xt7r222r5k3x https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7r222r5k3x/data/mets.xml Michaux, Franpcois Andrbe, 1770-1855. 1805  books b92-160-29919448 English Printed for R. Phillips, : London : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. United States Description and travel. Ohio River Valley Description and travel. Southern States Description and travel. Travels to the westward of the Allegany mountains  : in the states of Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, in the year 1802 / by F.A. Michaux ; translated from the French. text Travels to the westward of the Allegany mountains  : in the states of Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, in the year 1802 / by F.A. Michaux ; translated from the French. 1805 2002 true xt7r222r5k3x section xt7r222r5k3x 

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      TO TSR


      OF THE



                 THE STATES

                      OF THg


               IN THE YEAR 1802.



           B3Y F. A. MICHAUX, M.D.
    Member of the Society of Natural History of Paris, 4Ac.


        By Barnard 4' Sultzer, TWter Lane, Flect Street.


This page in the original text is blank.



                   BY THE AUTHOR.

T  HE Public are already in possession of numerous books of
Travels in the United States, and many observations relative to
those countries are likewise to be met with in various Works
so that the mass of information already acquired, might appear
on superficial consideration, to be sufficient, and to render any
additional account superfluous. The greater part of those Works,
however, relate almost exclusively to the Unlited or Atlantic States,
and though some of them treat of those situated to the West-
ward of the Allegany Mountains, yet they do so only in a slight
or extremely vague manner; but from certain opinions, which I
entertained of those countries, I was induced to consider them
as far more interesting than is generally imagined.  I therefore
proposed to myself, when an opportunity should occ-, to travel
through them :-and, in June, 180, being at Philadet !11ia. I was
enabled to carry my desire into execution.

  The extent of my journey could not be less than two thousand
miles, and I could not, consistently with the object which had
brought me for the second time into the United States, devote to it
a portion of time sufficient for collecting all the facts which would
obviously result from myjourney. It would have required, at least,
a year to fulfil the intentions I had in view, by obtaining accurate



ideas, from my own observations, of the progress of vegeta-

   This space of time would also have enabled me to procure
 more extensive information relative to the comnmercial transac-
 tions which form such an essential union lbetvveeu the Western
 Countries and those of the United States and Lower Louisiana,
 and relative to which, 1 do not believe any thiing has hitherto
 been published. Hence my Tour ought not to be considered as
 perfect. I however trust, that with respect to the appearance
 of those countries, the prosperity to which they have arrived ill
 modern times, and that of which they are yet susceptible, it
 wilL be found to contain sufficient details to enable the reader to
 alter any opinion he may have conceived to their disadvantage.

   I must also observe, that when I undertook this journey, I
had no intention of giving publicity to my observations, and I
have consequently omitted the collection of a multitude of facts;
which, however, indifierent they may appear to the traveller,
often prove highly interesting on perusal; a circumstance of
which, I had ample proof, while writing this short relation.
But, on the other hand, I have entered into details which will,
perhaps, to many persons appear trifling, though I think they
will be far otherwise, to those who may henceforth visit the
countries in question; because they form that kind of intelligence
which a traveller would first endeavour to obtain, relative to the
region which is the object of his journey, and of which, few
productions treat il a satisfactory manner.



                 TO THE WESTWARD


                       CHAP. I.


CHARLESTON, in South Carolina, being the first place of
my destination, I repaired to Bourdeaux, which is the French
port most nearly connected in its commercial intercourse with the
southern part of the United States, and from which vessels are
continually sailing for different ports of North America. I there-
fore embarked on the 25th of August 1I1, on board the John
and Francis, commanded by the same captain with whom I had
returned to Europe several years before.
  About a fortnight after our departure we were becalmed in
sight of the Azores Isles: we were lying nearest to those of St.
George and Graciosa, and could easily distinguish some of the
houses, which appeared to be built of stone, or whitewashed,
while the steep declivities of the soil 'were divided by hedges,
which probably formed the boundaries of private property. Most
of these isles contain a number of high hills, which take different
directions, and behind which the summit of Pico, in a pyramidical
form, and as it were, sloping towards the upper part, is seen
rising majestically above the clouds. At the time we enjoyed
this sublime view, its grandeur was increased by the glowing
tinge imparted to the clouds by the rays of the setting sun; but a
slight breeze springing up, we were soon deprived of our prospect,
  MICHAUX.]                 B



