xt7rfj29cw71 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7rfj29cw71/data/mets.xml Missouri Missouri Historical Records Survey. 1941 18 leaves: map; 28 cm. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call Number FW 4.14:M 69o/13 books English St. Louis : Missouri Historical Records Survey This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Missouri Works Progress Administration Publications Missouri -- History Louisiana -- History -- To 1803 Early History of Missouri text Early History of Missouri 1941 1941 2019 true xt7rfj29cw71 section xt7rfj29cw71 7 an L1H : mmm
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Prepared by
The Missouri Historical Records Survey
Division of Community Service Programs
Work Projects AdminiStration
‘ a: * an: * at: (
St. Louis, Missouri
~ The Missouri Historical Records Survey
_ " August 1941

 I i


‘ Sargent B. Child, Director 3
I ' 4-‘ A. Loyd Collins, State Supervisor . g

i i
' i

‘ t


Harvey E. Becknell, Director 3

George W. Hubley, Regional Supervisor E

William H. Wagenbreth, State Supervisor ' g


. , . E


Florence Kerr, Assistant Commissioner 5

. > Mrs. Mary G. Moon, Chief Regional Supervisor ?
‘ Lena B. Small, State Director , ‘



Howard 0. Hunter, Commissioner E

George H. Field, Regional Director 3

‘ B. M. Casteel, State Administrator ‘ E



* * it an: a: * * * 4: at




Dwight E. Brown, Secretary of State A j

w‘“ ~ ‘ "
PREFACE 4 " Mm fix
The following brief essay and study on early Missouri hw
E during the pro-territorial period was prepared and written by M???”‘~ }
i Arthuie Acton, of the staff of the Missouri Historical Records :
i V Survey. It represents extensive research which was outlined and g
i started by Raymond T. Kelly, former unit supervisor, and continued
E by Mrs. Acton.
i The preliminary purpose of the work is to give a historical ,
i background essential to an understanding of the development of the
- ? present system of county government in the State.
3 This essay is issued in a limited edition for the use of our
: editorial staff and research workers. If the demand is sufficient,
a and if it is found expedient to so justify, it will probably be
g "issued in an enlarged edition further tracing the history of . '
% Missouri and containing a complete and comprehensive bibliography.
3 Such a work would be designed for use in the public schools of
g Missouri. 2 W ‘
a! W
E A. LOYD COLLINS, State Supervisor
E V Historical Records Survey
[i St. Louis, Missouri

