xt7r4x54fs59 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7r4x54fs59/data/mets.xml Offult, Denton. 1854  books b98-41-41900499 English [s.n.], : Washington : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Horses Training.Dun, Finlay, 1830-1897. Educated horse  : teaching horses and other animals to obey at word, sign, or signal, to work or ride ; also, the breeding of animals, and discovery in animal physiology, and the improvement of domestic animals / by Denton Offult. text Educated horse  : teaching horses and other animals to obey at word, sign, or signal, to work or ride ; also, the breeding of animals, and discovery in animal physiology, and the improvement of domestic animals / by Denton Offult. 1854 2002 true xt7r4x54fs59 section xt7r4x54fs59 



             TO OBEY AT












      Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1854,

                BY DENTON OFFUTT,

in the Clerk's office of the District Court of the District of Columbia.


i. I

This page in the original text is blank.


                    PR EFACE.

  I invite you to read the beginning. If you are not suited in one mainer
of explaining it to you, it will be in another-by examining all, and holding
fast to that which is right.

  The mind of iman-the capacities uf the horse atid other
animals, have emanated from the same Creator; and 'when
thoroughly understood, will be found to be wisely adopted to
the external world. The horse possesses, in common with
man, and most of the animal species, the five external senses,
by which he appreciates the existence, presence, and pro-
perties or qualities of objects which present themselves.
Controlled by intellect, he is impulsive, and under the gui-
dance of his senses, he is cautious and disposed to be dis.
trustful. Unusual sounds put him  on the alert. He snuffs
the air to wind the object which has startled him. His eye
cautiously scans every object within its range, and he shrinks
from, or defends himself against the approach or touch of
that which has addressed his caution or combattiveness.
  There is as great a variety in the disposition and character
of horses as exists in the human family; and this, in both,
depends upon the individual organization and temperment.
The disposition of a horse, and his peculiar traits of character,
may be determined as certainly by a practiced eye as that of
any human being. The principles of phrenology and phy-
siognomy are applicable to the horse and other animals as
well as to man. To understand these principles and their
application, is one design of this book,which, when thoroughly
understood., will enable any one to manage with facility, any
domestic animal he may wish to control.

V l.

   The horse is, naturally, an affectionate and mild animal;
and the only reason why he is not as docile and tractable as
the dog is, because the same system of management is not
adopted in his education. The Arab, who fondles on his
horse as he would his child, feeding him from his own hand
and keeping him in his own tent with his family, is repaid
by having an animal which he can govern at will by a wprd
or sign, which will single him out from a thousand, and which
will never desert him. By my system, the wildest or most
vicious horse may be made useful in a short time; but all
cannot be equally gentle. There are three kinds: the wild,
the stubborn, and the fighting horse. You may teach some
to be as kind as the Arabian.
  MIy search in taming horses, consists in a plan of treatment
based upon phrenology and physiognamy, and their indica-
tions of individual disposition and character. The timid, the
obstinate, and the vicious, arc not to be approached and
treated in the same way. Having learned from a glance of
the eye, the disposition of the animal, I adopt the tones of
my voice and my manner, to his disposition, and thus convince
him that I will not hurt him. By the observance of unifor-
ruity of order, patience, and mildness, his fears arc removed
and his confidence secured. By teaching him to look for
caresses and protection from your hand, as the dog; rubbing
and patting him in the face, and talking kindly to him, you
may sooth the most timid and vicious. Amply endowed with
faculties of perception, by which he determines your motive
or design, lie can appreciate a kindness or resent an injury.
" Will the Lion submit to those beasts that would destroy his
den  Will the Bear lick the hands of those who would kill
the cubs  Or will the Snake submit, without resistance, to
him that would put his foot on his back "
  If the reader will direct his attention to any material ob-
ject, and consider, 1st, its existence; 2d, its form; 3d, its
size; 4th, its weight; 5th, its locality, (or relation in space
to other objects); 6th. the number of its parts ; 7th, the or-
der of physical arrangements of its parts: 8th the changes


