xt7rn872zk5h https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7rn872zk5h/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1934-07 volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), vol. II, no. 5, July 1934 text Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), vol. II, no. 5, July 1934 1934 1934-07 2021 true xt7rn872zk5h section xt7rn872zk5h ILLS} Commonwealth of Kentucky 0






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“The Outlook for 19534—35" by . ‘5'”
James H. Richmond, Superintendent Public Instruction ........................ 2
“The Status of Financial Support for Kentucky Schools" by ‘ ‘1‘
R. K. Salyers, Executive Secretary Interpretation Committee ............ 3 m "l I,
“What the New School Code Means to the Classroom Teacher” by Lin! 7'
W. P. King, Secretary K. E. A 7 1"”; I,
“Tests for the School Library” by ' ‘
Ruth Theobald, Director of Public School Library service .................... 10
“Defective School Administration Penalizes Pupils, Teachers, and Tax-
payers” by "'
W. C. Bell, Director Public Relations 11

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Published by


Superintendent of Public Instruction







Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

Vol. II a July, 1934 0 No.5








'THE‘ OUTLOOK FOR 1934-35 5'

Superintendent Public Instruction

- A year ago‘we were ‘just going into what many of us thought
would be one of the darkest years in Kentucky’s School history. Time
revealed this prediction to be correct for, indeed, the year 1933-34 will
long be remembered as the low mark of the educational crisis in our
state. Much has happened, however, during the past six months to
encourage us. In fact, probably no other state is in as good a position
today as Kentucky to begin the necessary reconstruction to put edu<
cation and the rights of the children on a firmer foundation. We
have weathered the storm. A firm legal basis and a reasonably ade-
quate financial basis for the next two years have been provided for
our public schools. No other state can boast as much constructive
school legislation, in recent years, as was enacted by our 1934 Gen-
eral Assembly in regular and special sessions.

We face the new year with hope and optimism, whereas the legiS-
latures of practically all of our sister states will be concerned with
fundamental school reorganization and schoolk finance problems this
year. Kentucky has blazed the trail for educational reconstruction.
Requests concerning our school reorganization program have come
from practically every state.

Our schools face the future relatively free from debt, and it is to
the lasting credit of our school administrators that school debts have
actually decreased during the past few years.

The increase of the Common School Fund makes possible the-best
opportunity we have had for equalizing educational opportunitlesy
though it is quite true that we should redouble our'efforts for a speCIal
equalizing fund. A special equalizing fund with an $18 01‘ $20 per
capita would go a long way toward affording the schools the measure
of financial support to which they are entitled.

While it appears from present indications that some five and 0116-
half million dollars less money will be spent on education in Kentucky
this year than was spent in 1930-31, many of the poorer districts,
where the need is greatest, will have more money than they had 111
1930-31. The teachers in these poorer districts will come nearer to
receiving a living wage than they have in recent years but many Oi
them will still receive salaries ranging between forty-five and SIXtY
dollars a month for seven months.

We have made great progress within the past year. We £ace a
new day for our children; but much remains to be done. We have
shown the value of cooperation through our united support of_ the
Kentucky Educational Commission and the Interpretation Committee
of the Kentucky Education Association. It is our responsibility now‘
through similar cooperative activities, to hold our gains and t0_00n‘
tinue to go forward. Only in this way can we insure the educational
rights of every child in our Commonwealth.





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Executive Secretary, Interpretation Committee of K. E. A.

In the budget bill enacted at the 1934 special session of the Gen-
eral Assembly and signed by the Governor, there is appropriated to
the Common School Fund the sum of $8,367,500 for each of the years
1934-35 and 1935-36. This will make possible a per capita of approxi-
mately $11.60 for 1934-35. The per capita may be slightly less during
1935-36 because of an expected increase in the school census.

