xt7rxw47sx50 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7rxw47sx50/data/mets.xml Lexington, KY Pride Community Services Organization 198611 This collection contains newsletters produced by the Lexington, Kentucky based Pride Community Services Organization. Included are publications from the organization through multiple name changes, such as LinQ magazine (July 2013-2016); the GLSO (Gay and Lesbian Services Organization) News (August 1986-June 2013); the GSO (Gay Services Organization) newsletter (1979-July 1986). Accession number 2016ms055. newsletters  English Pride Community Services Organization Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Pride Community Services Organization publications LGBTQ community--Kentucky LGBTQ culture LGBTQ newspapers Gay men Lesbians Bisexual people Transgender people Sexual minorities Gender identity Drag culture GLSO News, November 1986 text GLSO News, November 1986 1986 2019 true xt7rxw47sx50 section xt7rxw47sx50 LEXINGTON GAY/LESBIAN SERVICES ORGANIZATION P.O. BOX‘11471 LEXINGTON, KY 40575
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 (Editor's Note: The following is the second of a sunlgeSts “EL they were “'51“le moral in intention and
three-part series that is being presenteg to remin- our rarely applied in their full rigor. In the one hundred
comnuhity of the darker side of our heritage. It has and eighty pages of his erudite study, Bailey does not
been said that "history repeats itself." We can think of mention on: execution. Clearly, Bailey, who writes as an
no other minority whose "low profile" and "division Anglican theologian, wants to think well of the Church,
amongst itself" makes it most susceptible to a repitition ano wants to soften the reaction that any reader,
of the historical eVents and attitudes herein straight or gay, might have to the harshness of
chronicled.) traditional Christian legislation. For many years,

lulled by Bailey‘s optimism, I imagined he was right. I

GAY WIDE: was first jolted out of my complacency by Thomas Szasz's A-—
From leviticus to Hitler refere..ce to Henry Charles Lea's treatment of the HUDjL'Ct
by n is His orv_ o§___the Ingtidition of SEin. Lea's
IDLLLS Cronpton monumental work turned out to have what no omer standard
(Hart 2 of 3) history knom to me contains — a factual account of
actual judicial treatment 0." honosexuals during a

What of the United States? To what extent were gay 300—year perioo in a major European country. According
people subject to the death penalty in the American to Lea, Pope Nicholas V empowered the Inquisition in
colonies? Copies of early American colonial codes are 5931“ to 0331 With honosexuality as early as 1451- 1“
obscure and hard to come by. To date, I have seen 1506, an Inguisitorial tribunal held an investigation in
nothing about this subject in any book on honosexuality. Seville. There were many arrests and many fugitives and,
In 1641, however, Massachusetts Bay colony promulgated in the end, twelve men were convicted and burned. In
its famous "Body of Laws and Liberties," the prototype 1519, (the) plague oroke out in Valencia. A friar blamed
for much later Puritan legislation. Among the twelve it on God's wrath against homosexuals (Em: sound
capital crimes -— which include idolatry, witchcraft, and familiar?) . A mob seized four men, who were tried and
blasphemy —— is lovemaking between men. The language, burned; a fifth was burned without any formalities. In
however, is not that of English law, that is, of Henry 1562. Pope Pius IV gave the Portuguese Inquisition POWEI
VIII‘s statute of 1533. Instead, the Puritans go "back to act in homosexual cases; at first, only under
to the Bible" with a vengeance, and actually legislate municipal procedures; later, under the "process for
Ieviticus verbatim: "If any man lyeth with mankinde, as heresy." In Catalonia in 1597, about a quarter of the
he lyeth with a woeman,both of them have comni ted cases tried by the Inquisition were for sodomy. In the
abhomination, they .oth shall surely be r)ut to death ” period (from) 1598 to 1602, twenty-seven homosecuals
(m. note: Wou dn't Jerry and Pat and Jimmy just loooove suffered in "autos de fe" -— "acts of faith." In all,
to do that?!?) So, with language 2200 years old, Lea lists several dozen burnings and more than one
America's first settlers condemned their gay sons to hunzired other cases.
death and, .m the case Of? 1656 New HAven Sumteflthe'}? Information about France proved more Uifficult to come I
lesbian daughters. This Old Testament formu 1" w“ by since there is a complete break in the French 1 al
adopted by the colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, tradition with the appearance of the Na leonic Code egnd
New Hampshire, New York,New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. later 1 11 histories consecuentl infigre the tt
Only the Quakers revolteo ant showed a :romeniaary flash Howeveregthe Traite d l . Jt' Y .3. 11 f ma gri
of Christianity. In 1682, William Penn's reform coue Jousse ’ .fiiww O Danie
_ . . ,, . _ , published in 1771, lists nine executions,
“Baum the penalty for same-sex re}'°‘tlm.ls to 51‘X-Imnms including the case of a Rector of the University of Paris
”PP-50mg“? But, 1“ 1700' Fennsylvania ’re—introduced who was hanged in front of the Louvre in 1584. Others
capital punishment for 5°d°mY 1“ the case or DIdes “‘1' were burned alive; the comnon sentence was to be 'brule
eighteen years later, under English pressure, for all vif avec son proces' -— "burned alive with his trial
“enfi After the Revolution, Pennsylvania led the way 1“ record." Another French jurist of the same period,
abolishing the death penaltyan 1786 and other states Muyart de Vouglans wrote in 1757, "the penalty for so
began to followats exanple'ih the We“: decade. - _ great a crime cannot be less than death. The terrible