which it undergoes; 9th, the period of time which those
changes required; 10th, the analogy and difference between
the individual under consideration and other individuals;
11th, the effects which it produces; and, lastly, if he will de-
signate this assemblage of ideas by a name, he will find that
he has obtained a complete knowledge of the subject.
  In view of the fact, that every new system, whatever it
may profess to teach, meets with opposition and ridicule from
an uninformed public, it might be deemed useful to present
in a prefatory form: 1st., a short notice of the reception
which other discoveries have met with on their first announce-
ment. 2dly, A brief outline of the principles involved that
I propose to teach the dumb. 3dly, An enquiry into the
presumptions for and against these principles, founded on the
known phenomina of human nature; and 4thly, A historical
sketch of their discovery. But as these things will be ad-
verted to in the course of my oral instruction, I will not en-
cumber the preface with a development of them. Suffice it
to remark, that one great obstacle to the reception of any
discovery, is the difficulty which men experience in at once
parting with old notions which they have imbibed in early
life, and which have become the stock of their understandings.
Cogent must be the arguments which will induce a man to
abandon at once his old opinions, and pretentions to knowl-
edge and learning, and throw himself into the open field of
investigation in search of truth. Hence mankind regard
with suspicion every new discovery, and embrace it only when
convinced of its importance and truth.
   In reply to the enquiry, whether a horse gentled by my
system will remain gentle I answer, if a horse becomes
gentle by kind treatment, he will remember your kindness
towards him; and if he meets with harsh treatment, he will
remember that also, and dislike all such masters. When the
unkind master approaches him, he will fly from him, whilst on
the other hand, he will approach the one whe is accustomed
to caress and treat him with kindness. And this is common
with all domestic animals. Is it not reasonable to suppose,



that if an animal becomes obedient and docile by gentle
methods of treatment, he will not only remain so, but also
become more and more tractible under a continuance of the-
same treatment It is common with all animals to avoid
their enemies. Horses fear men; sheep, wolves, &c., and
express attachment only to those whose kind treatment has
secured their affection and confidence.
  One special object in view in my system of instruction is,
to introduce a humane plan of treatment, which will not only
prove to be highly advantageous to the horse himself, by
which his value will be enhanced, but an ample remuneration
to his master. Whatever renders the animal more valuable,
benefits the owner as a matter of course. Nature has given
to the horse noble traits of character, which should be pre-
served and rendered subservient to the purposes of man, by
an approprirte plan of management. This is fully appreciva
ted by the Arab of the desert, whose habits and mode of life
render his subsistence, safety, and successful enterprise, de-
pendant upon the perfection of his trusty steed, which he
values above price. Nothing deserves severer censure than
the wanton brutality often parctised in the treatment of that
noble gift of the Creator to man-the Horse. A plan of
management is adopted for the purpose of " breaking him,"
as it is called, (and truly a breaking it is, for he is ruined by
it) which renders him comparatively worthless and unsafe for
many of the purposes for which he is used. Teach a horse
in the right way, and he will soon learn what you wish him
to do. Repeat your lessons, and they will soon become fa-
miliar to him, and with a little practice, he will perform what
you desire-thoroughly educated.
  The capabilities of the horse very far exceeds our concep-
tion, and they may be developed, by proper management, to
an astonishing extent. To instruct others in this art, is pro-
posed by the Author.



  We are told by the poet, and it has almost resolved itself
into an axiom, that
             " The proper study of mainkind is msa/."
  Without aimingc to controvert this precept, I shall endeavor
to prove in these pages, that the proper study of mankind
extends much farther, and embraces not only the character-
istics of the human family, but all things corporeal and incor-
poreal, and more especially of the whole animate creation.
In the scale of being, man ranks first; but to him alone are
not confined, sensation, perception, emotion, or passion. All
of these principles of life are shared with him, by those ani-
mals which we are accustomed to look upon as destitute of
mental attribute more than may pertain to what is denomi-
nated interest. It is not my purpose to enter into metaphysi-
cal speculation, but to draw upon facts as unfolded by ex-
perience and observation. In entering upon this task, prompt-
ed by what I consider duty to my fellow man, and to the long
and watchful years I have devoted to the cultivation of an
intimate knowledge of the organic structure, habits, inclina-
tions, and diseases and their remedies, of the animal king-
dom, I am aware of the embarrassments I must encounter in
removing long established prejudices, and pioneering my way,
as it were, through labyrinths and tangled forests of error, in
clearing and making plain the avenue to the temple of Truth.
As the philosophical Spurzheim sought to embody the immu-
table laws of the Creator, for the better treatment and gov-
ernment of man, so do I desire to extend the principle still
further, and appeal, by pointing out their application to the
laws of nature for the more tender and benevolent treatment
and government of the lower order of animals.
  We are, by education, made steadfast to our errors. Being
" at the head of the terrestrial creation," we look down upon
all other animals as insensible to the impressions that move
and direct and govern their actions. Because we do not un-
derstand and interpret their language, we consider them
dumb, and look upon them as possessed only of the meanest
instinct-of life. of hunger, of pain. of sexral feeling.  By



allowing the principle, which it is my purpose to elucidate,
-- we are coinpelled to invest them with intellectual facul-
ties similarly enjoyed by man, and rendered more apparent
in him, because improved by education and the most careful
and assiduous cultivation.

