xt7qz60bxc90 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7qz60bxc90/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1946 journals kaes_circulars_004_435 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 435 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 435 1946 2014 true xt7qz60bxc90 section xt7qz60bxc90 rl II ~
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E; By W. A. pact RECEIVEE .  
  AUG 5 — 1947 I ·l ,
  Page Page " _ i
5 Mexican bean beetle .............................. 3 Corn ear worm .............,...................... 6
  Potato insects ........................................ 3 European corn borer ...,.,...............,.... 6 I ' `
\  ` Cabbage worms .................................... 4 Onion thrips .................................`......i. 6 '
  Striped cucumber beetle ......r............. 4 Cutworms .......................................,........ 7 A  
  Squash bug ............_.,__,,______,..________,,_____, 4 Grasshoppers .................................,........ 7 `_
\   Squash vine borer .......,..._........,_........ 5 Flea beetles ...,........................................ 7 A '
  Harlequin cabbage bug ..............._.._..... 5 Aphids or plant lice ............................ 8 · I
  Blister beetles _,.,,_________________,_,,____________ 5 How to make bordeaux mixture ...... 8 I
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en plate   V
e tied. I   ` .
uld be   Circular 435 _
walls.   I `  
une,194T   ‘
iiéfumli   College of Agriculture and Home Economics  
l ui   . . . . . . ~
ACS _ .  Agrncullural Exiensnon Dnvnsnon {
  Thomas P. Cooper, Dean and Director  

IF A VEGETABLE GARDEN is to furnish plentiful supplies of good _i  ly
quality vegetables for the family table, it is usually necessary to protect   so
the plants against insects. Though a great variety of insects infest ef ve
gardens and may be found at various times on garden plants, only certain _1 ge
ones are generally common and injurious. These common insects are °
the ones to guard against particularly. The principal methods of control  
- ll are spraying or dusting the plants with various poisonous materials, bait-  .
ing, trapping, and picking the insects or their eggs by band and destroying  
them. Some insects are more easily destroyed by one method; some by il 
another. In this circular methods of control suitable for the most if  gl
common garden insects are described.   il
- , c
Insecticides are generally applied by dusting or spraying. Dusts   ll
j have the advantage over sprays in that dusts take less time to apply, are  
usually already mixed, require no agitator or shaking to keep them  
mixed, and are less apt to injure foliage. Sprays have the advantage over gl  ll
dusts in that sprays give better coverage, stick to the plants better, can l`  Sl
be applied in rather windy weather, and can be combined with a greater   P
variety of materials for disease control.  tt ll
In the small garden, dusts are best applied with a plunger—type  Q
metal duster of about 2 quarts capacity, having a long. adjustable, up-  
turned nozzle suitable for treating the under sides of the leaves. Sprays ix  S
are best applied with a compressed-air sprayer of about 3 gallons capac·   li
' ity, having an upturned nozzle. For larger gardens a knapsack or rotary _;  l
duster or wheelbarrow sprayer is needed. If a large acreage is to be   I
treated a horse—drawn duster or power—driven sprayer having a capacity of   E
50 to 200 gallons is required.  
Insects which attack garden crops can be divided into two general  
classes: those with chewing mouthparts such as grasshoppers, cutwortns.   l
and blister beetles; and those with sucking mouthparts such as plant lice   {
and the harlequin cabbage bug. Chewing insects are usually controlled  Qi l
with stomach poisons applied to the leaf surface. Sucking insects are   :
best controlled by contact insecticides applied to their bodies or to the  _.
surfaces upon which they crawl. Paris green, lead arsenate, calcium  
arsenate. and cryolite are stomach poisons; nicotine and pyrethrum are   .
contact insecticides. Materials such as rotenone and DDT act both GF   j
contact and stomach poisons and are therefore of rather wide use for  
both sucking and chewing insects.  