and on the 9th of October 1801, we made the road of Charleston,
in company with two other vessels, one of which had quittedBour-
deaux eighteen days, and the other a month before we sailed.
   The pleasure, however, which we experienced from our safe
arrival was soon diminished. The pilot informed us that the
yellow fever had prevailed for some time at Charleston, where
a great portion of the inhabitants had been carried off by
its ravages: this intelligence alarmed the passengers, who were
fourteen in number, and most of whom had relations or friends in
the town. We had no sooner cast anchor, thubi those who had
not before resided in hot climates were conveyed by their friends
to the isle of Sullivan. This isle is situated seven miles from
Charleston: its dry and barren soil is almost deprived of vege-
tation, but as it is exposed to the sea breezes, its air is fresh and
agreeable. For some time past, or since the bilious aid inflam-
nhatory epidemic, generally called the yellow fever, has regularly
appeared every year at Charleston, a great number of the inha-
bitomnts and planters who took refuge in the town il order to avoid
the intermittent fevers wvhich attacked seven-tenths of those in
the country, have built many houses in this isle, in which they
reside from the first of July till the coinmnenceniemit of a frost,
which generally happens about the 15th of November. Some
persons on the island keep boardinghouses for the reception of
those who may have no establisments of their own. It has been
remarked, that strangers newly arrived from Europe or from the
states of North America, and who immediately land on this island,
are not attacked by the yellow fever.
  But these considerations, however strong they might be, could
not indace ine to pass an indefinite time in a place so destitute
and uupleasant; 1 therefore resisted the advice of my friends,
and remained in the town. I had, however, nearly fallen a victim
to my obstinacy; having, a few days afterwards, been attacked
with the fitst symptoms of that dreadful disease, from which 1
did not recover till I had been three months a sufferer.
  The yellow fever varies every year in point of intenseness;
and mnedical practitioners have not yet been able to determine the
characteristic signs by whlich, at its appearance, its dtgree of mar
lignity in summer mnght be discovertd. 'the inhabitants of the
town are not so subject to its attacks as strangers, eight tenths of
whom died ill the year of my arrival; and when the former are
attacked, it is alw ays in a far smaller proportion.
  It has been obseived,, that duriig the mionths, of July, August,
Septenib er, aiml October, when this malady generally prevails,
the personms -llo absent themselves from Churieston only for a
few davs, are, on their rttui'ii, much more susceptible of its at-
tacks than those who remain in the town. The inhabitants of




Upper Carolina, distant two or three hundred miles, who come
hither during this season, are as liable to take the fever as strangers,
and those of the environs of the town are not free from its ra-
vages. Hence it appears, that during one third of the year all
intercourse is nearly cut off between the town and the country.
The place is then supplied with provisions only by the negroes,
or the native inhabitants of the country, who are not attacked by
this disease. When, on my return from the tour which 1 had
been making in the western districts, I repaired to Charleston in
the month of Qctober 180, I did not meet in the most fre-
quented road, for the space of three hundred miles, a single tra-
veller either on his way to, or returning from the town; while at
the houses where I stopped, they could not believe that my busi-
ness could be of such importance as to induce me to repair thither
in such a calamitous season.
   From the beginning of November, however, till the month of
May, the country makes a totally different appearance. Every
thing seems to have acquired new life, commerce and the com-
munications which were broken off are all resumed, the roads are
covered with carts and waggons, bringing from all quarters the
production of the interior; a concourse of coaches and cabriolets
drive about with rapidity, and keep up an incessant intercourse
between the town and the houses in its vicinity where the owners
pass a part of the winter season; in short, commercial activity
renders Charleston at this time as animated as, during the sum-
mer, it is melancholy and deserted.
   It is generally believed at Charleston, that the yellow fever,
which every year prevails there, as well as at Savannah, is similar
to that which appears in the Colonies, and that it is not contagious;
but this opinion is not universally adopted in the northern towns.
It is a fact, that when this malady appears at New York and
Philadelphia, the inhabitants are as apt to take it as strangers;
and therefore they remove from their habitations as soon as they
learn that their neighbours are attacked by it. But they enjoy a
very valuable advantage which those at Charleston do not possess;
and this is, that the country which surrounds Philadelphia and
New York is agreeable and salubrious, so that, on retiring to the
diteance of two or three miles, they remain in perfect security,
even when the disease prevails at those towns in its greatest vio.
   I have made this slight digression, in order to inform those
who may have to travel to the southern parts of the United States,
that they will really be in great danger if they arrive in the months
of July, August, September, or October. I was, like many others,
of opinion, that the adoption of proper means to prevent the
effervescence of the blood, would be an infallible preservative