E August 1941

i = i
- 1
; l

 1 - 1 —
‘ The area now known as the State of Missouri was part of the vast
i region which.was claimed for France and named Louisiana by the intrepid
; explorer, Robert Cavalier de la Salle, in the year 1682.1 By a secret
; treaty signed November 3, 1762, at Fontainbleau, France ceded New Or-
; , leans and the Providence west of the Mississippi River to Spain.2 How-
3 ever, the colonists were not informed officially of the transfer until
E 17611,:3 and Spain did not assume actual control until 1769, when Count
1 Alexander O‘Reilly abolished the authority of the French laws and es-
? tablished the Spanish system of government.4 The Territory of Louis-
} iana was retroceded to France on October 1, 1800, by the Treaty of St.
; I1defonso,5 but Spain retained actual possession of the colony until
3 November 30, 1805.6 During the intervening period negotations where—
? by the United States gained possession of Louisiana were consummated.
3 The Spanish Intendant at New Orleans suspended the right of deposit at
% that city to American shippers by a proclamation on October 16, 1802.7
i President Jefferson instructed James Monroe to join Robert R. Living-
; ston, resident minister of the United States in Paris, to press nego-
1 tiations for the restoration of privileges essential to Anerican com—
: merce.8 Napoleon proposed the sale of the Territory of Louisiana, and
j the United States acquired this vast area which embraced the region
that is now Missouri by a treaty signed April 30, 1803.9
’ * These periods during which Missouri was part of the area under
the domination of Spain and France, and later, an organized territory
” of the United States must be considered in order to completely under—
: stand the present system of county government in the State. An at-
‘ tempt has been inadc in this volume to present the evolution and
‘ changes in the functions and structure of the county government in a '
' concise but comprehensive manner. To do this it .has been necessary
; _ to treat the various phases in the political, economic, and social
. _________‘__‘_________________m____________________*____m__________fi._ ‘
3 1. Francois Xavier Martin, The Histojy.2£ Louisiana IZBE the Earliest
3 Period, p. 78.
. 2. Firmin A. Rozier, $53931 o_f giggling §_e_tt_l‘e_m_e~nt__o_£t_h_e_ Missis- '
,1 - 31291 Valley, p. 55.
E 3. Louis Houck, IEE.§REEI§E Regime in Nissogri, I, Introduction, p.
: XV; Rozier, 22-.213" p. 55.
; 4. Francois Xavier Martin, An ACCOUEE.E£.E2EIEIZEE’ p. 84; Rozier, .
3 . op. cit., p. 56; American State Papers, Cla ss X, vol. I, pp. “
5 363-376. .
‘ 5. Louis Houck, A History of Missouri, II, 355; Rozier, op. cit., -
i . 56.
‘ 6. fieuck, A_History_g£ Missouri, II, 355; Edward Channins, IES.QE£’
fersonisn System, XII, 81..
. ' 7. Dan Elbert Clark, Thg_fl§§§ in American history, p. 210; John W. 3
‘ Mone‘ttc. Eismr 23 3.11:2;1323231 9.319. Elinor: 2?. 212 La 1.131 .0}; i
l v the Mississippi, I, 548. z
8. AIbert Phelps, Louisiana, A_§§cord pf firpansion, p. 186; American i
State IEpegg, Class I, vol. II, p. 501.
9. Frederic Arthur Culmer, A New History 2f Missqggi, p. 56; American
~ gtatg Papers, Class I, rBIT"II, pp. 507 f., Arts. 1-10; L.D.L. l
‘ 1803, pp. 1-4, Arts. 1-10. '

 I _
I 9- 2 -
I history of the State that have affected the pattern of powers delegated
I to the counties. Political issues and movements which have been con-
I tributing factors in the creation of new counties or the structure and
I functions of local government have been traced.
I The government of the Providence of Louisiana was at first arbitrary,
I and the colonists had practically no political rights.1 Military law
I prevailed in the small isolated settlements during the early period,
and justice was administered by a tribunal composed of the Governor and ,
, I the commissaire-ordonnuteur.2 Civil government was instituted in the 1
I colony when a charter conferring a 15-year monopoly of trade was granted
I to Antoine Crozat in September 1712.3 The bounds of the province were :‘
I Specified by the charter,4 and the government of the immense, sparsely I
I populated territory was subordinate to and dependent upon that of New ,I
3 France.5 The laws, edicts, and usages of France and the customs of ,:
I Paris were ordained for the government of Louisiana,6 and an edict of I
3 December 18, 1712, authorized the executive power to be vested in a I
I super ior council appointed for 3 years by the King from nominations
I made by szat.7 The Governor and intendant of New France were desig- "
‘ I nated as members of the council, but their membership was honorary and ,
I indicative of the subordinate position of the Providence of Louisiana.8 I
I Other members of the council were the Governor of the Territory, the J:
: intendant, the attorney-general, the king's lieutenant, a comptroller, I
I: a clerk, and two accredited agents of Crozat.9 3;
I The Governor or lieutenant-gene 18.1 had general supervision of the I
, colony, particularly in civil and military affairs. The intendant,
I sometimes referred to us the commissaire-ordonnateur or royal commis-
i sary, exercised authority in matters relating to police, finance, and
I justice.10 The attorney-general or procumteur-general was more than I
, a prosecutor for the province, for he also represented the person whose
case was being tried. 1 The clerk was required to keep a record of all ,
that was done or ordered by the intendent, and to deliver all necessary ;
records to him.12 The intendsnt presided over the meetings of the I
I ‘ I
1. Henry E. Chambers, 3. Histomg Louisiana, I, 119; Martin, fligfiii-
> I toga: Louisiana, p. 106. 1‘
2. Herbert E. Bolton and Thomas M. Marshall, The Colonization 33f North 5;
I America, p. 276; Walter Robinson Smith, Bria? Histor y 33: 3133 Louis— '2?
‘ iana Territory, p. 26.
3. Martin, The History of Louisiana, pp. 114 f.; Alcee Fortier, 33333- I
E torypi: Louisiana, I, 56—59. I
4. Reuben Gold Thwaites, 3933193 _i_r_1_ 33393133, p. 81; Houck, 3 M33 I
Missouri, I, 269. - I
5° Houck, aim 22W I. 269»
j 6. Chambers, 3 History 3: M3313, I, 75; Walter B. Davis and Daniel
‘ S. Durrie, {333 Illustrated Historypf Missouri, p. 9. I
3 7. Bolton and Marshall, pp. 3:13., p. 277; Phelps, pp. _c_i_t_., p. 53.
? 8. Chambers, 3 Histog 333 Louisiana, I, 271.
9. Ibid., 1, 120-122; Houck, £3 Histoflgm, I, 271. I
. 10. Chambers, .53 Historygw, I, 122.
11. 11316., I, 123‘ ' . ‘;
12. Ibid., 1, 122. I

