)l'fl(lLl(‘lltlll resulted, In Feb- A reeent OXZlllllIlLltlOll of H lH1gC-‘
l`ll%ll`)' and early Mareh of 1947 the apple orehartl near PllClllCZ`lll £ai wi rea rom _,
WHERE T0 LOOK FOR one·third to one acre of orchard, Id;
ORCHARD MICE depending upon the degree o_f in-  
_ _ festation. Prepare fresh bait daily. ~ ,
WWE orchord me are ¤S¤¤¤>’ ··aswts lace ars ssa Bait isa. "“
` associated with injury in apple or- mem Shmgd bo Svstémqticp {md Tl
eh·3rcl5_ they .11lSO Ofteli CZIUSE $C`i`iOU$ tho!-0ugh_ USC gn. icq; pick ‘0r point- m
mjuly to peach NCES and Othcl d tiff vire to l’rce the bait and
fruit plantings. They seem to con- $ IS _ fu _ p,_‘ ,_ M·__ ‘_   DL
sider Golden Delicious, Grimes O_ Omg, lc {Elim`]ii>‘._1l;L 1c?BH.° . ll;
Golden, Polly Eades and other gigfscgpxllsC(i1\nL(;C,iN;n,l?&é0g?..,S;°iLi. ?"`
yellow varieties among their favor- they Czwcr md \,C,;m,.(, m{O` th,
ggnf¤gg§,—,SbQ;C;§¤>‘ Seldom damooc Esss. Foii thisireaspn ssrt‘s%stsiss.·Z {3%
. " of tile, 1 ass, meta , or woo are no »
<>1‘¤ho¤’d mice mic gcncwuy of longer gecommended. Bait should if-
EWO typ€S_th° meadow mouse and be placed onlv in runways. As a I·
the pine mouse. The meadow mouse general rule blacc the béit about if
is usually a surface feeder and has 10 {cet apmft If ,.unwavS am bb  
runways On the Surface of the neath the drip area of`trees. two ?
ground, while the pine mouse large- to foul. placements in the mu, S
ly constructs underground runways would Sumcc Om upplc Slice at ·_
ood toooolo Foo? of **¤¤S~‘» how- Lsar baiting spot is surnam. r>isr»r §,
$;5EgCS°SidS2;EiLl;;;ii_ bmh On thc grass liglhtly over ithenliaitl. B\aituanly n
~ ‘· ·’· ·~··r‘·> ,;"·‘s
To locate the 5¤¤‘fo¤o 1`umVaYS·   iEiriiii·dvsl.HBaiturfrolcbrunwavs H
§?5$aihEsré“s“1f§`s‘%€»iiFsr—&"iiS§r—t2d “‘°‘“ “‘° $E" ‘{‘“°*‘°‘ Qi. "`°’“ EE E if
· z # . . runwav.
twooo ood oooooth tho wooo Too iiiistgisif(isda'sZii.“iié1iI§§a,°p1sss the f
runways aE€» of COuES€> Very Small} bait in the runways beneath, and let l
being about as wide as two fingers, · · '
and are branched and rebranched ltilgfvn a§a1;`.t Th b t {mc to
and often lead to small holes in the b_ .t mw °_ _hm_& ._ Gqftmf hl Wei,  
ground or to nesting mounds. One fi; Q? fm', ai} _1°h,` E1 Q Q1 fj . L
can easily determine whether or not “ En EO? t“ E?h‘E{ EE E"tF‘·-E {HE; l
the runways are being used by the EQ Compuc Cn HG1? mlgméog t ,11; 1
presence or absence of fresh mouse {FEE El? N "fuyb {On.?/{ml `_ cglifit *
droppings. Also. runways or tunnels _ Eipllgf OE CF] fclj * we {ufl Img Y
beneath the surface can be located dg IEE we 8 C Ol?I?O0n· lmhl f . i ·
b lookin for the tell-tale surface E t€mQOn’ hmcc bmtmg m t C - OIC, ` '
Y S . .
b ~ , noon is preferable. Do not bart on ,
.¤‘=¤th·=r Ooeomos as MH ¤S PFOE was rain   extremely sas o r
ing into the soil about the trees l_ y’ ‘ y’ ‘
with a sharp stick. lf the stick sud- C`l3;S` , ;
denly drops an inch or so after ' P"°“a_ut‘0“$· il) Entmst U"`
being pushed through the tcp 1-3 preparation ot bait only to responi
inches of soil it indicates a runway Slblc PEYSODS- _(2’ Wash lh? h*md’
EES bm EE“"“`Et°E if`? Els ui°€iSI1ZrrSfis?`rr{é`IEYQEWZYE
ai , an a ie ( ..