against this disease; but every year's experience proved to me,
that those who had followed a kind of regimen proper for this
purpose, though such a method is undoubtedly the best, do not
always avoid the fate of such as are less abstemious.
   Charlston is situated at the confluence of the rivers Ashley and
Cooper. The space of ground which it occupies is-about a mile.
From the middle of the principal street you would perceive both
these rivers, were not the view intercepted by a public edifice
built on the banks of the Cooper. It is on those of the Ashley
that vou find the most populous and commercial part of the town.
Sections of quays project to a considerable distance into the river, to
facilitate the loading of merchant ships;- these quavs are made of
the trunks of the cabbage palm-tree, fixed together and arranged in
squares one above the other. Experience has proved that the
branches of these palin-trees, though of a very spongy nature,
remain under water a great number of years without going to
decay; for which reason they are preferred for these kinds of
constructions, in preference to all other species of trees in the
  TIle streets of Charlston are wide, but not paved, and the feet
of the passenger sink into the sand every tnime lie is ol)liged to
quit the brick foot-paths attached to the houses. T hle rapid course
of the coaches and cabriolets, the number of which is proportion-
ately much greater in this than in any other town in Amnerica,
continually reduces this moving sand, and attenuates it to such a
decree that the slightest wind fills the shops with its dust, and
renders the situation of pedestrians peculiarly disa-reeable. At
certain distances the inhabitants are supplitd by putnps, with
water which is so brackish that it is truly astonishing how a
stranger can accustom himself to drink it. About seven tenths of
the town consist of wooden buildings; the rest are of brick.-
Acgordingto the last census taken in 1803, its population, includ-
ing strangers, am ounted to 10,690 whites, and 9,050 slaves.
  Tfravellers who may arrive at Charhston, or at the other towns
of the United States, wvill find no furnished houses or apartments
to let, for their accommodation; no tables d'Icts or cooks' shops,
but only boarding houses, where all their wants may be supplied.
In Carolina the charge at these establishmenits is from twelve to
twenty dohl:rs per zieek, which is excessive, and not proportionate
to the pi-ice of the articles with which you are provided. Beef,
for instance, seldoni costs niore than twelve soas per p)ound; and
vegetables are dearer than meat. Besides the articles of consump-
tion furnished from the country, the port ef Charlston is continually
filled with smnall vessels which arrive from  Boston, Newport,
New York', and Philadelphia, and from all the little intermediate
harbouts, which bring flour, salt-meat; potatoes, onions, carrots,




beet-root, apples, oats, maize, and bay; planks and timber also
foim a considerable article in the importations: and though all
these ptoductions are brought from a distance of nine or twelve
hundred miles, they are cheaper and of a better quality than
those of the surrounding country.
   In winter the markets of Charleston are supplied with sea-fish
alive, which are brought from the northern parts of theUnited States,
iu vessels so constructed that the sea water is continually renewed
in them. The sltips engaged in this commerce return loaded
with rice and cottons, the greater part of which is re-exported to
Europe, the freight being always cheaper in the Northern than in
the Southern States. The wool and cotton which remain in the
North are more than sufficient for the supply of the manufactures,
which are but few in number, and the excess is distributed in the
country parts, where the women make it into gross articles of
clothing for the use of their families.
  Wood is very dear at Charleston, where it costs from forty to
fifty French francs per cord; and yet the forests, of which they
do not even know the extent, begin at six miles, and some part
at a less distance from the town; and the conveyance is facilitated
by the the two rivers at the confluence of which it is situated.
This dearness of wood arises from the scarcity of hands to cut it;
and a great number of individuals burn, from oeconomy, coals
which are brought from England!
  As soon as I had recovered my health, I quitted Charleston,
and went to reside in a small habitation about ten miles from the
town, where my father had formed a botanic garden, and in which
he carefully collected and cultivated the plants which he found
during the long and tedious journies, that his ardent love of the
science induced him to make almost every year in various parts of
America. Always impressed with the desire of serving the nation
amongst whom he resided, he thought that the climate of North
Carolina might be favourable for the production of several useful
vegetables of the old continent, and he mentioned them ina me-
moitrwhich he read to the AgriculturalSocietyofCharleston. Some
fortunate attempts had already confirmed him in his opinion, but
his return to Europe prevented the continuance of his exertions.
On my arrival in Carolina I found in this garden a fine collection
of American trees and plants, which had resisted an almost total
neglect for four years. I likewise found a great number of the trees
of the old continent which had been planted by my father, and
some of which displayed the most vigorous vegetation. I par-
ticularly observed two Ginkgo biloba, planted only seven years
ago, and which were already upwards of thirty feet high; several
Sterculia platanifolia, which had come to perfection and afforded
seed, five or six years since, and about a hundred and fifty Mimou
  MICHAUX]                    C