On the ““2510“ Of the $1Cent6m1a1 0f the Declaration vengeance which divine justice exacted of the impious
0f Independence, most ”Hi-331:5 were acutely consc1ous 0f cities where this crime was common is enough to show that
“'19 fact that the right to liberty and the pursuit if one cannot punish it with penalties too rigorous. This
happiness did Wt extend to black slaves 1“ 1776' BUt' penalty is set forth expressly in the 20th chapter of
how many people are aware thétr two hundred years ago, Leviticus in these terms: 'If a man lieth with a man,
the law in all the ““31?le colonies . denied the etc. "' Muyart calls it a "shave for our century" that two
hamsexual an even more baSIC right: the right t0 1156 men had been burned in Paris in 1750 —s the "511,419"
itself? , being, not the burning, but that homosexuals still

This should be ample to suggest the reign of terror existed to merit this fate. Here, I might mention that
gay people faced in Europe and America for almost a both Jousse and Muyart state emphatically that women who
millenium and a half (Ed. - that s 1500 years). The have relations with wonen are also liable to the death
consequent delmralization, the isolation, the lack of penalty. One modern French writer mentions an account,
community and common .mlture can be im.gined: we are by the Renaissance jurist Farinacci, of the execution of
only begin ing to overcome these effects now (Ed. - and a nunber of women in Rome and Montaigne gives an account
the hysteria over AIDS, without proper education, can set of the hanging of a lesbian in 1580.
us back hundreds of years). Officially, all Christian In one country at least, systematic executions of gay
states were genocidal. In theory, at least, the status men actually continued into the nineteenth century, and
of a homosexual was even worse than that of a Jew or are recorded in government statistical tables. This was
heretic. Not all Christian countries condemned Jews to England. There are several famous instances of the death
death or exile, and a convicted heretic could escape the penalty being inflicted in England in the seventeenth
names by recanting. century. The most amazing document is a pamphlet on the

But, were gay people actually sentenced to death and last days of an Anglican bishop who was hanged in the
killed under these laws? The standard work on the streets of Dublin in 1641. How many men died in the
history of such legislation is Derrick Bailey's eighteenth century I do not know, though I am aware of at
modality and the Western Christian Tradition. In least half e. dozen cases. But there is a shocking
this book, published in 1955, Bailey notes the severity record, contained in the annual Parlianentary tables on
of the laws passed under Christian influence, but ne Criminal Offenders of more than fifty hangings from 1806