*’°‘E°N “"EE EVERY EEEE’ Eussi$§“f$1Stiri“srQi{*§}Ei` r£“i>s`¥QZ? ’
e · · .
Tho followioa is oootod from o hgndle ssa with bm hsmis. <4>
recent article by G· C· Oderkirkpf Use only rodenticide taken from
tho U· S- Dooortmoot of Iotomor sir-agiit containers, ss it loses its V
appearing in King Apple and Queen potency `
Peach of _Ill1no1s under,) the title ==StryChhjhc_cOatCd Oats, whcah
POISOH MICE Every Fall   or rolled oats bait may also be used.
"How to make the bait. Select Place heaping teaspoonfuls at one
small ripe apples. Cut each apple in or two points in runways between
half and then slice each half into each tree and at two to four points  .
2

 ill or within the drip area of each tree. alcohol-resin paint. Instructions on
nid if runways are scarce, one or two mixing and use will be forwarded
tc; baitplacmgs beneath each tree will upon request.
Licidé _ Suffice. Placing ltwo k_mds ol bait ——-----—~--—-—~-—·-
I ' V ` ¤
putt §°§dg§5(ii-iiiii>ic? ° °’°° ‘S “‘“" ‘*“ 1947 Fiwir sioamoirrs
  "No one can fortell with accuracy Peach thinning. The drouth in
,uSQ the infestation that may occur in western Kentucky in combination
from orchards this winter. Mice increase with a heavy peach crop caused
hard rapidly. lt is therefore advisable to many Smoihsizod pooonns and 3
f inQ roilko nlooso Control 8 Yogolor D1`¤€- number of broken limbs. This was
i]y_ MCG. baiting the vrchard lnofooghly a season that paid high dividends
1 and at the proper time e_ach fall. {oy good fruit thinning and prim-
° ;{°°` Tlns is the sure WHY to iwold monso ing. Where trees had been well-
fmd injury. thinned. most of the fruit sized
>o1nt- "The last week in October is the woli in gpiio of tho dyoiitn and
‘ and best time to bait the orchard but. heavy ]o;id_ The ];ii·gCi· gi·Ow€i—s in
fllfuic if work interferes, bait early in Kentucky again used, to good ad-
Edlti N0‘·'Cmb€1`." vantage. the hose or hose-and-pole
’” Ol Growers should rc-cheek their methods of thinning. With these
°· th? orchards from time to time during systems. the excess peaches are
}n°r° the winter and put out more poison, tapped or rubbed off by use of a
‘€ QO if conditions warrant the treatment. rubber hose twelve to fifteen inches
Ku $1 In order to reduce mouse 1n_]ury to long or by some other insulated de-
bs ‘* trees of all ages and especially to vice on the end of small poles,
l iml young trees. it is helpful to rake usually four to seven feet long. This
i   all mulch material back about two system is fully ten times faster than
tw feet from the trunk of each tree. the old hand thinning method and
_m°“ Also. grass and weeds growing up has been used successfully now for
E5 et close to the trunks should be re- three years in many Kentucky
_ HW moved, since these, as well as mulch orchards. The 1947 experiences
‘Han}_ material close to tree trunks. fur- again brought out the well-known
W13: nish ideal protection for mice to hide fact that it _is necessary to go over
lh" » under while injuring the trees: This the trees twice. about _2 weeks apart,
`waf practice pays whether poisoning is to get the peaches thin enough.
  mé done or not. It also enables growers Peach p,.,mmg_ It is “.€u_k,,O“.n
_d ict lo loonlo ¤nY 1nJLn`Y booiluso mo that pruning of mature peach trees
trupks can bs Soon- is an important means of thinning
kentucky SFOWBYS should €on· the crop. as well as keeping the
  tO MC} Yn‘¢1i` Yognlof dealer for I`odon· trees within bounds and promoting
WSL U€!do5·_ If he doo$ not stock Zinc vigorous growth. In many orchards
THQ ivmsphldc rcdcnticide, order direct wher-e priimnng had not shortened
_ }n§ from Mr. L. C. Whitehead, D1\'1- the limbs. much breakage resulted
‘O wl . Flon of P1`€d8to1` and Rodent Con· from the heavy fruit load being too
mogt trol. North Carolina State College, {oy Oni gn nin ]ii»nbS_
nnd· Raleigh. N. C. Strychnine-treated Peach insects The mm Cumuho
fOl`°’ oats bait may also be secured at this mqdc One Of it; hmvigst attacks On
it on address. A few rush orders can Kémuckv p,i.,ci§CS in the Ggrh, gprmg
COM usually bg {med by the College Of of 1947 `Imspite of this most Ken?
my Agriculture. Lexington, Kentucky. tuck}, 'g,.$“.},»St iliarlaged tot liave
, , very gooc con ro a iarves une.