 E 3 ’
E superior council, asked the opinions, collected the votes, and pro-
nounced the judgments.1 Thus, he was virtually chief justice of the
E council regardless of the presence of the Governor, for the latter
E official had authority to participate in the proceedings of the council,
E but not to dictate to it. The Governor and intendent were almost co-
E ordinate in rank, and both exercised executive or administrative duties, E
E but they were independent of one another to a certain extent and served E
, E as a check on each other.2
E The superior council was a judicial body and had no law—making E
E powers; it was empowered to hear pleas, try causes, and render decisions I
E in civil and criminal cases.3 Decisions in civil causes were rendered E
E by not less than three judges; and in criminal cases, by five. If fewer E
1 members attended than were prescribed, other persons capable of serving E;
as justices were summoned.4 The council was declared o. court of last ;
E resort5 and justice was free .6 The power to interpret the lows was E
vested in the council, and executive authority was exercised by the Gov-
ernor and intendant.7
E Since the period for which the superior council had been established E
E was a bout to terminate, a new edict was issued September 16, 1716, to E
E make the institution permanent and irrevocable, and to clarify its E
E jurisdiction a, nd functions.8 Provision was made for two puisne coun- E
E cillors to be members of the supreme council, and the meetings of that E
E boc‘y were to be held monthly.9 The verdict was reached by a vote of E
E the council members.10 Crozat relinquished his patent in August 1717,11
and the affairs of Louisiana were entrusted to the Company of the West,
’ which was established by John Law on the 6th of September.12 The com- E
pony was granted the exclusive privilege of trade in Louisiana for 25
E years and was authorized to make treaties with the Indians, to grant '
E lend, levy troops, nomimte colonial governors, appoint officers com-
E morning the troops, and remove judges and officers of justice, except C
. E members of the superior council.“ The inhabitants were exempt from E
E any tax and the company's goods were free from duty.14 E
| EE
The “Illinois country" had been under the administration of New E:
E France, but on September 27, 1717, it was assigned to the jurisdiction E;
E 1. Chambers, g. History 93 Louisiana, 1, 121.
2. Ibid., 1, 122.
E 3. Ibid. ;E
E 4. Ibid., I, 125. 2E
5. Ibid., I, 120. E
. 6. _I_b_i_d., I, 123. E
E 7. Ibid., I, 124. ’ EE
8. Ibid., p. 123; Martin, 113 Historygf Louisiana, p. 122. E
. g 9. Martin, 3399 History 92%, p. 122. ;
. 10. Char-bore, :IEEMEM! I, 125.
E 11. Henry E. Chambers, Mississippi Valley Beginnings, p. 59. g
E 12. Charles Gayarre, Lpilisigfil, _It_s_C_o_lo_ni_a_l. History 332 Romance, p.198. E
E 13. Ibid.; Houck, £1. Historygf Missouri, I, 272; Chambers, Mississippi E
' 2 Valley Minnings, pp. 62 f.
i 14. Houck, é Historyfilgissourl, II, 272. I
E .