.t RAINIXM Report
:1 Well, folks, six Weeks into the season and the
-, st?r1xllir.gs ii. the liairlluvtlymlling leaguefare begitnning Tlto
I re. cct Lik'Vk‘lu 0 use y— 0113 xt alt es or p051 ion. 18
f [1611) 1 IS Help 0th61‘S! !! zirsi— and second—“lane tennis, Spare He & Alley Cats,
I 1.1:": each won 17 out: of 24 games (for a 70% win
5 _____ __ N» uutiuge...nol badl). Spare He does lead Alley Cats in
ft (h: total Lulhuer of pins knocked/lucked/wished/Lirayed
s no.».1....js anyone- snip-Limo? ‘l‘ney (Bill, Shelby, and
u Davlu) lulV'c’ usually been the leaders over the past couple
.f L6 of seasons. The third—, fourth-, and fifth—place teams
a (GuLLer Sniges, Dave's nannies, and Who Cares?) have won
.9 . 13, 12, and 11 games respectivt-ly. There's lots of room
n Lexmgton. KY for yosil'ion changes there. Reds and Simply lanander are
n i1. sixth— and seventh— places, with 10 games won eacn.
,n Finally, in the basement (or below it, huh?), is Goody
l, __—__—______ “hm Shoe-s (with 6 games won) whose name implies their
n Name 0' Member attitude more than their abilities.
d [:1 Voting I] Friend Expires Indiviaually, we notice that eight people (Howard,
G Tim, Bill L., Shell) , Dan, Jim, Steve, and Bill MC.) have
d already bowled one ¥OO+ games and (again, no surprise)
n President Secretary Davie has bowled three 200+ games. (What? No 300 games?
I Lexington Gay/Lesbian Services Organization tch, tch, tch..) Now, David, Dan, the Billsuand Howard
3: hold the season honors for scratch series (scratch means
yr mssis‘gfi’g3A33%flsfigngg|z?mfiargfinmbn that no handicap is added. ..not an indication of an
.e ‘ embarrassing rash) for the males. Now, isn't that
,e sexist? The biological males are separated from the
s , biological females in the Honors tallies. Nell, Dottie,
I 7* * * GET YOURS 1MY! * * * April, Judy, Melissa, and Teri are the high scratch
9 series honor holders (no pun intended). Finally, David,
- Shelby, Bill L., Chuck, and Howard lead the males in
:63 _fl averages and Dottie, Judy, April, Melissa, and Teri lead
(1 the females in averages. 'Congrats to all these fun,
1d . > festive people and best wishes for the future.
_ After the war, survivors of Hitler's concentration
i camps were, in the main, treated generously by the West (By the way, look out for a ygry cold winter this
I German government in the matter of reparations, whicn year...Chuck is bowling on a team by the m of Who
é amounted to over fifteen billion dollars. Homosexuals, Cares?‘ and that means that you—We has frozen
is however, were told they were ineligible for compensation over!!!
e since they were technically "criminals." (The Nazi laws
k1 were not repealed in West Germany until tlL. Social
l, Democratic Party came to power in 1968.) Most of those ____—__——_
:0 who survived kept their experiences secret for fear of ——
e. further discrimination. , . . , [- 53“? r-
IS The irony of. this situation hardly needs oomting up. Q ”Ma, gig.“
it It is overwhelming. For fourteen centuries,l western & ‘ Raw-W k ha
5 civilization, acting in the name of_ religion and L'.:-""‘""L f.
;f morality, perpetrated a monstrous crime against its ‘1", 1k" .'
1 homosexual minority. It was, in effect, the perfect :‘ it: .1 ‘f'
,8 crime. Beam warrants were, so to speak, issued with g;31‘\ [:3
.u God's signature attached to them, torture was freely “1:1 .pi‘r/ 22:;
'l employed to obtain confessions, the victimswore labelled >» ,y/ ._,‘ ' - ’4‘»; i;
E "unspeakanles" and "unmentionables" and their sufferings «33/ ‘55: ”a ,35
[0 were a subject about which silence‘ was rigorously I :12? 3‘ 0 n
h prescribed. Friends, lovers, and relatives who had some '5‘ “i a
V insight into these situations were intimidated by what _\ Ja
E may be called, without exaggeration, an unrelenting reign u ,5 g
H: of terror. _ . , y 09 -' 5
Religion and morality are institutions that have 0, $7“! . ,. 3-?
commanded the res ct of the world in a way that Hit er ‘5'?t‘t;.‘.‘f:_'l)$ :5‘_.(‘§li,4.. v.
id, has not. Yet gitler only put into practice what gfi”4¥fli~‘€~$t$fi“.7{fi
Ks "respectable" Christian society had preached for a
h thousand years. That the survivors of his campaign of
h torture and extermination should, by and large,‘ be as
1e silent about their ordeals as the men of the Sixth or
[e eighteenth centuries, dramatizes more pOignantly the
le dilemma of the homosexual than any other fact I can think
It of.
:2 (Bd.: This is the end of Louis Crompton's essay.
,6 Next month, we shall examine its relevance to the status
of gay and lesbian people in today's society.)