The budget bill also provides for a further appropriation of $785,-
000 to pay the salaries due teachers under the invalidated Equaliza-
tion Fund Act. In the event this is declared unconstitutional, one-
half of the sum will go into the Common School Fund during 1934-35
and the other half during 1935-36, thus making possible a per capita
of about $12 for each year. I

In its report, the Kentucky Educational Commission analyzed
Kentucky’s system of financing public education and stated that “the
Qommon School Fund must provide for a larger per capita distribu-
tion; otherwise thousands of children will neverkhave the advantage of
an acceptable minimum program of education nor can vast numbers
of teachers be paid a living wage.” The Department of Education,
the Kentucky Education Association and other organizations asked
the General Assembly to provide a per capita of $12 during each of
the next two years in order that Kentucky schools might provide the
servme which the public has a right to expect. This request was based
on a complete and careful study of the situation but since the per
caplta had never been more than $10.25, and last year was only $6,
many persons were led to believe that in recommending a $12 per
caplta, school leaders were asking for more revenue than has ever been
devoted to the public school system.

Two-thirds of the children of school age in Kentucky reside in
the 120 county school districts. Recently a study was made to deter-
mine what a $12 per capita would mean to these districts in terms of
finanmal support for 1934-35 as compared with previous years. In-
f0I'mation was compiled from the Biennial Reports of the Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction for 1930-31 and 1931-32, and from
county budgets for 1930-31, 11931-32 and l933-34fl Estimated rev-
enues for'1934-35 were based on the 1933-34 local funds and school
09113115; and a per capita of $12. The results of this study show the
WlSdOIIl of the General Assembly in increasing the state per capita
to approximately this sum.

Seventy-six counties would have less money available during the
present year With a $12 per capita than they had in 1930-31 with a

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per capita of $8.75. Forty—six counties would have less money than
they had m 1931-32.

This situation has been brought about by a sharp decrease in as-
sessed valuation of local property taxable for school purposes and by
mounting tax delinquencies in the various districts. It is a well
known fact that assessments have declined in all parts of the state but
few persons realize how rapid this decline has been. Reductions in
assessments of real estate in the various counties during the period
from 1930-31 to 1933-34 have ranged from a small percentage in a few

. counties ,tg ore than fifty per cent in otherQ This has resulted in a

correspo‘nt 111g decrease in the local revenue. In Hopkins County, for
example, the assessed valuation of local property dropped from ap-
proximately $13,000,000 in 1930-31 to approximately $6,500,000 in
1933-34, a reduction of fifty per cent. The assessed valuation of Bour-
bon County declined from $23,600,000 in 1930-31 to $15,000,000 in
1933-34. In Bell County, the assessed valuation was $6,000,000 in
1930-31 and $3,500,000 in 1933-34. The situation in these counties
located in Western, Central, and Eastern Kentucky, respectively, ex-
isted to a greater or less degree in practically every county,i‘, the
state, with the result that local school revenues steadily declined, even
though the tax rates in most counties were maintained or increase

This shrinkage in the ability of the various county districts to
support their educational programs made imperative an increased
contribution by the state if school doors were to be kept open.

For the state as a whole, the $12 per capita, supplemented by
local taxation, would result in a total revenue for the common schools
of approximately $20,400,000, which is approximately $5,500,000 less
than was available during the school year 1930-31. Even during that
year, Kentucky stood fortieth among the states in combined educa-
tional ranking, forty-first in average teachers’ salaries, and forty-
seventh in value of school property.

It must be remembered, moreover, that in comparing the cost 0f
education in a district over a period of years, figures showing the total
funds available do not tell the Whole story. In most of the districts,
While revenue from local taxation was falling off and while the state
per capita was declining by one—third, the school census was increas-
ing, thus making available fewer dollars for the education of each
child. ‘ 1

It can be seen readily that an increase in the per capita was
needed to offset partially the reduction in local revenues. PerhaPS
the most important result of the increase in the state per capita, hOW-
ever, is not its effect upon the total sum available for education in the
state but rather its tendency to smooth out inequalities in educatlonal

In the report of the Educational Commission, charts were pre-
sented to show that even though the total expenditures remained the
same, an increase in the contribution made by the state and a cor-



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responding decrease in local revenues result in equalizing opportuni-
ties and in raising the level of the educational program. With the
$12 per capita, 44 counties would have more money for schools during
the present year than they had in 1930-31, and 74 counties would
have more than they had in 1931-32. Almost without exception, how-
ever, those counties which will enjoy substantial increases in revenue
are the ones which even during the most prosperous periods have been
unable to maintain an adequate educational program. During the
present year, no county district will have available less than approxi-
mately $15 per child, whereas in the comparatively prosperous year
of 1930-31, some districts had only $13 per child, and last year some
had as little as $9 per child.