               Preface on Teaching Horses.

  Before you commence the teaching of horses, and other
beasts, you will seldom find a beast to teach all those princi-
ples or the half of them, by this kind of practice after learn-
ing him to work and to ride; many other things he will
be readily and easily taught. I do not now remember to
have had a horse or mule, that was very bad to ride and work
both. But if he was very hard to ride, he will be willing to
pull; and if hard to learn to pull, he was ready to ride, so
you have now reason to dread a long routine of trouble, if
you practice the proper plans.
  First. Be kind to them in all things.
  Second. Remember that order is God's first law-uniformity
in all you do, and repeat it until the animal can understand
your wishes. This will soon be done if you will convince his
five senses in all things.
   There is nothing bard to do, or required to remember than
convinces the five senses. You will find a difference in them,
that the bold and discreet, will be better adapted to many uses,
than the timid and fearful. I hope you will not look for them
all to be of one kind of mind, body, or color. I am aware
that many men of that kind will take this plan, and by prac-
tice, teach or gear, or teach the rope to gear hitch in among
gentle waggon horses or plow horses, when there is gentle
ones to ride twelve a day with ease, and many I have taught
to work single in plow, so yon need not complain of the time.
Some are so badly supplied with bridles, gear, and lines to
use, that they will have horses spoiled for want of a dollar bri-
dle or twenty cents worth of rope, or some other small fixing,
never having any thing as a systematic farmer or business
man's economy is what I recommend, but bad materials is not
economy, or stinginess, is the saving a dollar to lose a one
hundred dollar horse.



                      THE STALL.

  The stall should be so placed and constructed, that you may
go to the horse with convenience on both sides, and move
around him; as the true principle is to convince his five sen-
ses that you will do him no hurt or injury. He will look and
smell at you, listening for your tone of voice, and the manner
in which you approach him. When you place your hand on
him, it is necessary to do so, as quietly as possible. Do not
let the hand move for one minute, at first. - Then do not let
it move more than three feet in a minute-the slower the bet-
ter, for the great aim is to remove all fear and apprehension
of danger, and give him evidence that you will not hurt or
injure him. Always on approaching him, give him some
food as an evidence of your kindness and friendly intention.
If he has been on grass, offer him corn, then oats; if he has
been fed on corn, give him oats, then grass, apples or what
you may have, that horses usually eat. If he be dry, give
him water from your hand. Holding the water to him pro-
duces a better effect than to lead him to it. The reason is
obvious. All domestic beasts come to you for food, more es-
pecially when the snow covers the ground, or the lot has no
grass or other food to satisfy hunger. Hunger and drought
is the necessary of their nature, and consequently the govern-
ing law. Through these they are addressed, and readily
learn to appreciate their friends. Combining the evidence
of your kindness, given to their five senses, and looking to you
to furnish the accustomed supply of food and water, they early
begin to recognise and acknowledge your friendship, and show
their appreciation, by following your directions with astonish-
ing facility. You can easily accomplish all that can be done,
or is to be acquired. It is by such means, animals are taught
to open doors, or gates, pull down fences, untie halters, or
slip their brdles. The hot sun or unhealthy skin that itches,
urges him to wallow. All that he does is with the design to
satisy his wants or gratify his feelings. Little things are
important to him. If the gnats or flies bite him, he resists,
and shows his uneasiness by restiveness, and employs the
means nature affords, to relieve himself frqm the annoyance.
He obeys the great law of nature, and his success is equal to
the conveniences with which he has been gifted.



                     The Horse Lot.

