i 4 Bulletin N0. 1.47. i
neglect to spray as he would if all sprayed, yet on his own  
l premises, and especially if he is somewhat removed from .
A neighbors, he can establish a condition by constant spraying  
ยท that will greatly lessen his chances of losing his crops. The  
T fact has been demonstrated that a man can make money from
_ , a sprayed orchard, while his immediate neighbor with just T
> as large an orchard on just as good land and made up of just _
3 as good varietieswill fail. _,
โ€˜ c i There are three general purposes for which one must
l spray: . ,
i 1. For gnawing insects, such as the Colorado potato
beetle and the codling moth.   For these pests some poison โ€˜
_ is commonly employed, such as Paris green or arsenate of `
lead. i "
* l 2. For puncturing insects, such as plant lice, scale in- โ€˜
sects, and the chinch-bug. Coal-oil in emulsion is one of the
Y most satisfactory preparations for these pests, but several
  others have some advantages for special purposes. The bark
  lice, such as the San Jose scale, remain on the bark over
winter, and are at this season more completely exposed be-
cause of the absence of leaves. The dormant trees, too, will
endure more caustic preparations than they will in summer,
hence it is a common practice to spray in winter with the so-
called lime-sulphur wash described below, an excellent rem-
' edy for most scale insects. The plant lice, again, sometimes
occur on plants whose leaves are to be eaten, such as spinach .
and cabbage, and it may be desirable to avoid anything that
will affect the flavor, or leave an objectionable residue. Com-
A paratively mild preparations, such as tobacco extracts, may _
then be used to advantage.
3. For fungus pests, such as black rot of grapes, scab
of apple, and the various mildews. These pests are plant
parasites, and cannot be poisoned with Paris green. Oily
preparationsytoo, have little effect on them. For most of
them a good Bordeaux mixture, or some preparation of sul-
phur, is best. I
Supposing then you own an orchard that has never been P
sprayed, and has been otherwise neglected. To put it in con-