xt7s1r6n0r3p https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7s1r6n0r3p/data/mets.xml Hogeland, Alexander. 1876  books b92-122-28575493 English Morton, : Louisville : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Louisville (Ky.) Industries. New Albany (Ind.) Industries. Jeffersonville (Ind.) Industries. Centennial report of the business of Louisville, Ky., the cities of New Albany and Jeffersonville, Ind., and the mineral and agricultural resources of the state of Kentucky  / Alexander Hogeland. text Centennial report of the business of Louisville, Ky., the cities of New Albany and Jeffersonville, Ind., and the mineral and agricultural resources of the state of Kentucky  / Alexander Hogeland. 1876 2002 true xt7s1r6n0r3p section xt7s1r6n0r3p 


                     OF THE


                  AND THE CITIES OF


             ecretary M. 5 At. Exckange, Lewisv'ille.


                LOUISVILLE, KY.:






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                        OF THE


                      THE CITIES OF


                      AND THE



              Secretary M. - M. Exchange, Louisvizle,

And published under the direction of the leading business men of Louisville and
      with the approbation of the Mayor and Board of Aldermen.

Presented to all who are or may become interested in this locality
             as a home or a place of business.


This page in the original text is blank.


                                              LOUISVILLE, Ky., July 13, I876.
HON. CHAS. D. JACOB, Mayor of Louisville:
   Dear Sir,-A pamphlet setting forth the resources and advantages belonging to
our city and state has been prepared under the auspices of our M. and M. Exchange
by their secretary, Col. A. Hogeland, designed for extensive home and foreign dis-
tribution. At a public meeting of our business men, held recently, the undersigned
were appointed a committee to arrange for its publication. We have received pri-
vate subscriptions firom a large number of our leading public.spirited business men
sufficient for that purpose. In order to secure for the work what its contents deserve,
the fullest possible consideration on the part of those who may read it, we respect-
fally request of you, and through you the honorable City Council, the appointment
of a committee of one or more from each branch of the General Council who with
yourself shall examine the said pamphlet and attach thereto an expression of their
sanction and indorsement if found worthy.  Very respectfully,
                                                         C. S. SNEAD,
                                                         J. NELSON HARRIS,
                                                         W. T. HUNTER.

                        OFFICE OF THE MAYOR, Louisville, Ky., Aug. I, 1876.

Messrs. SNEAD, HARRIS, and HUNTER, Committee:
   Gentlemen,-Responding to your request, I have the honor to state that I have
examined the "Citizens' Pamphlet," issued under the auspices of the Mechanics
and Manufacturers' Exchange, and take great pleasure in indorsing it as a full, fair,
and commendable exposition of the matters treated therein. It has also received
the official indorsement of the Board of Aldermen.
                                                 CHARLES D. JACOB, Mayor.


                             MECHANICS AND MANUFACTURERS' EXCHANGE,
                                             Louisville, Ky., June 6, 1876. I

   TO THE PUBLIC:-At a recent public meeting of the business men of Louisville
held at the Mechanics and Manufacturers' Exchange a committee of leading citizens
was appointed to provide a suitable map of Louisville and Kentucky; alsQ to pre-
pare in pamphlet form a statement of the numerous advantages that Louisville and
the adjacent cities of New Albany and Jeffersonville, as well as the state of Kentucky,
present for the consideration of manufacturers and others who contemplate locating
in Louisville, and those who desire information regarding the advantages of our loca-
tion and surroundings.
   That committee is composed of gentlemen of wealth and of the highest social
and commercial standing.
   After a careful review of the following pamphlet on Louisville and her advan-
tages, we are satisfied that it is entitled to the fullest credit, and we therefore com-
mend it to the careful consideration of manufacturers and capitalists throughout the
United States and Canada; also to those of Great Britain, France, Germany, and
other European countries.
                                            B. F. AVERY, President,
                                            A. G. MUNN, Vice-President,
                                            R. A. E. MILES, Vice-President,
                                            H. DUMESNIL, Treasurer,
                                            JOHN M. CARSON,
                                            THEO. CIMIOTTI,
                                            H. BURKHARDT,
                                            T. E. C. BRINLY,
                                            A. HOGELAND, SecCy M. ' M. Ex.