  In the selection of lots for all kinds of animals, the slightly
undulating or rolling are to be preferred, as the water from
heavy rains are drawn off, without creating ugly pools, or
soft marshy spots, or being washed into unsightly gullies. It
is best to have them enclosed with post and railing, and so
high as to prevent any attempt to leap over. The enclosure
should be at least seven feet high, or more, for the horse is
very exact in his measurement, as may be seen at any time
when a loose animal is driven into a fence corner. He walks
up to it with his breast, at a glance discerns whether it be
practicable or not. The posts and rails should be large, for
he can very readily determine the strength of the fence;
and sometimes in an effort to break through, he not only in-
jures himself very materially, but becomes frightened to a
degree that leaves a bad impression for the future.
  As before remarked, the ground should be as dry as possi-
ble, with water in the lot. The locality, if practicable, should
be on the south side of a hill, to keep off the cold winds, and
sandy, that they may wallow and clean off easily. The west
winds as well as those from the south, are generally pleasant,
which arc to be preferred to any other exposure. I would
have in the lot, all the shade that would be required for the
number of animals. The form of the lot is best in the trian-
gular shape, or A. If it be necessarily otherwise, a square,
with four strings running to the centre, and extending to
within ten yards of each other. The horses being thus hem-
med up, are less inclined to run, ana are to be caught with
more facility. As a general rule to be observed, the less
noise and more quiet in all things, the better. I have often
seen children and men hallooing about their horse lots, the
horses running, cows lowing and dogs barking; and yet these
persons will tell you that they are gentle to their beasts. To
all such I would say; fashion has a potent influence; then
pattern after those that have gentle, fat, and sleek horses. I
have seen persons with large numbers of animals, which they
were feeding for the purpose of fattening; and when one was
was wanted, be compelled to drive them all up. The horses
were afraid to enter the lot, but would run all over the field
or pasture, before they would enter the gate or gap. And when
once in it would run round and round, seeking some avenue
of escape, until weariedl down, covered with profuse perspira-



tion, and purging as if with disease. This will riot fatten.
Any one of common sense and the least reflection, must be
aware that they will inflict more injury than days or even
weeks will be able to remedy; and then, the lasting impres-
sions on the memory may not be eradicated in a life-time.

           To Tame a Horse that ieperfectly wild.

  I-lave hini in a stable or paddock, and after clearing the
premises of every thing calculated to frighten him, (dogs,
chickens, &c.,) drive him as gentle as possible into a corner,
and approach him by degrees, that he may see there is no
cause of alarm. If too skittish to let you approach him; take
a rod eight or ten feet long and rub him with it till somewhat
gentle, and approach gradually by shortening the rod. If
the horse shows fight and attempts to fly at you, as the wildest
are apt to do, shaking a blanket in his face will effectually
frighten him from his purpose. Ride a gentle horse by the
side of a wilder one, and he will be safer, and the wilder one
tamer. As soon as he will allow your hands on him, rub his
face gently downwards, (not across or " against the grain" of
the hair;) as he becomes reconciled to this, (as you will per-
ceive by his eye and countenance,) rub his neck and back till
you come to his tail, repeating the operation several times
till he will permit you to handle his iail freely. You must
rub him on both sides, as he may be gentle on one side and
not on the other.

                Stall to gentle the Horse ic.
  The stall for gentling the horse, is of four posts, set three
feet apart, and eight feet long. The first slat one foot from
the ground, leaving space to get your hand in, that you may
rub the horse and gentle him before you let him out. The
height of the stall should be seven or eight feet, that they
may not try to get out. The bridle should be put on, and let
him remain in the stall one day, and bad horses from three
to five days, as the fear of the handler may require.
  You may lead him out, calling to him in a soothing steady
voice, and in about ten minutes he will follow you like a dog.


  Exercise the young horse before you ride or work him, as
this will prepare him to be more quiet to work or ride. This




should be done with all horses that have been idle for a length
of time, as it inight then be seen If they had acquired any
bad tricks.
   Put on a young horse the gag rein, sursingle, and croup or
crupper, drive him round you gently, and he will soon be
quiet; then rub him repeatedly over the whole body. As he
runs round you, use a pole, a corn or hemp stalk would be
preferable, so as to rub it over him without scaring or hurt-
ing him, but to make him sensible that things may touch
without doing him injury or producing pain. By continuing
this course. his apprehension will be removed. A similar
course teaclhes the horse to stop against the shaft, or the
sweep of a mill or cotton gin. He should not be exercised
too much at one time; when fatigued, he should be rested;
in the meantime, pet him and rub him all over, show him
kindness by feeding him from your hand; the quantity of
food given at one time should be sinall, in order to teach him
to look for it. This method of procedure may appear slow
and irksome; but in three days it will do more than all others
  After the you, horse has been exercised one or two hours,
he should rest eight hours, and in this way two lessons may be
given each day. If you make him stiff and sore from over
exercise, he becomes feverish, irritable, timid, and easily
frightened, as is the case with man. His stall should be large
and roomy, and he may be tied by passing a rope round his
neck, or better a head-stall halter, to which a bit may be
fastened at pleasure, that he may learn briddle easy. If
his mouth becomes sore, he will turn away his head and re-
fuse to be bridledl; in this event, the bit should be wrapped
with some soft substance such as leather, and the horse should
be treated kindly until his mouth becomes well.