The importance of an increased state per capita as an equalizing
factor is shown when comparisons are made of financial support in
the various counties. A single illustration will suffice. During 1933-
34, the minimum levy of 25c produced in Woodford County
about $34 per child in local revenue while the maximum rate of 75c
produced in Wolfe County/about $3 per child—a ratio of 11 to 1. For
the present year, with {per capita of $12, \Voodford County would
have about $46 per child while Wolfe County would have $15—a ratio
of only 3 to 1. From the facts compiled in this study of the county
districts, which have been mimeographed and sent to school adminis-
trators, certain definite conclusions may be drawn.

1. Even with a $12 per capita, nearly two-thirds of the counties would
have less for education than they had in 1930-31, while more than one»
third. would have less than was available in 1931-32.

2. Those counties which will enjoy substantial increases in the total funds
available-for school purposes are. those which, even during prosperous
years, have been unable to finance an acceptable minimum school pro-
gram. The $12 per capita would, therefore, tend to equalize educational
opportunities throughout the state.

3- A larger contribution by the state has been made necessary by (a)
rapidly decreasing assessments, (b) mounting tax delinquencies, (c) the
Inability of one-third of our counties to finance an adequate educational

grogram, and (d) a steady increase in the number of children of school

ge. '

During the past few months no has been done to inform the
public of the school situation and 0be the need for increased state sup-
Port. The constructive legislation enacted by the 1934 General As-
sembly, during the regular and special sessions, is a result of this in-
creased interest on the part of the people.

The increase in the per capita to approximately $12 is an im-
lJOrtant step forward in providing an adequate system of financial
supp0rt for Kentucky schools. As soon as the need for relief funds
becomes less urgent, the per capita should be increased to $16 or more;
Indeed, one eminent national authority on school finance has stated
that a $20 per capita in Kentucky would be highly desirable and
Would not be excessive.


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It is imperative, therefore, that the people be given an opportu-
nity during the next two years to become familiar with the reasons for
and the advantages of, a $12 per capita. Superintendents, board
members, and teachers should study again the material in Chapter
10 of the Report of the Educational Commission and also the N ooem-
ber, 1933 issue of the Educational Bulletin (Volume I, No. .9.) They
should likewise become familiar with the figures on the local situation
and especially the funds available during the present year as com-
pared avgith previous years. Armed with these facts and figures, they
can go to the people of their communities and show them that, While
the $12 per capita was neeessary to preserve the schools during the
present emergency, it is likewise an important step toward a satisfac-
tory and up-to-date system of state school support.



Executive Secretary, Kentucky Education Association

The new School Code simplifies, unifies, and clarifies the laws
which are the basis of the whole school system. It makes possible better

schools, more efficiently and economically operated. Since it benefits '

the whole educational system of Kentucky, it benefits all who are a
part of it.

It is advantageous to the children for whom the schools are main-
tained, to the taxpayer who must pay for the schools, and to the super—
intendents and teachers who must operate them. It will therefore
tend to bring about a better understanding and a more sympathetic
attitude on the part of the public toward the schools.

There is set up a State Board of Education to be composed ulti-
mately of seven laymen and the Superintendent of Public Instruction
as chairman. This State Board has under its jurisdiction, the man-
agement and control of the common schools. Formerly many minor
points concerning the administration of the schools were fixed by stat—
ute; these could only be changed every two years and were therefore
not up-to-date and sometimes were not based on the best educational

The new Code sets up the framework and empowers the State
Board of Education to issue rules and regulations concerning these
minor points. This tends to keep administrative practices up-to-date
and brings about a certain amount of flexibility in the school organi—

The Code provides for two types of districts—county districts
and independent districts, both having practically the same type of
organization and governed by the same regulations. Many points
of the new law with respect to district organization have been revised
so as to afford greater protection to the teaching personnel.

Although in the county districts there is still one sub~district trus-
tee who is vested with authority to recommend a teacher, many re-
strictions have been imposed which will tend to protect worthy teach-
ers from many of the unfair and unethical practices which were so
prevalent under the old system.

The county board of education is given authority to change the
boundaries of sub-districts or to discontinue sub-districts or transfer
children so that it will be possible to reorganize many county systems
and give a better distribution of the teaching load.