To the Manufacturers, Mechanics, Merchants, and Capitalists of the United States,
    Canada, and Europe:
    In compliance with the action of a public meeting of the citizens
of Louisville held recently at the Manufacturers and Mechanics' Ex-
change appointing a committee to examine into and prepare for general
distribution throughout the United States and Europe a brief summary
of the mineral, agricultural, commercial, manufacturing, and other
resources of our city and state, we beg leave to submit this report,
believing the statements made herein will furnish substantial evidences
that no city in the United States presents advantages superior to those
of Louisville for manufactories of every class.
   It is proper to say in this connection that while Louisville ranks
among the largest and best regulated cities of America, no extended
effort has ever been made with a view to the advertising of its
resources or the advantages of its geographical position, although it is
fully admitted that no city on the continent is so fortunate in the
possession of cheap coal and iron, of proximity to such vast forests of
the finest walnut, oak, hickory, ash, and other timber, and of a location
by which merchants and manufacturers are enabled to reach a larger
portion of the United States by railroads and navigable rivers than can
any other city.
   Location.-The city of Louisville is situated in north latitude
380 17' and in longitude 85 45' west, upon an elevated and beautiful
plain on the south bank of the Ohio, in a great southern bend of that
river, and immediately opposite its falls. It is by water 598 miles
below Pittsburgh, 132 miles below Cincinnati, 368 above Cairo, 607
above Memphis, 1,377 above New Orleans, and 568 from St. Louis;
and by rail 65 miles from Frankfort, 94 from Lexington, and I85 from
   The city stands seventy feet above the low water mark in the Ohio
River, and twenty-five feet above the highest flood mark. It has a
river-frontage of twelve miles.


Resources and Business Advantages of

    Its area is eighteen square miles, ample, without further extension,
 for a population of 500,000.
    Out of II 7 counties in the state of Kentucky its railways enable it
to reach 75, and in addition 33 counties are accessible by water, thus
making 1o8 out of the 117 counties of the state subsidiary to its com-
    History, Population, etc.-Louisville was laid out in I 780, and
incorporated as a city in i82-8.
    The population at the present time is i55,967.
    The confidence of its citizens in the future prosperity of Louisville,
even in times of financial distress, has been evinced by the opening of
new branches of industry and the erection of a superior class of build-
ings for manufacturing and mercantile purposes. During the past year
i,200 buildings have been erected at a cost of 2,500,000.
   The sales of property last year amounted to 6,ooo,ooo.
   The business of Louisville aggregated, last year, I00,000,000.
These figures represent the bona fide sales, and do not, as in the case
of the returns of many other cities, include all merchandise that hap-
pens to pass tArough the city from other points.
   The credit of the city is excellent. Its bonds are secured by a
well arranged sinking fund, the provisions of which are faithfully and
rigidly carried out. During the great financial depression of the past
three years the city's bonds have advanced from 85c to par.
   Water Power.- The subject of utilizing the immense water
power which the city is so fortunate as to possess is now under careful
consideration, and competent engineers are closely examining the
matter, and they unqualifiedly indorse the practicability of the enter-
prise. The improvement of this vast power is evidenced in the mills
in successful operation on the Indiana side of the falls with capacity
for i,ooo barrels of flour per day.
   Public Schools.-Deep interest is felt in the public school system.
Fully thirty buildings have been provided and a number of rooms
rented, the expense of the system being about 300,000 a year.
Night schools have also been opened during the past two years,. also a
school of design for apprentices and young mechanics.
   Comparative Health.-The death rate last year was only I 7 to
every i,ooo, fully justifying the claim that the city is one of the
healthiest in the country.
   All Machinery in the manufactories is by special legislation ex-
empt from taxation.