               To teach a Horse to Harness.
  Have first a bridle with blinds, and check rein and croup,
in order to have entire control. Then have a long rope, say
twenty or thirty feet in length, as large as a bale rope, or
such as should be used to throw a horse. Lay this rope over
the horse's neck, hanging along his side, so to drag after him.
Take the reins quietly, near the bit, and rub him on the fore-
head and neck, talking kindly and in a gentle tone of voice.
Then as slowly as possible lead him along. If he appears
alarmed and manifests the slightest disposition to caper, stop
him and rub him over the head and neck again, gently speaking



to him during the time. Start him again; and continue this
process until he ceases to be restive and moves along quietly.
You- should allow the rope to slip off, occasionally, from his
back, and re-adjust it. it should be allowed to drag first on
the outside of his legs, then on the inside. This is necessary
to accustom him to the traces, and prevent his kicking or be-
coming frightened, if he should get his legs over them. If
he seems wild and skittish, the rope should be kept on his
neck several days. The blinds should also be kep very close
for the first hour or day, ana sometimes three days or more,
as it has much to do in keeping him quiet and subduing him.
  Do not turn the horse loose at first with the rope dragging
on the ground, lest it should cause him alarm. It will only
be safe after he has drawn it along some time and become ac-
customed to such an appendage.
  After practising this until he becomes familiar with the
rope, proceed to gear him quietly and cautiously. The traces
should not be permitted to swing about and strike him with
the ends. Nor should the gear be too tight at first, as its
moving about is calculated to produce alarm, which is to be
avoided by all means.
  When he is geared, put on the lines and drive him about
until he will start readily and stop at command. When this
is done, attach a long rope to the ends of the traces and gently
pull them. When he is attached to a wagon, do this with a
tried horse, which should start first, and have it in a place
where you may turn easily to the right or left; and especially
where the start may be made without the slightest impedi-
ment or obstruction. As he often may show an inclination
to turn to the right or left, yield to his disposition, and in
turn he will become accustomed to your direction, and yield
to your guidance. The waggon should have have a high
tongue; and I prefer the yoke, that the tongue of the waggon
may not strike him, nor as it winds, press on his hind leg and
cause him to kick or lean upon it. The waggon should not
have any thing to rattle, as he is easily alarmed and his ap-
prehension is startled at the slightest noise.

                       pork llorse.

  In all cases, you should be at the horse's head; and the
one at the head, should in every instance, start and stop him,
after gently rubbing his head and neck, and speaking to "conic
along" and he will follow. If he does not obey, rub him over
again, and by turning to the right or left as the case may be.