Some vegetables such as beets. carrots. radishes. lettuce. peas, celcl‘§‘-  
onions. and endive rarely need insecticidal treatment and sometimes it  
is unnecessary to treat tomatoes, corn, and greens. On the other hand,  

 a ‘ .l
md- ji  potatoes, cabbage, broccoli, beans, cucumbers, squash, and melons are .—€ _
itect f so severely attacked by several kinds of injurious insects that these   `·
fest   vegetables usually need almost continuous protection if the grower is to "` .
[Hin .Z get a satisfactory crop.   `    
. I I i I
mit-   (Plant attacked: beans) `   .  
ing   Spfily · l l A l
,])y   Use derris or cube containing 4-percent rotenone, 2 pounds to 50 _ ·-
wsj   gallons of water or, on a small scale, 4 level tablespoonfuls to a gallon. * ` _ I if
 f Start spraying when beetles first appear. Repeat application 7 to l0 ·  
  days later. Use upturned nozzle and spray the under side of the leaves   "
um   where the beetle and its larvae do most of their feeding. .   l
arg   DllSt ` ~` . il
mm   Use derris dust containing at least 0.75-percent rotenone applied to ` · ,,
W6,.   the under side of the leaves. Repeat at 7-day intervals as long as neces- ` j
can if  sary. A dust made by mixing thoroughly 4 pounds hydrated lime, 1 _
am.   pound calcium arsenate, and l. pound fine sulfur may also be used. but `M .
  this dust must not be used after the pods are formed. Use upturned ‘
  nozzle and dust the under side of the leaves. · , _ .
ype   Other Materials .
up   Other materials which give good control when applied to the under _- j
.3,.5   side of the leaves are cryolite-sulfur sprays or dusts. magnesium arsenate,
pic,   barium fluosilicate, and calcium arsenate-hordeaux spray. The last men- `_ .
jaw   tioned material is apt to cause foliage injury, especially in damp, cool T · ·
, be  Y weather. Materials not recommended for use on beans are DDT, lead _
y Of   arsenate, fly spray, and barium carbonate. , _l T
  (Colorado potato beetle, flea beetle, leaf hopper and potato aptiid)
€1`8l   Tests in many states show striking increases in yield where DDT has ' '
`IUS-   l¤€en used to control potato insects. The use of DDT has eliminated the ne- .
lice   Cessity of including bordeaux mixture for flea beetle and leaf hopper con- '
ll€€l`S is
are   still needed where blight is troublesome. { .
mm  * Use JA pound actual DDT (equivalent to l pound of a 50-percent j
are   Willillile powder) to 50 gallons of water. For blight control. combine i_
lfai   llt€ DDT with 5-5-50 bordeaux mixture (See directions fOr mixing on
Ol   P¢1¥€ 8). For 3 gallons of spray use   level tablespoonfuls of a 50- i
  percent uettable DDT powder. For blight control add 5 ounces of N l
  l’0\\`ilCl`€(l lvlueslone and 5 ounces of fresh. ltydrated 5])l`kl)' lime. lVl£1l<€ l
ery.   fltrl ll`€Htment when first Colorado potato beetles itppeill'. OT Wltfili V j
es it   potatoes are 2 to fl inches high. Repeat 2 to #1 times at l0-day to 2-week L
and,   intervals. or until the tops begin to die.  
  l E

 l 4  
Dust  ·
Use 3-percent DDT dust. For blight control use DDT in combina-  .
tion with one of the fixed coppers. Make first treatment as above and   yg
repeat 3 to 5 times at 10-day intervals.   pj
Other Materials    
p , Spray with paris green 1 pound and hydrated lime 1 pound to 50   A
  gallons of water, or with calcium arsenate 2 pounds and hydrated lime 2  
pounds to 50 gallons of water. For smaller quantities, use 2 level tea-   fu
spoonfuls of paris green and 2 level teaspoonfuls of hydrated lime, or   It
10 level teaspoonfuls of calcium arsenate and 10 level teaspoonfuls of   fh
hydrated lime, to each gallon of water. If bordeaux mixture is being  
used for flea beetles and diseases, the calcium arsenate or paris green  
may be added to this spray, substituting the proper strength liquid bor-  ig
deaux for the n·::1<-r.  