”int v , .M m m mum
l i til it
72,9 Elghth Street S'E' The agenda of our opponents is all too familiar. It's
Washington, D.C. 20003 an agenda of hatred, of fear, and of bigotry — against
' us, against freedom, against love.
lesbians and gay men are denied the right to make
love, even in the privacy of our own homes. Lesbians
must survive in a society that renders us invisible and
which denies equitable compensation for a woman's labor.
We're told that we are unfit to nurture our own children,
AREA Update — or to adopt otherwise unwanted ones. Young lesbian and
gay people are taunted and beaten, or rejected by their
. . . , . i . V families. Many of us have been victims of violent
At press time, Brent Nicholson Earle Monitor that Brent 5 arrival in each cnv is - - i -
had arrived in Billings, Montana, having now being heralded by radio public ser- attacks; some Seven driven {.10 SUlClde by "a hoétllfi and
completed about a third of his 10,000 vice announcements featuring the com- alienating 50¢}er 1" all , 1n the name Of morality.
mile run around the perimeter of the edy duo ofJerry Stiller and Anne Meant. The AIDS (X1515 15 manipulated to advance this agenda.
United States for the American Run for "They've done a lot [0 increase AREAS The PUbliC is frightened by irresponsible VOiCES in the
the End of AIDS. After arriving in Bill» visibility." said Konkoy. "and we'll be run- media and by a lack of accurate information from health
ings. Brent took a brief “vacation" [0 fly ning them in each major city a few days officials. Politicians pander to mis—«guided fears,
to San Francisco to participate in the Gay before Brent is scheduled to arrive.“ disregarding the plain facts of both science and justice.
Games ll, in—what elsc?-—-the marathon AREA is a benefit for NAN. and per- The federal government plunders already under—financed
event.‘ ~ ~ sons interested in finding out more about social programs, pitting victim against victitn, (as it
“Were plelng up speed," says AREA it can contact Bill Konkoy at 311595. offers too little too late to combat AIDS. Meanwhile,
coord'mlor 8'“ Konkoy, Whomld the 8415' though medical evidence continues to show that AIDS is
I not transmitted through casual contact, the Justice
—_—-—'—-——'— 2 Department sanctions discrimination against people with
———-——_—_-—_ - AIDS and ARC.
.——————-—-_'— if = The United States is in danger of becoming a place
m m- where everyone's privacy and freedom yield before the
= a E : prying eyes of a fearful, lunatic fringe. The "LaRouche
I I l . Initiative" in California would, if not soundly defeated,
——-_7~""' A"“’ H " set the stage for forced HIV testing, identification
THE AMERICAN FUN FOR THE END OF AIDS cards and detention camps. The chill of a dreadful tleja
vu (see "Gay Genocide" in this issue) permeates the air
as a community is scapegoated to divert the society from
dealing with the real problems.
Besides raising gay/lesbian issues, a march on
———__——-—_-———___u wasmngton Will Strengthen our movement mom owe:
things, it will:

I“ lIlI

{pi 'W’y, - 335, * demonstrate that we will fight to keep the gains
V‘Q‘i ‘; (V , ['3 we have won and continue to demand decency and
‘,\\> ‘. “.17. L .5 V”; 3 justice;

{2% ’, ’ y! ; * provide a means of educating and enlisting the
5" ‘3’ . w— " .. support of other individuals, contnnnil ies and
" 3 VII» :_ ""_ 3%, movements who value freedom, who strive for a
. l!" . ‘- t'-r"4 ‘jf climate of peace, and for social and economic
"' , ' ”9'95 justice -- in solidarity;
;\ ‘4" «E; * Vitalize local organizations, providing a now
7 g): ‘- ‘ vehicle for education and outreach;

* x * help galvanize the gay and lesbian conrnunity on a

, national scale;

3' * enhance the work of lobbyists and political
' liasons by denonstrating that we are a large and

g cohesive community with political clout.

“ To establish the demands, set the date, and develop
the structure for this historic event, we issue an
invitation to all lesbian and gay organizations/people to
attend an organizing conference November 14-16 in New
York City.