  RABBIT INJURX after a heavy spray or dust schedule
dm; Let's not forget the goyioug above- or a combination of the two. In
wm], ground damage often caused to fruit most Kentucky peach orchards the
WZN · trees by rabbits. The common cus- fruit count at harvest time showed
in;} tom is to place a sleeve of hard- more 1ll_lUl`}' by the _01`10¤l§l flint °
(45 · ware cloth or small poultry wire moth than vby curculio. This indi-
from — about the trunk of each small tree. Cates that Kentucky peach growers ·
~s it< A wrapping of newspaper, brown will likely use more DDT for the
" wrapping paper, black construction control of oriental fruit moth than
heat paper (non creosote), or thin wood in 1947 and will, thereb>'» €1`€8_l€ 3
uSCd‘ Yeneer strips are often used. Also, red mite and red spider condition
Om; in recent years certain preparations that will have to be solved later,
7 _ have been developed that can be also. _ _
“?Gt’T home-made and painted on the Benzene hexaehloride looked fair-
Om B ' trunks. One such mixture is the ly promising in 1947 tests for eur-
3
` . . . r · _ , . _ _ · ·*

 eulio control; however, heavy ap- feed in the leaves at the ends of n
plications repeated at short inter- twigs. Where this pest is_seriou.· l"
vals were needed and this makes aiscnate of lead should he included p
its use expensive. in the pre-pink and pink sprays i
Hexaethyl tetraphosphate gave before bloom a_nd in the early covey ii
gmyd ycsuits in Controlling I-Cd sprays. \Ve willdikely be hearin;= li
spiders and red mites on apples and mufll 1****** et lllld l’t`*l· *¤
should do the same on peaches, if Apple picking. ()ne of the ne—.·.·_ ’
needed. This material was also used very light. magnesium metal appli
by some growers in several states picking ladder.; was recently tricti l
in their attempt to stop the severe hy the editor with complete satis- {
curculio attack. At one-halt` pint per faction. The eighteen foot ladder is }
100 gallons, curculio control was not so light there is scarcely any "cliort~" l
good. At three-fourths to one pint attached to carrying it and its I
per 100 gallons, control was good strength and ease of handling are l
but serious leaf injury also occur- outstanding. The first cost is con- I
red and some injury was also caus- sidered somewhat high but it i- l
cd to the cylinders of spray ma- rust-proof and should last for years ‘
chines. This showed that the ma- Any grower with inature trees l
terial was not out of the experi- :hould l:e sold on this light liitldei l
mental stage and not by any means after a few hours til, use. ‘
1`€‘?idY f¤1` §€¤€1`¤l USC f0i` PC€l(`llC$· '1`he dormant spray. Since the gen- I
Peach tree borer. This is one of eral use of DDT by western lien- 1
our worst peach tree pests. Peach lucky apple growers has iiicreast-ii
growers who did not get to apply the trouble from Rosy Aphids and ·
PDB (paradichlorobenzene) to their brought on the red mite pi·.·l»lezr. 7
peach trees in September or Octo- the dormant spray is more impor- Q
ber can still treat them later this fall tant than ever. 'l`lie regular 37 L
or early winter by use of ethylene dormant oil emulsion spray will kill
dichloride emulsion. This liquid ma- all of the red mite eggs that arr
terial is effective at lower tempera- hit. as well as control the San Jose
tures than is PDB. is effective in scale. '\1.'hen a small amount ei
late fall and early spring and should dinitro material is added to this reg-
be applied strictly according to di- ular oil emulsion or an oil is used
rections. Propylene dichloride is a that contains dinitro. the eggs of th;
newer liquid material for borer con- rosy aphis and other aphis eggs are
trol and is used at dosages half as also killed. A combined dormant
strong as ethylene dichloride and spray against the several pests
is also effective both in late fall and should be a must on every apple
€€11`ly spring. growers spray program.