tRAVELS to Til Wr-,5TNAAtq

illibrisin, the first stock of vhieih came fiom Europe, aid Nvs
about ten inches in diaineter, Before I returned to France I inade
prcsewts of several of these trees, which are inuth esteemcd on
account of their magnificent hossonis.-At present the Agricil-
ttdal Society of Carolina possess this gardens; they iintend to
keep it, and to cultivate in it the useful vegetables of the an-
cient continents, which, from the similarity of the climate, pro-
mise to afford the most favoirable results. I employed the
remainder of the season in making a collection of seeds to send
to Europe, and the winter in visiting different parts of Lower, or
South Carolina, as well as in reconnoitring the districts where, in
the following yer, I hoped to reap the most abundant harvesti
by procuring several desirable species which I had not been able
to collect during the autunin.
   I shall take this opportunity of observing that in North America,
and perhaps more so than in Europe, there are plants which are
peculiar to certain determinate spots: hence it happens that one
botanist. notwithstanding, all his zeal and activity, does not discover
them till after a search of several years, while another, at a fortu-
nate monient, will meet with them in his first excursion. I must
add for the advantage of those who may be inclined to travel over
the southern parts of the United States, with botanical views, that
the period of blossoniiipg begins on the 1st of February; that it
will be necessary to arrive in the month of August, il order to
collect the seeds of herbaceous plants, and on the 1st of October
for those of forest trees.

                         CHAP. 1X.


 IN the spring of I E80 I left Charleston for New York, where
 I arrived after a journey of six days. Tle intercourse is so active
 between the Northern and the Southern States, that one frequently
 finds at Charleston as many opportunities as can be desired for
 going to the first Imetioned Settlement. Several vessels have
 apartments tastefully fitted up and conveniently arrapged for the
 reception of passengers, who every year proceed in great nun-
 bers to reside in the northern parts of the United States
 during the sickly season, and return to Charleston in November
 following. 1 he charge for the voyage is from forty to fifty dollars,




aid its duration varies according to the seasons. The ordinary timei
is ten days, but it it sometimes pnuch longer in consequence of
the violent adverse winds experienced in doubling Cape Hattras.
  New York, situated at the confluence of tie North and East
rivers, is much nearer to the sea than Philadelphia; its safe har-
bour, wvhich is easv of access in all seasons, gives it a great ad-
-antage over the last-mentioned town, and continually promnotes
its extent, riches, and population, which last is estimated at up-
wards of fifty thousand souls, amongst whom are only a very
small number of negroes. The necessaries of life are not so dear
here as at Charleston, and the charge at the boarding houses is
from eight to twelve dollars per week.
  Durin- niv stay at New York I had frequent opportunities of
seeing Doctor 1losack, Professor of Botany, who is' a man df
considerable reputation. He was then occupied in fonning a
h)otaiiic garden, in which he intended to give a regular course 'of
:ectures on that science. This garden is several miles distant
from the town; its situation is well chosen, and convenient spots
have been selected for such plants as require particular muanage'
Imnct. Mr. Hosack is physician to the hospital and the prison,
und he permitted me to accompany him in one of his visits, by
which [ had an opportunity of seeing those establishments. The
hospital is well situated; the buildings are extensive, and the
-vards large and airy. The beds, however, appeared to me
to be had; they consisted of a very low couch, or frame, with a
border of scantling about four inches high; a thin mattrass, or
rather a paillksse, filled with oat straw; coarse brown blankets,
anid a coverlet. The prison is remarkable for its good order and
Arrangements, the regularity which prevails in it, and particularly
for the readiness of the prisoners to perform the tasks imposed
upon them. Some are occupied in shoe-making, and others in
manufacturing cut-nails. These nails, which are made by means
of a machine, have no points, and cannot be used for every kiwi
of wvork, like those manufactured by the ordinary process; nmanv
people, however, prefer them for nailing the shingles with whic4
almiost all the houses in the Uuitedl States are covered. It is as-
serted that these nails are not liable to the inconvenience of quit-
ting their holes, vhich often occurs with the other kinds, for on
the roofs of old houses there may be seen a great number of
nails, which appear as if they had ouly been driveu in half 9r
three parts of their length.
  While I staid at New York I hikewise nmde somne botanicsi
excursions along the North River, into New.) ersey. This part
of New Jersey is very unequal; the soil is bad and stony, jutxd-
ing from the corn which I saw growing on some Qf the farm,,.
Large lumps of rock, of a calcareous nature, and M it they imd got.
                            eC 2                -