and he will start. Keep close to his head, and watch for the
: ightest evidence or symptom of alarm; in which case stop
h! im, and repeat the directions heretofore given. If he goes
off quietly, stop him in ten yards. This is to be repeated
three times in succession, after which he will appear more
gentle and obedient. Still do not drive him out of a slow
walk, that he may ac(luire a quiet, easy mode of moving in
  There should be an outside line to his bridle, that, if he
should scare at any thing, you may apply your power with
more readiness to check him. If he be hard mouthed, apply
the draw-rein by letting the line go through the right ring,
and fastening it to the left check. By this his head is pul-
led up, and the power is very great.
  When hitched to the waggon, stroke his face gently and
lead him forward. Keep him from going too far forward
however, and rather repress him; as it is best to keep him
well back at first till he has become accustomed to the motion
of the gear and the resistance of the draft. Do not, in any
event, fasten the rein so as to draw on the chin or jaw. It
is calculated to confuse and perplex the animal. If he be
attached to a plough, a sursingle should be used to prevent
his reins from going too far forward. The reins in the head
collar around the leader's neck should be properly adjusted,
and the reins so fixed that he cannot back on the swingle
tree. The off line in all cases to be used to keep him back,
and it also serves to keep him to his place.
  In teaching the horse to work, the more quietly it is done,
the better. It is also requisite that he should learn to start
slowly; and when more than one are driven, they will move
off together. The efficacy and importance of this may be
seen ill the drawing of the mule and ox. Jerking and jump-
ing against a load soon strains the horse, makes him sore and
balky, and impresses him with erroneous perceptions that can
never be wholly eradicated-or rather can only be removed
by the most careful pains and constant assiduity.
  The rules laid down here, are simple but effective. When
all the old rules fail, as they must do in ninety-nine cases out
of a hundred, those which are here asserted will prevail. The
impressions of the old system of breaking a horse are now ap-
parent. The errors it imposer, the wrongs it inflicts are
sufficiently manifest. If the new mode I have laid down, has
a few defects, it still has the advantage over the old, which
was deficient in toto. Kindness has on more than one occa-
sion, been more potent than blows, and in nothing is it more



remarkable than in the education of that noble and tractable
animal, the horse.
  The collar should fit close to the neck; as it is often the
case that by the collar pressing on the outer part of the shoul-
der there is a tendency to impede the free circulation, which
results in sweany and lameness. Sometimes the top of the
harness is two wide, which causes a pressure on the point
of the shoulder, taking off the hair and abrasing the skin.
By refering to the plate it will be seen from an examination
of the gearing, that the breeching does not go as low as com-
monly used. Often the back of the animal becomes sore.
This may be remedied by ploughing with breeching or hip
straps. With young horses, I recommend the use of this ad-
dition to the gear, as it prevents them from getting their feet
out of the traces, or by having a piece of leather, raw hide
or gum elastic extending from one trace to the other, in front
of the stretches or swingle, so far up that when the horse stops
the leather presses on the legs so that he cannot get his foot
between it and the tree. This is easily applied, and is a sure
prevention. You may use a strong piece of bagging and in-
sert some splits, such as are put in lady's corsets or dresses,
laced after the fashion of sacken bottom beds. In teaching ani-
mals to draw, it should be, that the lighter the load at first
the better. I have, in my experience, found that the weight
of the plough itself was quite enough, for one or two hours-
nor should a greater weight be tried, until the horse has
learned to move with freedom, or exhibits no restiveness what-
  It cannot be too urgently impressed on the mind that in-
struction is the more easily imparted to the horse, by per-
suasion and kindness. Ill usage is never forgotten, and ani-
mals of the mildest disposition and the utmost tractableness
may be irreparably injured by injudicious haste, by obstrep-
orous language, or what is still worse, the infliction of blows.
Like the dog, the horse likes to be caressed, and he repays
all the good treatment of his master by a ready compliance
with his will, and the most grateful and lasting attachment,
obeying the slightest indication of his wish to go forward or
pause, and evincing the liveliest expressions of satisfaction at
his approach.

              To teach a Horse to follow you.
  You may cause any horse to follow you in one to ten min-
utes. First, tie his halter or bridle in his mouth and around



his neck or over the saddle, so as to keep his head up from
the grass, and other objects that he may wish to eat or smell,
some should be tighter than others, for some are too fast, and
others too slow. Then take him from among the horses and
people, to the most convenient place. Speak to him, rub him
over the forehead above the eyes, and with the hair and over
the neck and face below the eyes, not on the nose; as soon as
you pass your hand over the head and face three times or
more, you will find him attending to you, as it is often they
will lean their head towards you.
  The manner of going from and to him should be slow, and
quiet-reach your hand out slow, and touch him on the shoul-
der, hip, or head, which he may be most willing you should
do; for if his mouth, head, or any other part be sore, or has
been sore, he will not turn towards, and in accordance with his
mind, as I have said by the form of the head.
  I have shown you the plan, and by little practice, all may
be done that is necessary. The more you feed them and
handle them, the more quiet are all creation. If you are not
in the habit of handling them, do not lose hopes; wait and
see others practice; and by thus seeing them do, andt know-
ing how it is done, and what the animal is on the premises,
you will come to correct conclusions. Seeing all the facts,
you will soon know what is to be done.
  The perfection is, first, the soil; second, the culture; rich
soil like all things has produced more of late than former
ages. Who could believe, the quality of materials and