(Directions for mixing the bordeaux. spray are given on page 8).   1
(Plants attacked: cabbage, broccoli, kohlrabi, kale, cauliflower, collards)  iQ" A
Use derris or cube dust containing at least 0.75-percent rotenone.  {
Dust at the rate of 20 to 30 pounds per acre. Repeat applications at  
7- to 10-day intervals. On cabbage a 3-percent DDT dust may be used  
with excellent results.   al
A mixture of calcium arsenate 1 part and hydrated lime 4 parts  __- pi
can be dusted on young cabbage (before heading starts) with good  =
- results. Dust early in the morning when plants are wet with dew.  [
(Plants attacked: squash, melons, cucumbers, pumpkins)  
Get gypsum or land-plaster from a builder”s supply company of  
wherever available. The builder”s kind may contain hair, which should   fi
be removed. by sieving through a window screen. Thoroughly mix 9   ii
pounds of gypsum with 1 pound of calcium arsenate. Put the mixture  
in a gunny sack or can with perforated top and dust the hill as soon as  
cracks are seen where the plants are about to come through the ground.  
Repeat every 3 or 4 days until the vines are past the critical stage.   2*
A 10-percent sabadilla dust is also recommended.   i
(Plants attacked: squash, pumpkins, cucumbers, and melons)  
Use 10-percent sabadilla dust, which is effective against both nymphs  
and adults. Thorough application is needed because the bugs tend to  
hide under foliage. It has been reported that a 5-percent chlordane dl15I  
is very effective against this pest.   V

 .,  lvl   Q
 ` Other Control Methods   .· .
bina-   Hand—pick bugs and crush egg masses as fast as they appear on the   A
5 and   young plants in the spring, and supplement these operations with trap- ,—   .
  ping, The bugs seek shelter at night under boards, shingles, and similar `· _ .. · n
  flat objects which may be placed on the ground among the plants. M · `
_0 50   Examine these places each morning and destroy the bugs found. ( j “  
lm 2   Many squash bugs collect about and feed upon crushed pumpkin ,   =
l t€a_   and squash in the field just after frost has killed the vines. At this time  
E Or   it is often possible to kill many of them with very little effort. Step on t T _ ` ‘
lg Of   them or sprinkle them with kerosene. . · '· .,
>¤i¤s   SQUASH vine Bones ,
ilgmll   (Plant attacked: squash) ( j
or-   - ‘
  Dust . A (_
I gy   Treat plants at weekly intervals during late June and July with ‘ ‘ `
  l-percent rotenone dust. A 3-percent DDT dust is said to give good _
  protection, with no foliage injury, on Hubbard and Buttercup squashes. ‘·_ _
irds)   Acorn squashes are severely stunted by DDT. ` ‘
EHS;   Other Control Methods T ' ”
used  ti lf vines become infested, slit the stems lengthwise at the point of · (
 -— attack, crush or remove the borers, and immediately cover the wounded ·` »
parts  V parts of the stems with moist soil. ( A
  (Plants attacked: cabbage, kohlrabi, kale, cauliflower, collards, . { ,
  mustard, turnips.)
Y or   Use li-percent rotenone dust or 10-percent sabadilla dust. Make
fluld   lirst treatment as soon as adults appear and repeat application at 7-day I ·
IX 9   intervals as long as necessary. _`
n as   Other Control Methods
und.   This insect can be controlled, on a small scale, by hand-picking the i ·
  iltllllts in the fall and again in the spring before egg laying starts. The ‘
 Q Qggs, usually laid in masses on the under side of the leaves, should be I
  destroyed by hand. `I
  (Plants attacked; potatoes, tomatoes; and to a less extent other ( T
lphs  .;· garden plants.)  
d to  ;;— Dust ·  
€ll15l  ·. Use 3-percent or 5-percent DDT dust or barium flll0SiliC£1I€, l  
 - volume diluted with 3 volumes of talc or wheat flour, well mixed and  
 » t ,

applied to the insects as a dust. Make applications promptly at the  
first appearance of the beetles, and repeat as often as the beetles appear.  