The new financial system, inaugurated by the State Department
of Education together with provision in the Code relating to the col-
lection and management of school funds will tend to promote better




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business practices and help teachers to receive their salaries when due.

Strict supervision of budgets will help to correct the expenditure of
funds in excess of income which frequently results in the necessity
of withholding teachers’ salaries.

Under the Code, the Superintendent of Public Instruction has
supervision of specifications for the erection and remodeling of school
buildings. This should result in much better housing for pupils and
do away with many ill—designed and carelessly built schools. A prop-
erly designed, comfortable school makes teaching easier and saves the
health of both teacher and pupils.

There is one phase of the new Code which has received little pub-
licity but which is of great significance to the classroom teacher. That
is the section referring to compulsory attendance.

The new Code not only clarifies and “tightens up” the compul-
sory attendance laws thus eliminating disputes as to the responsibil-
ity of the parent and the teacher, but it also provides for the employ-
ment of attendance officers by the various districts. These attendance
officers are not to be thought of as the old time “truant officer” but
are to be the connecting link between the school and the home. These
officers will assist teachers in properly maintaining their pupil record,
will investigate cause of non—attendance, and seek to remove the cause.
If there is proper cooperation between the attendance officer and the
teacher this provision of the new Code will do much to eliminate some
of the most troublesome problems which face the teacher.

The new Code protects the teacher in her job by setting up higher
standards for the certification of school employees. Many who make
teaching their life work fail to realize how essential it is to protect
a profession from those who seek to use it for temporary gain. Pro-
fessions such as medicine, dentistry, and law recognized long ago the
need of highest standards both for the protection of the public and 0f
the profession, and have established rigid training requirements.
When teachers realize that the difficulty in securing training to meet
high standards is of little importance when compared with the pro-
tection afforded the children, the public, and the teacher, they will
gladly accept and vigorously work for these higher standards.

“Then the certification section of the new Code goes into effect
September 1, 1935, the lowest type certification will be based on a
curriculum of two years of training in a standard college or Univer—
sity and each certificate must show, on its face, the curriculum the
holder has completed for its issuance. Certainly two years is little
enough time to spend in preparing for the high calling of teaching.
The higher teaching standards are set, the more difficult it will be for
incompetent persons to secure teaching positions through favoritism
and political manipulation.

Article 8 of the new School Code refers directly to the duties and
responsibilities of teachers and every teacher should secure a COPY
of the new law and read this section. It requires that certificates Shall



 be filed, compels teachers to enforce the course of study, gives them
authority over pupils’ conduct and requires them to keep adequate
records and make such reports as may be necessary. It also provides
a penalty for abuse of the teacher by parent or guardian, exempts
them from jury service and provides that the salary of any teacher
or other school employee shall not be subject to any action of attach-
ment or garnishment. '

Teachers are vitally concerned with the creation of the Council
on Public Higher Education provided for in the Code. This Council
will coordinate the work and determine the curricula offerings of: the
five public institutions of higher learning in Kentucky and will thus
bring about standardization with respect to teacher training.

Of no little importance to teachers is that section of the Code

. which provides: that the minimum school term shall be not less than

seven months and may be extended by the Superintendent of Public
Instruction, upon approval of the State Board of Education, to eight,
nine, or ten months when financial resources are available.

The Code also provides that no part of the common school fund
shall be used for any other purpose than the payment of‘ teachers of
the common schools. It provides further that each school district shall
pay its teachers according to a salary schedule which shall include
training, quality of service, experience and such other items as the
State Board of Education may approve. All the state per capita and
one-half of the revenue received from local taxation are to be used for
the payment of the teachers’ salaries until a minimum of $75 per
month has been reached.

The School Code does not contain any revenue measure but the
special session of the General Assembly has enacted school legislation
of vast importance to Kentucky teachers. In the Budget Bill it in-
cluded an appropriation sufficient to provide for a per capita of about
$11.60 and also appropriated some $750,000 to pay the money due
teachers under the old Equalization Act. In the event this is declared
unconstitutional, this money will revert to the common school fund
and still further increase the per capita. The legislature also ap-
PI‘Opriated $500,000 annually for the purchase of textbooks.