 } ‘ .
- 4 -
g of the Territory of Louisiana.1 As used by the French authorities, the
1 tem_"lllin03.s country" referred to an indefinite area in the Upper
I Missnmppi Valley on both sides of the river.2 On the west side of
I the Mississippi it was probably the region north of the Cinque Home,
a or Apple Crock, in what is now I‘."Eissouri.3 1
l ‘ By an edict of 1‘:an 1719, the Company of the West was merged with l,
the Companies of the East Indies and of China anc‘ became known as the ‘ ;
Company of tho Indies.4 The company was conceded the right on Septem- 1;,
3 her 12, 1719, of having a voice in the government of the colony. It
l ’ was prescribed that the superior council should be composed of the di- 13
‘ rectors of the company who happened to be in the colony.5 No provision ‘
1 was made for a governoré but the first place in the colony was given to g;
E the comandant-geno ral. Other members of the council were the senior
i councillor, tw0 of the king‘s lieutenants, three other councillors, the '
[ attorney-gene ml, and a clerk.7 Sieur Lemoyno (‘e Bienville, the l
\comandant-gcneral, he 16. the first place in the council, but Sieur Hubert, l
l the first councillor presided over the meetings.8 Through justice was I
I to be administered free and the judges and attorney-general were to re-
i ceive no money from litigants, the clerk was entitled to fees as fixed 1
l by the first councillor. If a deputy or deputies were sent to a dis- ‘
l tant place to hold court, they were allowed a per diem compensation. 3'
E Authority was also granted the superior council to appoint one or more i
l capable persons as sheriff with pay as provided by that body.9 .:|
l 1’!
Prior to 1719, the superior council was the only tribunal in the .
j, colony vested with the authority to exercise original jurisdiction. E
i As the population increased, it had become evident that inferior courts 1 v
must be established in the remote parts of the province.10 Directors ‘
i or agents of the company who were in the distant localities, together I,
l with two of the most capable and honest men of the vicinage acted in 13'
§ civil cases; or, with four notable inha bitants in criminal cases.11
} The judgments of the lower courts were subject to appeal to the supe- l
rior council at New Orleans.12 On May 12, 1722, the directors of the l
i company ordered the establishment of a provisional council or court in 1!:
_ 2 Upper Louisiana with jurisdiction over the Illinois and Arkansas com- ;:f
E manderies. The officers were the president or judge, the chief warden ‘:
; or garde-magasin, and a record keeper or socrOt~C~lry.13 The area now 1?
6 within Missouri was under the jurisdiction of the commandant of Fort
_______,..__.__.__.____.____._______.___._____,__________._ l
l 1. Schlarman, From Quebec _t_o_ Mgrloans, pp. 174 and 219.
E 2. Eugene M. VE’Jfé‘tTcETZTHistoryg Missouri, p.‘ 3; Bolton ant“ Mar- gt
E Shall, £22. £0, p. 2810 I"
‘g 5. Houck, it Historyof Missouri, II, 193. 4‘
‘ 4. Schlarman, 23. 31.2., p. 17. .
5. Martin, The History pi Louisiana, p. 132. 3
6. Chambers, A History_o__i_‘_ Louisiana, I, 123. .
t 7. Martin, _T_he_ History pf flfl,.p. 152. g
i 8. Ibic‘..; Cinmbers, i: Historypf LouiSiana, I, 126. 1
A 9. Chambers, ix. Historypf Louisiana, I, 125.
3 10. 1150151613130, 92. £20, II, 229.
i 11. Martin, The History 32 Louisiana, p. 152; Gayarre, Louisiana, Its ‘
1 Colonialfistorvgfl Romance, p. 258.
E 12. lionette, 2p. _c_i_t_., II, 229. ?
15. Schlaman, pp. _p_i_t_., p. 225. §