Brushing the Beetles into a Pan  
Brushing the beetles into a pan containing kerosene is a satisfactory  
way to control the insect, on a small scale. Valuable plants can be pre-   Sa
- ' tected by covering them with mosquito netting.   Pl
 Y? so
(Plants attacked: corn, tomatoes, lima beans)   wl
Dust   lm
Use 5-percent DDT dust to control this insect on tomatoes. For best   HC
results begin treatment before the worms appear, applying the first dust  {Q
` when the first fruits are set and repeat treatments twice at 2-week intervals.  
Good control can be had on tomatoes with a bait made of cryolile  
I part and cornmeal l0 parts. Apply the bait by hand over each plant.   EH
paying particular attention to each fruit and bloom cluster. Time treat-  
ments as indicated above.  2% YE
Other Control Methods   cr
To protect corn from ear worm damage, clip off the silks and shucks   Ol
to the tip of the cob fl to 6 days after the first silks show signs of brown   Y1
ing. Destroy the parts clipped off to kill eggs or young ear worms con·  ·£. in
tained therein.   Cl
 sg vs
(Plant attacked: corn)   li
A 5-percent DDT dust is recommended. If it is desirable to apply  ly
the chemical   a spray. use Zlé pound wettable 50 percent DDT powder  
in 50 gallons of watcr. Spray from above in order to cover, thoroughly.  
the whorl of the plant. Whether a dust or a spray is used. make 3 or ·l  _i D
applications at 5-day intervals, beginning when corn is about 30 inch€F  
high. or when 50 percent of green tassels show in the whorl. or wl1€H   O
there is an average of one egg mass per stalk.  
'V  rm
(Plant attacked: onions) '   ly
Dust   lll
A 5-percent DDT dust is very effective in preventing injury to plank  
V by thrips. Two applications should be made, 7 days apart, beginuiH§  
when thrips are first noticed.   I"

 t the   CUTWORMS   A. A
Pew`-   (Plants attacked: nearly all garden plants but especially corn, beans, l i
A  cabbage and tomatoes) . II; A .
Cm,).   For transplanted plants, such as cabbage and tomatoes, in a small [ · "  
pm   garden, put a protective collar of stiff paper around the stems of the gy ~_ v
  plants at the time of setting. The collar should reach 1 inch into the A _`  
I;  soil and extend 1 to 3 inches above the ground. . ° 3 V ?
  For large gardens and fields, use a poisoned bait made by mixing, . " A
  while dry, 25 pounds of bran and l pound paris green and adding `   A
  enough water   to 3 gallons) to make the bait moist. Broadcast the ‘  
  bait in the evening after sunset. Apply at the rate of l2 pounds to the A A ` 4
best   acre, and repeat the application when necessary. ~
dust     A =
‘vals.   GRASSHOPPERS x · __
  (Plants attacked: nearly all garden plants) ,
,OlilE   Use the same bait as recommended for cutworms. Apply the bait in _·
Alam   early morning to that part of the field under direct attack. l " '
U-em,   Two new insecticides, chlordane and benzene hexachloride, appear ,
  very promising for grasshopper control. Use chlordane, 2 pounds of a I `V
 tg 50-percent wettable powder in enough water to spray each acre of the ‘
  crop to be protected from grasshoppers. For best results. concentrations ·` ·
luckg   of grasshoppers should be sprayed directly with this suspension. If bar- y `
Ow.   rier action is to be taken, a swath 20 to 30 feet in width should be sprayed A· f
CON.  {_ iU`0Ull(l fields toward which grasshoppers are migrating. (When using `
  ClllOl`(l£1l1€ on tobacco, use formula having the minimum amount of SOl- . l .