The legislation enacted during the regular and special sessions
of the General Assembly has advanced Kentucky schools a generation,
The new Code is a great advance but it must be continually improved,
and, above all, must be interpreted to the public. If Kentucky teach-
ers will do their best to adjust their schools to the workings of the
Code and to adjust the thinking of their respective communities to
modern educational practices, they will be working in the interest of
the children which is their first obligation, in the interest of the public
which is their second obligation, and, at the same time, will be protect-
mg their own interests.


















11 1 Director of Public School Library Service 1 0f-
ll ; .. 3 1 1. Is your librarian technically trained for her work? I tar
E1 1 2. Is she a good library housekeeper? i SUI
11 3. Does she cooperate with other library agencies? em
:‘1 1 1 4. Do your pupils enjoy using the library? Is the room so inviting that they { 8111
I? . ‘ _( wish to come again? _ cie
‘ 5. Do your pupils use the public library, if there is one in the community? ? erg
11 6. What is the present condition of your school library collection? 1 a
1;? a. Do some books need mending? 1 p. ‘
l . w b. Do some books need discarding? SIV
i} ‘ c. Do some books discarded need replacing? | ~cI‘1
1 d. Is a list of books which should be replaced being kept? l 1m

7. Is there a balanced collection for each grade in the elementary school ‘ >re‘
(e. g. History, geography, nature, science, health, civics, poetry, biog— l
raphy, art, music, etc.) ? ac
8 Is there a balanced collection for each subject in the high school? eq
1 9. 1s each title for prospective purchase selected because it is good for 19
‘ ‘ ‘ some purpose or merely because it may be a good book? 1

‘ 1 1, 10. Is there a standard Accession Record for the elementary and high (
‘ 1 1 school books separately? I
1 ' 11. Have the hooks been classified by the Dewey Decimal System and (2
marked? ‘ .
} 12. Is there a card shelf list or a card author list of all the school library ' (i
3 books? 1

. 13. Is each book which is to he leaned equipped with a pocket and card? ,
. é , Is the card with the borrower’s name on it retained at the school when 1 1
’ the book is loaned? 0:
14. Do you keep a record of the circulation of the library books (the num- L 0
her of times each is loaned), so that you have accurate information 0011- d
cerning the home use of your library? 5
z '1. “The library is the universal laboratory of the school. It is the s
l ‘ gateway to the heritage of the past; it provides the horizon for the I a
. future. A school, if it is to guide those who enter its doors, must be . ‘
built about the library. It is the one minimum essential for learning- ! C
It is necessary; therefore, as we plan for educational development, to ' C
give much greater attention than heretofore to the growth and etfec- g
tiveness of the school library. A school without a library is as a river 1
bed without running water.” 1 (

State Commissioner of Education, Tennessee.








Director Public Relations

An article of the same title appeared in the Educational Bulletin
of April, 1934:. It revealed, by analysis of enrollment in the elemen-
tary schools, reported in the early part of the school year by 60 county
superintendents, amazing unfairness to pupils, teachers, and taxpay—
ers—the product of defective school administration. It is very appar-
ent from the analysis of information given in this article that the effi-
ciency of pupil activities, teacher service, and school service in gen-
eral, including the disbursement of school finances, is seriously im-
paired—that defective school administration is responsible for exces-
sive pupil costs in many elementary schools and for seriously over-
crowded conditions in many other elementary schools. Due to these
undesirable situations, it is very doubtful if the teaching service was

=rendered efficiently or if pupils participated in study or recitation

activities in most desirable ways. It is concluded necessarily that in-

equitable or unfair teacher loads in the elementary schools during

1933-34 resulted in—

(1) Unfairness to pupils, dissipating their activities, rendering educational
opportunities unequal;

(2) Unfairness to teachers, impairing eifectiveness of service—some en-
rolled 15, 20, 25 or 30 pupils, others 50, 6‘0, 70 or even more;

(3) Unfairness in disbursement of school funds—some teachers Were paid
30, 35 or 40 dollars per month, others 50, 60, 75 dollars or more.