Codling moth injury to apples was _______ _
generally more severe this year than
in 1946 because of the hot summer. 19-17 STRAVVBERRY VARIICTY
Many western Kentucky apple men » p , y
used a DDT spray schedule in 19-LT bLH‘\\ IOR
with fairly good results. However, The cool. moist weather that pre-
many of them waited too long be- vailed during most of the straw-
tween sprays, especially in late berry harvest encouraged heavy
summer and many worms entered production and. as a result. many
the fruit. This condition gave fur- fields over Kentucky and some ex-
ther evidence to the fact that, with perimcntal plots made yields much
fall and winter varieties on a "worm heavier than ordinary. Also, in many
year," western Kentucky growers eases, second and third year patchc:<
need to keep up spray protection produced more fruit than first ycar
virtually to harvest, regardless of fields near by; however this was not
the spray program used. _ the case in the Experiment Station ·
Red banded leaf roller injury was plots.
rather severe in several apple or- ln western Kentucky, Blakemore
ehards at Paducah in 1947. This   by far, the most important varic-
pest is another one that is en- ty. There are still some Aromas ,
couraged by the use of DDT and grown there, but this variety has
injures the fruit by making surface been losing favor rapidly in recent
feeding grooves and trails just years, as a result of poor yields and
through the skin of the apples, thus poor carrying quality. Tennessee
making a cull and inviting rot. In Beauty is rapidly taking the place
the early season the young worms of Aroma as a late berry and this
4

 ls ot new variety is gaining many new Sections represented: Large apple
iour:. friends each year. Tennessee Ship- exhibits were shown by growers
uded per is also grown to some extent from Graves, McCracken. Jefferson,
>rays hut it has not gamed as much pop- and 'I`rimble counties. The peach
rover ularity in the Paducah section as it and grape exhibits were largely
rrinv has further north at Greenvrlle, Lou- from Trimble and Jefferson coun-
eville, and around (Yovington in ties, with pear exhibits from Jef-
m,._,_.I northern Kentucky. I _ ` ferson and Boyle counties. Colorful,
mph r_·\iound Lriuisville and llUl1l1l‘l!1 individual orchard Vbooth displays
lmd ht-ntueky_ tl renrier has Bhelen the were entered from Graves and Jef-
;uUS_ 11111111 \'£ll'lL‘ }' \\'l 1 $(11110 ·2i CHTOYC. f(»]·$(;y] gUu¤t_jCS_
.. ,, ` Here again in these sections both . .. A __ A x
iei·etih2 with The American Prrmrrirrgaeai serie li
all departments in order to itil- etv will celebrate the 100th anni- cl
Dl`0V0 exhibiting €0llditi0h$ ahd versarv of its organization with the ih
fruit growers in all sections of the Cculcuuiul Fyuil Cuugl-CSS ul Sl rz
state al`€ l1l`g€d te tilkt? 3€iV€lhi€ig° Louis. Missouri on February 17 18i Fl
of the Opportunity te disrley their and ism. 1948 at the Jefferson alrter ti
fruits in cerhpetitieh with the ether The Amer—reh¤ ieemeiegierri seereu? p·
lflllt g1`0W€l`$· Much Call be i€ai`h€d is the oldest national agricultural C·
by the €0mPHl‘i$0ll ef flliii ii`0m Ohh organization in the United States li
5€€tl0ll with that ii`0m 0ih€‘i` $€C‘ and is devoted to the development l
tl0ll$ of th'? $t3t€· A Stiggtistihh ih of the national fruit industry. The I
those planning to exhibit fOl` tilt? State Horticultural Societiesiof Illi-
til`$t ti¤l€ is te €3i`€iiiiiY Pick their nois and Missouri will sponsor the h
lll0$t P€l`f€Ct fYtiii$ With ihé $i€ihS meeting with other affiliated state ll
and carefully peek fer trdhsperte- seereués reeper-rrtrng. The National st
iioh- Te make aiiihciivh exhibits- Apple Institute and National Peach ii
fruit should be free of blemishes, Council will likely meet in eeii_ li
of §lV€Y8g€ $129 mid €0iOi` iOi` _ih° nection with the centennial pro- S.
Y¤l`l?tY» ami es tihiihml es Phssihie gram, An outstanding program is J
lll 5129, Shapti ahd COiOi`· being planned that will be of na- O
_____;i_ tional interest and there will also
be a large group of commercial and .