 - 5 .. '
% Chartres, the headquarters of the Illinois District.1
1 The Province of Louisiana was made independent of Canada in 1723,2 1
I and was divided into nine districts for civil and military purposes.3
Each division had a principal trading—post and a protecting fort and
t was under the jurisdiction of a commandant and a judge. The districts, 1
posts, and forts were as follows; The district and post of the Aliba- }
mons with Fort Toulouse; the district of Mobile with Fort Conde de la 1
Mobile; the district of Biloxi with Fort Maurepas; the district of New 3
Orleans; the district and post of the Natchitoches with Fort St. John 1
the Baptist; the district and post of the Yazoos with Fort St. Peter; 5
and the district of Illinois with Kaskaskia, the principal of several 1
posts, and with Fort Chartres, the chief fort; and the district and 1
‘ post of the Arkansas.4 The districts were again grouped under four 1
commanderies, one of which was composed of the Illinois and Arkansas 1
' ' districts. This commandery was assigned to the commandant of Fort
I Chartres, M. de Boisbriant, who was first lieutenant of the King.5 1
1 The increase in the Negro population was so rapid that laws known 1
i as the Black Code were promulgated in 1724. These laws served not only 1
i for the control and regulation of slaves, but also to establish the 1
1 proper relation between master and slave and to safeguard the natural 1
1 rights and spiritual welfare of the Negro.6 By this code, masters were 1
; bound to feed, clothe, protect and furnish religious instruction to the 1
1 slaves. Intermarriage between the two races was forbidden. Slaves 3
1 were prohibited from gathering in assemblies and from carrying weapons.7 1
3 The Black Code remained in force until the purchase of Louisiana by the 1
1 United States.8 f
E The Company of the Indies petitioned the Crown to be released from
1 its charter in 1731.9 The request was granted April 10, 1732, and the J
E King declared the Province of Louisiana free to all his subjects, with 1
1 equal privileges for trade and commerce.10 As the superior council was 3
E reorganized by letters patent on May 7, 1732, it was composed of the i
E Governor, king's commissary, two lieutenant-governors, the Commander of g
} New Orleans, six councillors, an attorney-general, and the secretary.11 %
—_—_—————_———————-——-—————_——————————~———————————————-————————————— 1
1 1. Houck, §_Histo£y_g£ Missouri, II, 195. $
1 2. Monette, 22.‘git., II, 246. ' . g
i 5. Joseph‘wallace, SEE History 2E IllinOis and Louisiana Under £23 1
1 French Rule, p. 265. Some authorities give 1721 as the date the 1
1 » colony was divided into districts. g
1 4. Chambers,_§ History 2:.LEEEEAEEE: I, 126. E
1 , 5. Schlsrman, op. Eli" p. 219. . 1
1 6. Chambers, A mgw, I, 150 and 151; Martin, lhggfi— 11
1 wflm P- 154; Fortier. 9.1-:- git. I, 86-97; Smith, 3;. 1*
3 312., p. 27. 1
1 7. Bolton and Marshall, op. gi£., p. 280; Gayarre, Louisiana, It§_g27 1
E lonial History and Romance, pp. 537-546. 1
1 8. Chambers, §_History 23 Louisiana, I, 155; Gayarre, Louisiana, Its ?
} Colonial History and Romance, p. 368. l
' 9. Georges Oudard, Four Cents éfi Acre, p. 196. E
, ' ' 10. Gayarre, Louisiana, Its Colonial History and Romance, p. 461; Mon- 1
1 ette, 33, 313., II, 275; Davis and Durrie, 22' 233., p. 12. Z
i 11. Martin, Egg EEEEEEX.2£.LEEEEEEEE: p. 170; Monette, 23, 23:}, I, 276; f
; Gayarre, Louisiana, $25 Colonial History and Romance, p. 461; Wal- 1
g lace, 23, gl£., p. 288. ‘

