conditions than any other area of like dimensions on the known globe. A circle of the same radius, with Chicago for
a center, must include many thousand square miles of Lake surface and much land unavailable for agricultural purposes.
Advantages of central location in a given area may be, in a measure, counterbalanced by railways, and Chicago has been
made a great city because railway lines were forced to pass through that city to flank Lake Michigan. But at the rate
at which the railway system of Louisville has been increasing during the past seven years she will soon possess every
artificial advantage of that character, besides possessing communication with thirty-two navigable rivers and having the
richest and most varied territory in America to furnish supplies and create demand. The perfecting of the railway sys-
tem of the whole country will balance constructive advantages leaving those of nature to preponderate in favor of the
cities possessing them.
    Professor John R. Procter, for many years Director of the Geological Survey, and who has devoted years to attract-
ing the attention of capitalists to the incalculable value of the iron ores in the field of which the Cranberry mines of
North Carolina are the cell-
ter, andl to the almost limit-
less deposits of coking coal
in south-eastern Kentucky,
commenting upon the area
described about Louisville,
says:
    " It already contains a
larger population than any
other circle of like area in
the United States, and it is
destined to contain the bulk
of the population of the
greatest empire that has yet        C                                                              A
existed in the world. The
influence of p iys i calI feat-
ures in population is well
shown by the charts and
tables prepared by the last
United States census. These m  w
charts show temperature,
rainfall, etc.; and in connec-                -
tion with the tables the fol-
lowing facts: That the great-                   g
est absolute gain in popula-
tion during the last decade
was made in the region hay-
ing a mean annual tempera-
ture Of from 500 to 550. and
that the circle described  
above is nearly all of this
mean annual temperature.                 '  
That over 12,ooo,o0o people                 1  
reside upon the area where
the annual rainfall is from
forty-five inches to fifty inch-
es, or a larger population                            '4   H'
than on any of the divisions  
niade according to rainfall,                                                             N'
and that the above is the4                                                                   '
rainfall of the circle under             '  
consideration.  The same  
favorable indications are            \"       '-
shown on the charts of ele-                                 -
vation above sea, minimum           -
and maximum temperature,       '
etc. Thus soil, climate, and                                         '
all physical conditions point
to a future dense population
in the region of which Louis-
ville is the center. The cen-                     LOVISVIXXXl BOARLD OV TRADE ait Iaxc(
ter of population of the
United States has been moving westward each decade along the degree of latitude a little north of I ouisville. The
census of i88o brought it nearer Louisville, and the great movement of population southward will keep it on the hat-
itude of and near Louisville for many years. In i88o, almost one-half of the population of the U1.nited States resided
in the region drained by the Mississippi river and its tributaries. And in x8go probably more than one-half of the

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