The general conclusions from this article are that the interests
of thousands of elementary pupils are jeopardized in overcrowded
classes, that practically impossible situations are imposed upon hun-
dreds of teachers, and that the legality of the expenditure of public
School funds is challenged by the maintenance of hundreds of under-
slzed or overcrowded classes. Defective school administration invites
a challenge of the earnestness of purpose and the efficiency of service
of the State Board of Education, of district boards of education, and
0f superintendents, principals, and teachers. Unsatisfactory results
gI'OWing out of such administration cheapen the entire public school
Program, invite adverse criticism—even from the friends of public
education—seriously retard efforts to raise public school funds, and
Complicate plans to further the best interests and promote the general
welfare of the public schools.

The many situations revealed whereby pupils, teachers or tax-
payers, or all, are penalized, constitute indisputable reasons Why
county boards of education should readjust the boundaries of their
Subdlstricts, give more deliberate attention to the development of their
educational program, and mature a policy of administration that
Macks less of expediency and more of response to official duties.






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in Article—“Defective School Administration Penalizes Pupils, Teachers, and Taxpayers"—
Department of Education Bulletin, April, 1934
Range of Enrollment
1—34 35—49 50—59 60—....
No of . . . .
County Puplls Pupxls Pup1ls Puplls
School Enrolled Enrolled Enrolled |
Districts w m U, U,
‘5 £3 83 '5 5 £3 23 ’5 $3 23 3 $2 ,
‘8—3 9 2 ‘83 e 93 “5+3 6 a "53 +2 :2 ‘
. ,3 E a: . c3 :1 cu . a £1 a) . :3 C: a: l
O a) 5 > 9 q) 5 > O a) :3 > O (D :5 >
ZE Z <1 ZE-l Z <1 Z8 Z <1 Z6 Z <1 1
One Teacher Schools .
1,461 36,901 25 976 39,937 41 267 14,270 53 100 6,734 67
Two or More Teacher Schools
l I
854 23,274 27 969 40,126 41 4' 291 15,504 53 100 6,628 66
I l
—— —— ——— —— | | —— —— J —— ~
Totals for [ 1
60 County | ’
Sch. Dists. 2,315 60,175 26 1,945 | 810,063 558 29,774 53 2030 13,382 67
| | l
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._,. +7 .-, r—FH .—+ ant/1:: Aradtw—F’dfi‘ngg g" 6 S‘w<fi®$
a wathfiER 5,223:ch °‘<53§$§§§-afi°fi was: stsseze
'20 1§§?§§§§§g§2123§?§f~;§ g ,2 g 3% §§%=%£7 (2‘35 w 8W3: 331% 5m :3":



Inequitable or unfair distribution of pupils among teachers of the
elementary schools is readily seen by reference to this table. ‘It ap—
pears that each of the 2,315 teachers who enrolled from “1 to 34”
pupils, a total of 60,175, was responsible for the instruction of an
average of 26 pupils. This means that each of 1,000 or more of the
2,315 teachers had fewer than 26 pupils; in fact, each of 600 of them
enrolled fewer than 20 pupils.

It also appears from this table that each of 1,945 teachers en-
rolled from “35 to 49” pupils, or an average of 41. This group of
1,945 teachers enrolled a total of 80,063 pupils, or approximately
20,000 more than were enrolled by 2,315 teachers (370 more teachers).

Practically impossible situations arose in many sehoolrooms be-
cause of overcrowded conditions. These situations confronted 758
teachers, who enrolled 43,136 pupils. an average of approximately 57
each. Necessarily, the results of schoolroom work were seriously im-
paired. Early in the school term, teachers despaired of approaching
ideals set up at the beginning of the school. The activities of the
pupils Were dissipated; they concluded that they had a “poor”
teacher, and either withdrew or attended irregularly. Defective
school administration thus is responsible for taxpayers being severely
penalized because of the continuance of many hundreds of undersized
classes, while 43,136 pupils and 758 teachers were severely penalized
by having to work in rooms where 50 to 96 pupils, or an average of 57
to each of the 758 teachers, were enrolled.

The article in the Educational Bulletin of April, 1934, was based
upon information carefully tabulated from the reports of 60 county
superintendents. It may be predicted safely that a like analysis of
the same type of information concerning the 60 remaining counties
would disclose many similar situations. The impossible situations in

. The county elementary schools challenge the most earnest consideration

.0 . . .

(u the school officrals; such consrderation would assure the develop-
ment of a more consistent administrative program and a more prac