 ~ 1" — 6 - '
The superior council functioned as a general court: rendering decisions I
in civil and criminal cases; receiving petitions and memorials, and is- ;
suing decrees thereon. It also authenticated and legalized contracts, V
mortgages, promissory notes, and any other written obligations incurred
and required to be met. At first the operations of this body were sim— ;
ple, the plaintiff making his pleas, the council deciding if the cause 3
was just, and if so, hearing the case and rendering the judgment. Late J
. er, the affairs of the council increased so that the attorney—general J
or his assistants were required to make preliminary investigations and i
decide whether the case should be brought before the council.1 Gradu-
. ally certain assessments and costs appeared in the records and litiga- ,
J tion was not free. Special attorneys appeared for the parties involved, '
~ and the tribunal, with its clerks, sheriffs and complex functionings J
I slowly came to resemble our present courts.2 The superior council con— J
J tinued to exercise the powers delegated to it until Spain took posses- i
‘ sion of Louisiana.3 It became necessary in August 1742 to enlarge the I
council, and four assessors were appointed by the Governor and the com— J
missary ordonnateur to serve for a term of four years. The assessors J
sat in rank after the councillors, but they voted only if a case was J
referred to them, or to complete a quorum, or if there was an equality ?
’ of votes.4 J
I , ,
J The early development of Missouri was largely due to the great im- J
J portanee the French placed upon the mineral wealth of the region.5 a
,J Years before the first permanent settlement was established in 1735, t
J the area now embraced in Missouri was traversed by Canadian-French mis- J
i Sionaries, hunters, explorers, miners and traders who were greatly im- 2
' J pressed by the salt, the lead, and the furs found there.§ The region ;
J extending for about 70 miles from the headwaters of the St. Francois g
3 River to the Meramec and westward from the Mississippi, between the Mer- ‘
J amec and Apple Creek was known as the mineral district of Louisiana.7 1
5 The Indians had mined lead, hematite, and iron ore which they used in J
J making implements and war paint. Steatite or soap stone was used for J
J making pipes and cooking utensils.8 In addition, copper, zinc, mangan- J
J ese, antimony, cobalt, arsenic, saltpeter, salt, nitre, plgmbago, and J
J small amounts of silver were later found by the white men. The French #
J made several exploring expeditions into the regions drained by the J
1. Chambers, 1;. History 9_f_ Louisiana, I, 152. ’
J 2. Ibid., I, 127 and 153. According to the historian, Henry chambers, J
J the records of the superior council are among the collections of the J
3 Louisiana Historical Society and are stored in the Cabildo at New J
J Orleans. J
J 3. Chambershfi History 3; Louisiana, I, 132. J
g 4. Martin, ghg_History 2f Louisiana, p. 179. n
J 5. Houck, §_§istory a: Missouri, I, 277 and 280; Violette, 2p. cit., J
3 . 10.
3 6. grancis J. Yeely, Sainte Genevieve, 232.§§3£X.9£.Ml§§22£1l§.9l19§£ ‘ J
J Settlement, p. 19; Floyd C. Shoemaker, £_History 22 Missouri and 2
E WES, pp. 39 and 45. J
J 7. Frederic A. Culmer, é.EEK.EE§EEEX.2£,EEEEBEEE2 p. 28. ;
J 8. Earl A. Collins and Albert A. Elsea, Missouri, EEE People and 133 J
J Progress, p. 43. J
; 9. Houck, §_History 22 Missouri, I, 274. J
~——_____ 4i,ii_i_iiiii iiiii__iiiiiiiiini___.____. “iiii_r 7i , ,,,,_..,i 1