For more information, Contact the March on Washington
Committee, P.O. Box 1876, Old Chelsea Station, New York,
NY 1.0011 or call (212)431—5999.

 to 1835. What accounts for this long—lasting British that appeared in England during the height of the femur.
ferocity? No one knows, but French and Italian jurists An article in the Free Brito_n_ in 1730 noted that Imtch
tell us that men placed in the pillory — not for sodomy, methods of criminal justice approximated those of the
but for acts of solicitation _ were sometimes stoned to Spanish Inquisition. Dcnunciatizvns mm invited 114 m
death by London street mobs, and Jeremy Bentham, in an secret informers. Men were not told who their accusm‘s
essay he never dared publish, speaks of seeing a judge were, nor were they allowed to cross—examine than. They
who had just consigned "two wretches to the gallows," . ~ - . - . s - ,.
whose face glistened with "delight and exultation." In :2?ti?:Uifiuéfa':ériiugnezafiigt‘31ne‘ljf 2:: :gfirnfia
t' England in the early nineteenth centuryhon the average, withstand the pain and, guilty 03.not, confessed to the
n5: only onebmantgut Of. 39 cogdeumqmed to dietegas factglly accusations, they could be put to death. Records mist
hanged, ”t e majority 0 e men conVic ° 5 my of sentences in more than twenty cities and towns. These
eke were executed. list thirteen executions in the Hague and five in
ans Amsterdam. All in all, we know of at least fifty—nine
and How many men were killed in the United States? At killings. In most towns, one or two men were hanged as a
or. present, I know of only three (Ed.: of course, as warning and others were banished or imprisoned. The one
en history has proven, most actual events are unrecorded or notable exception was the small village of Zuidhorn ~-
a “((1 the records haven't survived). The trial of William its present population is under 2,000 —— where twenty—one
leir Cornish in Virginia in 1625 is vividly described in H.R. VlCtlnS, including a fifteen— and fourteen—year—old boy,
ent McIlvaine's The Minutes of the CounCil and General Court were garroted and burnt on September 24, 1731. the scene
and of Colonial Virginia, and there were two executions under of the sentencing comes dramatically to life in the brief
Dutch jurisdiction in New Amsterdam in 1646 and 1660. recorded reactions of the condemned. The judge for the
Ida. What other cases exist, only a further'search of colonial district of Oosterdeel—Langewoldt who ordered this
the court records will tell. ObViously, in this sketch I wholesale slaughter at Zuidhorn was Rudolph de Mepsche,
Ilth have only touchedthe top of an enormous iceberg that who seems to have proceeded With fanatical bigotry (Ex-L:
ms, Wlll take generations of research workers in different "Shades of William Rehnquistll") and was later accused of
to. countries to uncover. What Wlll the final rally be? My overzealousness. The parallels with Salem or the
cod own very cursory searches have, so far, uncovered over Inquisition are striking. But, whereas the persecution
it two hundred executions. The total number of executions of witches or heretics is no longer condoned my modern
.le, under Church—inspired laws could eaSily run into the Christianity, Sodom-mongering is still fully respectable
is thousands. in conservative religious circles which have been
:ice Before turning to the twentieth century, I want to say prevented by the silence of historians from contemplating
with a word about the most dramatic single episode I have yet the horrors this tradition of hatred and fear has
come across from the period of capital penal laws. This perpetrated. How many Zuidhorns were there? (Ed.: or how
Lace was a “witch hunt" carried out in Holland in 1730, when many more will we see in the coming years?) How many town
the men and boys were systematically burned, hanged, squares in Christendom witnessed scenes like those that
Ache beheaded, garrotted, and even judicially drowned as took place in that quiet Ditch village attended by the
.ed, homosexuals. Astonishingly, this drama took place in pious formalities of law and religion? We will not know
;ion what has generally been regarded as the most liberal until we have overcome the reign of silence that has
Jejd countw'of Europe in the so—called "Age of ReaSOD-" What outlasted the reign of terror. I have now to justify my
air caused it? The occa51on'seems tohave been a wave of title by bringing my account of gay genocide down to the
from religious hysteria strikingly sunilar to that which had twentieth century and Hitler. The Nazi treatment of
inspired the witch trials at Salem, Massachusetts, a homosexuals has gone all but unrecorded in standard
on generation b6fore. In April, .1730, some men were histories. A number of books in German touch briefly on
[her arrested at Utrecht; they. incriminated others and, in
“ July, a proclamation was issued by the states of Holland, h‘m—fim-
for posting in every town, announcing that, to avert from .
- Holland the fate that had destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah ——
3 "so that God Almighty might not —— as he used to threaten '5.4‘\'
at such abominations —— punish the iniquity of our land +1; §~~€k ‘7‘
a with his terrible judgements, and spew forth the land and Rafi}. $5. '6 ' '59)},
:1 its inhabitants," -- the crime of sodomy should be » “_1 \,\'. 1%! , .{n’l
‘ punished publicly with whatever form of death the judges ‘ ‘ 'Cfi‘r‘: .1 {7,14%
3 should decree and the bodies of the executed, burned or "3: jl-L y " ' 1' ‘~ .4 J,—
C exposed without burial. The decree also ordered any man r 55% ’ JJ};
who had fled from his home after the beginning of the (5:55?” 4:, I” {is
w investigation to come forth and give reasons for his 335.3; \‘g§‘=fi 3:1;-
_ disappearance, under threat of banishment. __.-.;
d (The Dutch proclamation was) terroristic in two ,fiM . -' "1;; V}
1 senses. lts traditional Christian rhetoric reflects the ‘4‘" . H‘ ’~-—
d author's own terror and it sets forth a program of legal ._fi ‘
terror against Holland’s gay minority who, perhaps not .-.~ ‘_ . . '~
too surprisingly, reacted with panic and flight. The g¥&‘a\
‘ hideous consequences consequences of this campaign are "' \
6101’ dramatically portrayed in a series of contemyorary -
‘e :2 engravings (Ed.: see first installment) which show '1.
New the capture of two victims and, in a final scene, the of
various forms of death meted out to them and others. I "-
have also extracted, from a historical account published '3
:gton in German in 1906, a table of names of these executed
ork, throughout Holland with a few details which have survived
from contemporary records. these tables tell their um
grim tale, with several poignant touches. The lUll story
of these horrors will never be known, but we can jmngine
some of them from a commentary on Dutch legal prmodurs,