to decay appeared at the surface of the soil on almost all the hil-
locks. There are, nevertheless, several species of trees, and among
others, a variety of the red oik, the acorn of which is swelled at
the small end; the white oak, Querrus albai; and among the dif-
ferent species or varieties of the walnut-tree, the Jug/,lans tomen-
tosa, or mocker-nut; and the Juglans innima, or pig-cut. In
the low and moist parts, wilere the water remains almost all the
year, may be found the Juiglans hlirkery, or shell-barked hickery;
and the Quereus prinus aquatica,which belongs to the series of P'ri-
nus, and is not mentioned in the 'I lli.toire des chem'-v."  The
Valif vs are planted with ash and plane-trees, Cornuis lorida, pop-
lars, mad particularly with Qut'reus tinctnria, or quereitron, iiown
in this country by the name of black-oak.
   The quercitron oak is very common in all the Northern  tates,
and is likewise found to the vestward of t"ie Allegany M1ountains;
but it is scarce in the lowver parts of the two Carolinas and
Georgia. The leaves of the lowler have a difftrent form  fromt
those of the upper branches, which latter are more deeply in-
dented. Amongst the great number of species and varietie s of
oaks, the leaves of Adhich   diffe-r in their forms according
to their age, which often causcs them     to be contounded,
there are characteristic signs by whiich the black oak may
alwats be distinguished. In all the other species, the Stalk, the.
veins, and the leaves themselves, are of a greeu nmore or less
leep, anrd toi ards autumn this colour changes to a red; on the
contrary, the stalk, the veins, and the leaves of the quercitron,
after the spring, become yellowish, and us it were pulverulent,
while the yellow colonr gradually grows deeper towards the ap-
proach of winter. This remark is suflicient to prevent it from
being mistaken; but there is a more positive circumstance bv which
this species may be distinguished in wvinter, even reheial it has lost
its leaves ; this is the bitter flavour of its hark, and the yellow co-
lour acquired b7r the salivat on chewing it; I however thowltht I
could discover in the bark of the Quercus cinhere the same pro-
perty, of which I informed Dr. Baucroft, wh o6 was at Charleston
m the winter of 1 80X. In all cases, however, no mistake can
arise respecting these two species of oak, for the latter ontv
grows in the most dry and barren parts of the Southern States;
it is ranelV more than fonr.inches in diameter, aind eighteen feet
high; and' its leaves are lanceolated; while the quercitron attains
the height of eighty feet, and has very long leaves.
  Amongst the species of acorns which I sent to France from
the Unifed States, were those of the quercitron oak, which have

  eHistory of the Oaks of North America, by A. Michaux, one vol. folio
,ith plates, 1801. Levrault, Paris.