 , - ‘11
' a
i' . - 7 - 5
E ,
1 Upper Mississippi and Missouri Rivers during the first decade of the i
' eighteenth century in their search for mines.1 Pierre Charles Le Sueur, }
a miner and mineralogist, was granted a commission in 1698 to mine and
to trade in furs in the Upper Mississippi Valley. He led an expedition 1
up the Mississippi in 1700. Penicaut, a member of the party who kept a 5
record of the journey, relates that they were informed by Indians at 3
, the mouth of the Meramec-sipy (the Merameo) about a mine of lead 150 ;
miles from there. In all probability he referred to the deposits of j
, minerals on the headwaters of the Negrg Fork. A few months later Father ;
Gravier told of the same rich deposit. The lead mines of southeast i
Missouri were well-known by 1700 and were being worked by the Canadian- 1
French of Illinois.3 3
The first white settlement in Missouri was founded about 1700 in q
' a Kaskaskia Indian mission near the mouth of the River des Peres by 3
Jesuit Missionaries. After 2 or 5 years the settlers removed to Illi— i
V nois.4 Penioaut told also of another temporary settlement in 1700 lo- [
sated at the mouth of the Saline River. These settlers were engaged l
in the making of salt.5 The government of France was not only inter-
! ested in the lead mines of Missouri, but also hoped that there were
5 rich silver mines in the district.6 Governor La Mothe Cadillac actu- ;
E ally visited the mines in southeastern Missouri in 1715, and Mine La i
5 Mothe or La Matte was probably named for him on account of that visit.
I The commandant of Cahokia also inspected the mines in 1719.7 During
E the time the Company of the Indies exercised jurisdiction over the af- f
; fairs of Louisiana, mining operations increased in Missouri, especially k
5 on the Merameo River, and the lead was sent to Illinois, Indiana, Can- ‘
[ ada, New Orleans, and even to France.8 The first official exploration 3
i was undertaken in 1719 when Du Tisne was sent to explore the country of §
i . the Missouris, Osages, and the Panoussas in order to establish friendly 3
l relationS' with the natives.9 Du Tisne ascended the Missouri to the 1
i village of the Missouri Indians near the mouth of the Gasconade but was i
! turned back by these Indians. Returning to the Illinois, he later
i ‘ traveled up Saline Greek to the Osage tribe on the Osage River. From 1
I _ there he went southwest to the Arkansas where he made an alliance with 3
i the Pawnees.10 Du Tisne fraternizod with the Indians, learned much a
} about the country, and opened a way across the Ozarks into western t
I , Missouri.11 1
g 1. James F. Ellis, lye Influence of Environment 2n_the Settlement of §
§ ‘ Missouri, p. 31. j
i 2 2. Yealy, 32, 232., p. 19; Houck, £_History of Missouri, I, 246-249. 3
g 3. Shoemaker, op, 233., p. 59. l
g 4. Yealy, pp, 313., p. 21; Houok, g History of Missouri, I, 242. g
g 5. Ellis, op. 213., pp. 50 f.; Violette, pp, 311., p. 8. p
1 6. Shoemaker, op. 213., p. 39; Houok, §_History of Missouri, I, 277. 5
Q 7 7. Yealy, 32; £33., 1:. 19; Bolton and Marshall, 31.1. 333., p. 282; i
1 Houck, A_History 2£_Missouri, I, 279 and 280. F
g 8. Shoemaker, 223 333., pp. 39 f.; Bolton and Mershall, op, 213., p. j
i 282.
1 9. Martin, The History of Louisiana, p. 133. E
t 10. Houck, £_History 2; Missouri, I, 255-258; Bolton and Marshall, on. a
g 213., p. 285; C.H. McClure, History of Missouri, p. 2. i
E 11. Shoemaker, pp. 233., p. 41. g
1 V