  Vent.) As an alternative to chlordane apply benzene hexachloride as a dust ~ i
  (C0nt&1ining l.-percent of the gamma isomer) to infested vegetation at tl1€
  rate of 30 pounds per acre.
‘l’l’l}`   FLEA BEETLES I I
    (Plants attacked: nearly all garden plants) ·
Copy   USG rotenone dust containing 0.75- to l-percent rotenone or 3—percenl
whe,  2 DDT dust. Rotenone dust is preferred on vegetables whose leafy parts i ‘
when   01` pods are to be eaten soon after treatment.
  ll0lenOne sprays containing ground derris or cube 1`OOf t·l··|1li1‘C€Nl .
  mlC"<"N* €0nlelll) 2% pounds in 50 gallons of water are effective. DDT UA
    lmlitlll for its equivalent, ] pound of ti 50-percent wettable powder)
 A IW" 50 gallons of water is recotnmcntletl for use On pOlzttOCS (see llndi‘1` {
 gl? potato insects). Bordeaux niixtnre is very effective in preventing injury .
  te Plilttli by these pests, Tliorongli application sltonld lte lllil(l€ LII 7- to  
tamp   l(l‘*lHY intervals. Directions for mixing lwordeattx sprays are on ]>L1{I0 fi. ,  
ming   liarium flnosilieate and eyygtite (lusts may also be used with good  
  results. E
  t ;
 li l

(Plants attacked: practically all garden plants)
Use nicotine sulfate (40-percent), 1 part to 800 parts of water (% 5
pint to 50 gallons or 1 teaspoonful to 1 gallon of water). Add soap at  V
the rate of 2 pounds to 50 gallons or a 1-inch cube to 1 gallon. Apply  .
  with considerable pressure and direct the spray to the under side of the  
leaves, or wherever necessary to wet the insects. Nicotine gives best i
results at temperatures above 700 F. ‘
A pyrethrum spray is also very effective and works better at lower  
temperatures than nicotine. Use 1 part of a pyrethrum concentrate con-  
taining 2-percent pyrethrins diluted with 400 to 800 parts of water.  
depending on the species of aphid involved. This will require respeo  
tively 1 to % teaspoonful per gallon of water.  {
Pyrethrum dust is effective against plant lice and 5-percent DDT  E
dust gives good cémrol of the pea aphis. {
For small gardens it is convenient to buy dry commercial bordeaux  _
mixture, but generally these ready—mixed sprays are not so effective as S
those freshly mixed. To make a 5-5-50 bordeaux mixture (the formula if 
widely used) dissolve 5 pounds of powdered bluestone in 4 gallons ol  
water using a wooden bucket or earthenware jar for the purpose. In F
' another container mix 5 pounds of hydrated lime in 4 gallons of watel`.  __
Then pour about 38 gallons of water into a 50-gallon barrel, and while  
stirring the water in the barrel vigorously, pour in the lime water, strain-  .
ing it through cheesecloth to remove any coarse particles. Then, while  
still stirring the mixture vigorously, slowly add the bluestone solution,  j
also strained through cheesecloth. Add enough water to make 50 gallons,  
and stir thoroughly.  
To prepare 3 gallons of a 5-5-50 bordeaux mixture use 5 ounces of \
powdered copper sulfate (bluestone) and 5 ounces of fresh hydrated Q
spray lime. Mixing may be done in the spray tank by washing each
material through cheesecloth into the partly filled tank. Constant stir·
ring while mixing is essential. Bordeaux mixture should be used the
same (lay it is made. V
Imxington, Kentucky june. 1917 i
Cooperative Extension \Vork in Agricultttre and Home Economics: College of Agriculture and llntne
lirnnotnics. University nf Kentucky. and the Unit:-tt Suites Department of Agi-ienltni-e, c0opt•rnttrt;·
Thomas P. Cooper, Dircclcr. Issued in fttrthcrctncc of the Acts of May B and Jttnr 30,1914.
V zum-6-ti