Louiseille and Vicinity.

   Manufacturers.-Within the past few years the manufacturing
interests of the city have assumed great proportions, and, as they are
rapidly increasing in the present depressed state of affairs throughout
the country, it is not improper to place Louisville in the rank of the
great manufacturing cities of the country in the near future. It has four
large manufactories of plows and agricultural implements, one of which
is the largest in the world, with a trade not only from all parts of this
country, but from Europe and even from other portions of the world.
The united capacity of these manufactories in the item of plows alone
is i,ooo per day. Other manufactories will be noticed under their
appropriate heads.
   Tanneries.-The tanneries of the city are a source of just pride.
There are twenty-three of them in the city, employing a capital of
three millions of dollars. Their trade is divided between this country
and Europe. Louisville sole leather has a great reputation, which is
justly earned, being the second most important in this country.

   Iron Pipe Works.-Louisville is also noted for the superior
quality of iron gas and water pipe which is now furnished from this
to every principal city in the North, West, and South. The manufac-
tory has a capacity for melting 200 tons of iron per day, and employs
300 men. Capital 500,000.

   Plate Glass Works.-There are two plate glass manufactories
at the falls, the Louisville Plate Glass Manufacturing Company, in this
city, and the Star Glass Company, at New Albany. Each represents
fully 1,000,000 capital. They employ about 500 operatives. The
glass made by them is equal to the best French plate, and has proved
a successful rival to foreign glass. Orders are being shipped to all
parts of the United States. Also at New Albany there are three fur-
naces for the manufacture of window glass and one for jars and bottles.
   Paper Mills.-The city has two large paper mills making print-
ing paper for books and newspapers exclusively. They employ a large
force, and have a capital of I,oco,ooo.
   Planing Mills.-Twelve planing mills furnish lumber and build-
ers' material to every Southern state. To these we are indebted in
a measure for cheap building material.
   Engine and Machine Shops, etc.-Of these the city has a
large number, which successfully compete with those in other parts of
the Union.



Resources and Business Advantages of

    Bolt and Screw Works.-Of these there are two doing a
thriving business.
    Carriage and Wagon Axle Works.-There is one extensive
manufactory of this class.
    Boiler and Sheet Iron Works.-Louisville has several boiler
shops and sheet iron works, the trade of which extends all over the
Southern and Western States.
   Architectural Foundries.-The three architectural foundries
and one at New Albany are classed among the largest and best
regulated in the United States. They employ about 6oo operatives
and 1,500,000, and are constantly filling orders for iron-front build-
ings and other architectural work in many of the important cities of
the country as far north as Chicago, as far south as New Orleans, and
west to St. Louis. These foundries are famous for their fine castings
and their superior class of work generally.
   Portable Saw Mills, Threshers, Axles, Sugar Mills, Corn
Shellers, etc.-Louisville has several very extensive manufactories
of this class of useful and popular machinery, among which can be
mentioned the Southwestern Agricultural Works and the Louisville
Axle Works.
   Cotton, Wool,. and Jeans Manufactories.-In Louisville
there are three very large manufactories of Kentucky jeans, the
"'Eclipse," "Old Kentucky," and " Hope " mills, and at New Albany
is located the "New Albany Woolen and Cotton Mills."  The reputa-
tion of these goods is of the highest order, and their brands find a
ready sale in every market, including New Orleans, New York, St.
Louis, and San Francisco. Aggregate capital, x,o00,000.
   Burning and Lubricating Oils.-Of this class there are two
   Manufactories of White Lead and Oil, and Paint Dealers.
There are two extensive manufactories of white lead. Their brands
are very popular and enjoy a large and ready sale. Capital, 350,000.
Also four large wholesale establishments in painters' material.
   Iron Bridge Works.-An extensive and complete iron bridge
works, covering an area of 14 acres, which constructs bridges for all
parts of the country, is also successfully carried on. Capital, 300,000.
The bridge here, one mile in length, was built by this company; cost,
 I ,800,000.