NEW TERRIQCED PEACH edtgationalf exhiitbits. A large at- il
ORCHARDS r$$‘¤§l“°r:»u‘§r §t§t‘hO€£r?;;'*‘Fr~Oi§‘ Oli; L  
During the Summer and early fall the entire United States is antici- ti
of 1946, rolling orchard sites were pzlted l
terraced Orr the fruit farms or rr-arrk MPlieless¤i`E$t¤uley Jtlhhgtteriy ef the {
Street, Henderson, and Roy Hoe- iC.igllh xpwimch hiiih i‘
wischer, Paducah. The terrace lines il;l`_€Sl_‘il?“i ell we Ilgpst €illdEl'Y·   l
were surveyed ml staked Ott by m2'E£€s?§`r‘?OB rt`sicr‘é?$F°.¥r-CiEE$I»i—‘ l
elilgllleelis Wllll also helped Supch George(B. Leonard og, Louisville i
Vlse Collslliuciloll ef the i€i`i`hc€$- and Frank T. Street of Henderson {
Duiihg tht? €iii`iY $Pl`ih€ these tW0 are on the Executive Committee. ,
sites were planted with peach trees
located on top of the terraces. These QUARTERLY PUBLICATION l
trees have now made their first . _ _
season’s growth. The soil Conserva- i Tllli Aglelilcll? POm°lLlgl‘?al SOG? C  
tion Service and College of Agri- eziilggllvlndihg ..l§§u§u$;$i;%C§ll;)3ili ~
eilgguigcgitielitg lll d€t€ll'¤llllilg Pi0PCi iiogtieultural Digest" magazine. Up- i
·· o- ate variet information is fur-
Some earlier orchard terraeing in nished as wellyas many other items
Graves county had the terraces too of horticultural interest. This maga-
level, with_to0 few outlets. As a zine goes free to all American P0-
result, drainage was very slow, mological Society members and can
some soil water-logged and some be subscribed to by others. Corre-
V trees were injured thereby. In lay- spondenee regarding this magazine
. fi

 __ should be addressed to Wesley P. earliest inf~et' · · d th-·
    Experiment Station, Woos- furnishing p§0te(et]ihn. h]Vith thifslghgi
n_i_ (1. 10- g1`Z1IT1, the disease has been virtual-
nn, “`“""‘*‘··“—-—‘ ly eliminated in a planting that suf-
ees BlTTER,.R()T QF APPLES fered serious losses before this pro-
t . . ··c ·t· t .
0 B1h°"‘;`°t of *‘1°1’l“$ ufaag Caused Blorticiidthced first bitter rot t
serious oss in   - t ·k ~ `· O 8D-
°*;' orchards in vviclelid isle-pai·;it(eId use; pu"' catch y““"r‘?CCu"$ lh Oh€ O€1`T81¤
9* tions in 1947. 'I`oo many growers who tm amd thc d1$O<'¤1$€ Spreads from
111- have had losses from this disease in th"?-_ The 1`OFOOVBI of such trees
former years wait until they see 11215, 111 Scvcral cases, completely
I, the first disclased spots on the fruits Solved the bittfir-1“0t problem.
>e orc sar ing specia bitter-rot __________
sprays. It has been proven, time
;fter time, that in b d b'tt - t RED STELE
1€tZ~' year the disease caiilnotl be Lliglfgd A Serious Stmwbou. Disease
oon after it ehas developed far enoiigh to y
ann cause visable spots on the fruit. The BY W. D. ARMSTRONG
me incubation period of this disease is _
5i_ rather longtlhence, by the time h£i§%nR°i?cc§t€1° wot ¤>1b<{1S€¤s·¤
18_ spots are visible many other infec- thé So.§wb€,.r a S€l§uS· pm E?} m
itel. tions have started and sprays are of mjnoie Neg; `glgegclgéd fcnflqs
lcty powerles‘ to stop them, li c · * .-   ’ _
Jun can bc ciipcctpd OM r m`   ber off other states. Kentucky_gr0w-
“_ _ l D _ _ 117 ers hay e been very fortunate in that
LC? fcctions and not to stop infections losses from this disease have been
TESC that l1i1\'€ alrcady started. relatively light, to date. The writer
mn For this reason, where bitter-rot 11151 Saw the diseasg 111 an Aroma
me has been serious, special bordeaux   Rcmihpadutcah gl the Spring Of
tore mixture sprays of 4-6-100 or 8-10-100 ‘ ‘· no CYS mw eniy Cmp was
L et., U sh _ · ) _) planted on this same field _1n 1944
?§&l ;»r}€iii1ir·;i `CSCE? 2§1L},f“T`rl`r§ 5§i§L‘}El gpg gg; 3g¤;gig¤;;·¤g?;’5 ggggsinbg
  be late May in southwestern and {ow otno,. born}. holds in tho Pa_ ·
_` southeastern Kentucky and early dnonn Soonon ond at Lexington in
lngb JUDC ll'1 C€Hl.l`3l, I`lOI`l.l`1Cl`Il. Und IlOl`l.ll-   and   is Sugpgctgd {O be Spygad