 the subject buL,1until recently, the mat Lei has gone Anyone who even thinks of hamsexual love is our
unnoticed in Em isn. One ironic COIlStC'LlehCE-J of this . . a . -
silence has beer]: the almost universal, ‘popular belief iii/3;? azqrengtt tk'lihme Lh_at doesn t sound
that the Nazi's tolerated or ev~-n iro oted homosc~ ualit /. I - 3 any ing which emasculates
. . , . ,- k l “ 5 } our people and makes them a la thi f '
This impressmn is mainly due to the open and well-known enemies, for we know that life ig ayfiggg 3nd 031::
homosexuality of Hitler's long—time friend and political is madness to think that men will ever embrace
itfigoZEegéofihgfiiifzm' the founder of the Nari's ill'lVate fraternallyx lNaujlrtl history teaches us the
Hitler himself, of course, had been well aware of Sfifiséfi,’ Mlg‘lt mar-es right. And the stronger
' ‘ _ . , ays win over the weak. Let's see to it
Rohm s sexual orientation from the early days of their that we once again become strong! .
long association. Nevertheless, in spite of this, the H
official )ublic Nazi party line was implacably hostile to In 1929, a Reichstag Committee voted 15 to 13 to
homosexuality. (A Significant homosexual civil rights introduce a Penal Reform bill that would decriminalize
movement had existed in Germany since 1897. It .1515 private homosexual acts. The crisis provoked by the
strongly supported both by the Social Lx-mocratic and stock murket crash caused the bill to be shelved, just
Communist Parties. led by Magnus Hirscnfield, director when success appeared imminent. Political chaos followed
of the Berlin Institute of Sexual Science, it had worked in Germany and, in 1933, Hitler came to power with Rohm
for abolition of Paragraph 175 of the German Criminal at his side as head of the SA. Though some Nazi's
Code, a sodomy statute which had been adopted in 1871 at protested that Rohm was discrediting their party Hitler
the time of the creation of the German Empire. The continued to ignore Rohm's homosexuality until, he was
movement was allied with the feminist moVement in Germany faced with a political crisis a year later. So strong
and with other left—wing causes. Hirschi’ield, himself, was Rohm that the Wehrmacht was concerned that he might
was a Jew, an anti—1.Lilitarist, and a socialist. A Seize control of the army. In 1934. hitler became
petition drawn up by llirschfield's fearful that the Wehrmacht was plotting a coup against
Scientific-Humanitarian Committee was signed by thousands him to prevent such a takeover. To forestall this
of German writers and intellectuals, including (Albert) danger, Hitler had Rohm and about one thousand other men
Einstein and Thomas