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2. River~ Des Peres 6. Prairie du i
I Settlement Rocher E
g 3 . Cahokia 7. Kaskaskia
4:. St. Philippe 8. Ste. Genevieve l
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Wch about a hundred men Pierre Boisbriant founded Fort chartres l
in 17201 and this village became the seat of government of Upper Lou- {
isiana. In 1722, Bienville ordered Boisbriant, commander of the 11- :
_ linois, to build a fort on the Missouri River to prevent any encroach- .
ment of the Spanish. An expedition led by Captain De Bourgmont or De ‘
Bourgmond, as he i3 sometimes called, was dispatched up the Missouri 3
to erect the fort. This fort was called Fort Orleans and was located 3
' on the Missouri River near Malta Bend.3 It was the first military post 1
in the Missouri Valley and was established not only for military pur- 1
» poses, but also as a center for trade, minerals, and explorations.4 De 9
Bourgmont made several explorations throughout western and southwestern f
Missouri in an effort to make treaties with the Indians. He reached l
i the mouth of the Kaw River, at the present site of Kansas City, pro- 4
ceeded some distance into what is now Kansas, and then southward. He ’ M
~ visited the Otos and the Iowas, and also the Padoucas in western Kansas. 7
He succeeded in making an alliance with the latter. The history of $
Fort Orleans was brief, for it was abandoned in 1726.5 i
. In 1723 Philip Francois Renault was appointed director-general of y
the mining interests of the Company of the Indies, and the Company of 3
St. Philippe was formed to carry on the mining operations in Upper Lou— H
, isiana. The earliest grants of land in what is now Missouri were given 1
E to Renault6 in the region of the "Marameig" or Meramec and of the Mine 1
I de M. La Moths. The grant on the Meramec was located on the "Negro ;
i Fork of the "Marameig" in the present'Washington County. Renault left
} France well-equipped for mining lead in Missouri, even to the bricks fi
é for the furnace. He sailed from France with about 200 miners and 15— g
' r borers, and upon his arrival at Santo Domingo, purchased 500 slaves. a
E These were the first Negro slaves to be taken into Missouri, and it g
l was thus slavery was introduced into the State.9 Renault‘s mines were fl
not actually on the Meramec but on Fourche B Renault or Renault's Fork |
of the Big River—--a tributary of the Meramec.lo Renault discovered ‘
~ , the mines around Potosi that bear his name.11 His headquarters were
9 in the Illinois Country, somewhere between Kaskaskia and Fort Char- 1
. tres.12 About 1744 Renault sold his holdings and returned to France, r
1. Smith, op. cit., p. 23. 'p
2-‘WqJ. thntgffu 223 Early Egplwest, 5 Narrative Outline, 1540-1850, i
3. McClure, 22. 222., p. 3; Yealy, 22, 213., p. 21. i
4. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S.J., "Fort Orleans of the Missoury," Missouri 3
Historical Review, xxxv, (April, 1941), 373. _s_§_o_ pages 375-384 for l
a complete account of the explorations of Bourgmond. L
. 5. McClure, 92- 2': 2. 3sv1199.22_t_2_22__2_2_2_.2 .
[ Schools, p. 14 , f
f 6. Lucien,.Carr, Missouri, A Bone 2E Contention, p. 24 “y . T 3
, ‘ 7. Houck, 5 History 23 Miggggpi, I, 281 and 282; Ellis, pp, 213., p.36. E
l 8. Bolton and Marshall, gp.‘git., p. 282; Houck, 5 History 3E Missouri, 3
g I, 282. i
3 9. Houck, Afiistopyo—fw, I, 282; Viles, 33. 9.1.2.: p. 13. 1
§ 10. Violette, pp, 213., p. 11; Collins and Elsea, EQEEEEEE: l£§.§222l2 %
. i 2E2.l§§ Progress, p. 44; Yealy, pp. cit., p. 22. l
g 11. Rozier, 3p. Eli" p. 29. ’
E 12. Ellis, 23. cit., p. 56. l
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together with most of his miners.1 . I
Across the river from Faskaskia in what is now Ste. "enevieve I
County, there were numerous saline springs.2 French settlers came to I
’ this part of Missouri for salt and to search for mineral wealth.3 Soon I
cabins were built and a fort was established.4 The settlement grew and I
became known as Sainte Genevieve. It was also called "misere," a name *
signifying poverty or misery.5 Founded about 1735, Ste. Cenevieve has i
the distinction of being the first permanent settlement in the country ;
now within the boundaries of Missouri.6 Ste. Genevieve was governed as I
part of the Illinois country, which was considered politically separate I
I from the Missouri River District while under the dominion of both France I
and Spain. Therefore, when a census was taken in 1744, there were 200 I
white settlers and 10 negro slaves in the Missouri District, but this ’
number did not include the inhabitants of Ste. Genevieve.7 I
At first the ore from the lead mines of Missouri was taken on pack i
horses to Ste. Genevieve; later, it was carried in two—wheeled French I
. : carts. From Ste. Genevieve, the land was taken to Fort Chartres, the I
I seat of government, to await shipment to New Orleans.8 The pack trains ”
followed the most natural or convenient way from Ste. Genevieve to the '
mines, and a pioneer trace or path developed. Travel increased and a 5
road was formed that later became the oldest wagon road in the State. S
This road is still used as a public highway from the mines to the Nis— t
sissippi.9 ‘
I As stated before, Spain acquired the land west of the Mississippi - I
I in 1762, but failed to assume control of colonial affairs until 1769.10 I
.I Hence, despite the fact that this region was actually a Spanish posses— I
I sion, French authorities at New Orleans granted the firm of Maxent, La- I
clede and Company, or the Louisana Fur Company, exclusive rights for 8
I years "to trade with the Indians of the Missouri and those west of the 1
Mississippi above the Missouri, as far north as the river St. Peters."11
Paving learned of the cession of the Illinois country east of the Mis-
sissippi to England, the French were desirous of i