‘ stern Kentucky. - — ii · in ‘ i' d
1. CIN l more genera 5 an is rea 1Z€ .
253 Several new materials are show- The disease is caused by a fungus
on ing some promise in bitter-rot con- that thrives in poorly drained soils
ne- trol; however. nothing to date is 11116 @11595 111OSt 111l¤1`Y in COOL Wét
Dyer showing Q geneiei impi·m·emeni seasons. The disease is often carried
tici- over fresh bordeaux mixture made to the hcw field Oh the TOOLS of the
up *1 mc   mk by   Gt M1 il?-"”liQ.»iiE.*"i1‘?}5;“.¥*u.$i§fi.§p$5§fl
tho Copper sulfate (bluestone), fresh   ` _ *     . '_ · _
is hydrated lime, and water. Eithcr or gzorliynszaltinaiggeqggglbsngligt Iémgei
SEE; r gmth arsgnate Oslcad ahd DDT Cs}1 in high. well-drained soil, infected
HW 10 com ined with bordeaus mis- ninnts may develop neonny runner
Vmé ture to form a combination codling plants end grew into ei productive
mm {11031 and bitter-ron spegy. Hoivever. field, However. if the soil lis low,
x nor eauxmixturesrou not eused poorly drained or of a tig t, wet
‘C‘ with a nicotine spray schedule be- nature or if a wet, cool spring fol-
Q cause it releases the nicotine fumes. 1O\\'$· the 11OW Patch 1haY gow mc€'
- , ,- ly the first season and t en go to
><¤1¤- r mxerthigedilticgimiiidr£}§p%iiIi;i—1i;$i gggicss sgtgr thc f¤t{¤g1¤gaS§gg¤g· s
_bi’- _‘ j is con r ron prevai e in e -
I nl has been controlled for the last nom figld of Blokemoi-es in the pe,
Z1 tt . . 1 , . , .
Up- Shwla tems Oh the Malden Blush duealr-Kevil section in 1947 and the
fur- laugty bYtt11`cc O1`_fOU1` V€1`y €81`lY entire crop was lost except OI'1 8
toms $D1`¤b'S Startmg with the second high ridge down the center of the
agen O0\’cr, consisting of weak_bordeaux field.
po_ _   2~6-100 strength eombmed with The trouble usually becomes no-
con 2 gallon of summer oil and 4 pounds ticeoble just before harvest. The
n.1.o_ of Hl`SCl1HtC of lead. This is based symptoms are low. small. light fQl1·
lzino O11 the theory of preventing even the ago that often wilts as thc bcl‘r1€’S
7
  _:   -_~ o _ V V o Y i 4 ` I fo

 try to ripen. These symptoms usual- the disease onto their farms by "'
ly occur first in the lower parts of digging plants from a ncighbor`s
fields, in little draws. dips or de- infected field. lt will take the co-
pressions. Most of the foliage operation of all growers in a section
scorches on seriously infected plants to keep this disease from seriously
and the berries do not mature or crippling the industry. This is es-
are seedy and of very low quality. pecially true in sections of west-
Most of the infected plants con- ern Kentucky and elsewhere where
tinue to lose vigor and die out. The much of the soil devoted to straw-
disease can be identified easiest by berry growing is rather tight and "
carefully digging suspected plants poorly drained.
and splitting the riots lengthwise. ·\
In diseased lants tie centra core _
(or stele) oflihe roots is a darlii red HINTS AND ()BSERVATIOl\S
or co er color. This corres on s to
the zijrijpearance of the legd in a BY W- W· MAGILL
pencil Fpht lcngthlusg _ _ lf you failed to control appl».~ gr
Comml mcasm-cs` At pmbgm thc scab on your fruit or foliage this fr
the best Comm] Swms to be le year don't be discouraged. ltemenir lll
Qvflid the