grown abundantly in the nursery of Trianon. 'he species and
variities of the walnut-tree, indigenous in the United States, are
also very numerous, and might formn the subject of an useful
and intcresting monography: but such a work would never be
accurate, unless the varied character of these trees were studied
for several years in the country where they grow. I have seedi
some of the walnut trees, which by their blossoms and leaves ap-
peared to belong to the same species, but of which the nut, as
well as the shell, seemed to be a distinct kind. There were others
on the contrary, whose leaves and blossoms were absolutely dif-
ferent, while their fruit was perfectly similar. It is true that there
are some, the blossoins and fruit of which present characters very
decisive, but these form a very small portion of the number. 'This
multitulde of varieties and species of walnut trees, is not confined
to the United States, but prevails in every part of North Ame-
rica, from the northern extremiity of the United States as far as
the Mississippi, that is to say, in an extent of more than two thou-
sand four hundred Miles from north to south, and of fifteen hun-
dred from east to west. I brought home new walnuts of six dif-
ferent species, which have grown well, and appear not to have
been deteriorated bv the change.
  On the Sth of June I SO', I left New York for Philadel-
phia. 'The distance is a hundred miles. Some of the stages or
public carriages perform this journey in a day, others in a day auid
a half. J'he fare is five dollars each person. At the inns tit
which the stages put up or stop, you pay a dollar for a dinner,
half a dollar for breakfast or suipper, and give a like sum to the
coachman. The space betwveen the two towns is entirely culti-
vated, and the farms are contiguous to each other.. About nine
miles from New York is Newark, a small but very pretty town,
situated in New Jersey. Thle fields which surround it are planted
with apple trees, and the cider made from their fruit is considered
to be the best iil the United States; but I found it very iniferior to
what I had drank at St. LB, Coutances, or Bayeux. Amou-,t
the other small towns on the road, that of Trenton is worthy of
uotice. Its situation on the Delaware, and the tine fields which
surround it, render it a -very agreeable place of residence.
  Philadelphia is situated on the Delaware, about a hundred and
twenty miles from the sea. It has hitherto been the largest and
most populous town in the United States; and perhaps there
s uot one on the continent of Europe which is built on such a
regular plan. Its streets intersect each other at right angles: they
ru from forty-five to fifty feet wide, except that it the middle,
which is double the width. It is in this thiut the market is built,
whicb is remarkable for its extent and the extremne propriety with




which it is regulated. It stands in the centre of the town. The
streets are paved asith and have wide foot-paths of brick. Pumps
are placed on each side, at the distance of about fifty fathoms
from each other, and furnish water in abundance. Each of them
is surmounted by a lamp. Several of the streets contain Italian
poplars, which have been planted along the paths, and are of a
very fine size.
  The population of Philadelphia is continually increasing: in
1749 it contained 11,000 inhabitants, in 1785, 40,000 and at
present they are calculated at 70,000.  The small number of ne-
groes that are here are free, and most of them act as domes-
tics. Provisions are rather dearer at Phliludelplhia than at New
York, so that the plrice of the boarding antd accommodations is
from six to ten dollars per week. At Philadelphia vou never
meet with a beggar; no man hus the appearance of iimiscry; and
that afflictinF sight, so common in the towns aud cities of Europe,
is unknown in America, the propensity aiid vecessity for work,
added to the scarcitv of hands, the cousequLenlt dearness of labour,
the activity of commerce, and the hidependence vwhich results
from it, are the causes which militate against the introduction of
mendicity, either in the toxns or the ditiFicts of the 4oUMntry.
  Duriin- my residence at Philadelhiz, I was introduced to the
Rev. Pr. Collin, minister of the Swedish church, aiid )resideflt
of the Philosophical Society, Mr. John Vaughan, Messrs. Piles,
and John and W. Bortram. 'These different gentlemen had been
particularly intimate mith m)y father, and I received from then
every nmark of esteem  and benevolence. Mr. Piles has a fine
c abinet of natural histor V; the legislature of Penns lvania granted
him a place to keep it in, and this is the only recompence he has
received for his exertions. He is continually employed in.en-
riching it, and increasing the number of his correspondents, both
in Europe and in the most distant parts of the United States; but
with the em'eption of a bison, I saw nothing in his collection but
what nmav be ftouid in the Museum of Natural History at Paris,
  The absence of Mr. XV. Hamilton deprived me of the advans
tage of seeing, himn; lout I went to visit his magnificent garden on
the banks of the Sciuylkill, about four miles from Philadelphia,
His collection of exotic plants is very considerable, and particu-
larly those from New Holland, All the trees and shrubs of
the United States, or at least those which are capable of passing
the winter in the open air at Philadelphia, are distributed to de,
corate the bowers of an English garden. It is d