                      Louisville and Vicinity.               9

    Car Wheels.-The "Louisville Car Wheel Works" make supe-
rior wheels, and supply many of the most important roads in the
    Stone and Marble.-Fully twenty stone and marble yards enjoy
a large trade in this city, and ship their goods to all points. These
have all added greatly to the architectural beauty of the city by the
addition of many stone and marble-front buildings for business pur-
poses and private residences.
   Boots and Shoes.-There are six manufactories of ladies' fine
sewed shoes. They have grown up within a short time. Their make
is popular and takes precedence in the market over other goods, and
their prices are lower than Cincinnati or. Philadelphia make of equal
quality. There are some thirty wholesale boot and shoe houses, doing
a business of 6,ooo,ooo annually.
   Pork-packing and Hams.-Louisville is one of the leading
pork-packing cities of the country. There are several firms which
give attention specially to the curing of hams, and it is generally con-
ceded that Louisville hams are superior to most others. The great
demand for them in this country, as well as in Europe, is a guarantee
of their popularity. The capital invested in the pork and ham trade
of Louisville is about 3,000,000.

   Rolling Mills and Forges.-Louisville has two large rolling
mills, with a capital of over SIooo,ooo. They employ 500 operatives,
manufacture merchant iron, sheet iron, and rails. There are also two
mills at New Albany; one for merchant iron and nails, and one for
railroad iron. Also at that point a steam forge for the forging of
steamboat shafts, car axles, etc. Capital, I,5oo,ooo, with 500 ope-
   Saw Mills.-Seven saw mills make every class of lumber in use.
Capital, 300,000; capacity, 20,000,000 feet of lumber annually.
   Ship Yards.-There are two ship yards at Jeffersonville, from
which a number of steamers are annually launched. With few excep-
tions all of the famous steamers and floating palaces on the lower
Mississippi River, and in fact nearly all the large-sized steamboats,
were built here. Louisville has secured this business on account of
its proximity to the finest growth of timber found in this part of the
country, an advantage which could not be overcome by other cities in
their competition for boat-building.


Resources and Business Advantages of

   Soap and Candles.-There are five large soap and two candle
factories in Louisville, and one at New Albany. Over [,ooo,ooo
capital is employed. Their trade extends over the entire South.
   Stoves, Grates, Iron Mantels, and Tin Ware.-There are
several very large manufactories of stoves, grates, and mantels in this
city and in New Albany. These have a trade that extends into every
county in the Southern States. Louisville stoves and marbleized man-
tels rank among the best in the United States. Capital, i,000,000.
   Flouring Mills.-Good flouring mills are not lacking. One of
these, situated on the falls and driven by water power, is one of the
largest in the United States. The mills have a capacity for iooo
barrels of flour per day. The brands are considered equal to the best
in the United States.
   Carriages.-Louisville is now making the best class of carriages
to be found in any market. There are twenty of these manufactories.
The abundance of choice and cheap timber, such as "'shell - bark
hickory," ash, and sugar tree, is a great advantage to this class of
   Wagons.-Of these there are several large manufactories, besides
numerous smaller ones. The wagons made here are very substantial.
One of these firms makes the famous Adams Express wagons, which,
with their other work, are shipped both North and South.
   Cooper Shops.-This is a center for the manufacture of barrels,
casks, etc. There are numerous shops, by reason of the abundance
of timber.
   Bakeries.-All large cities have a long list of bakeries. Some
of them here do a very extensive business in the exportation of
crackers, biscuits, etc.
   Queensware.-In this branch of business there are eight first-
class wholesale houses. They employ 500,000 capital. Their trade
extends over the entire South. This being a port of entry, seaboard
ports have no advantages over Louisville for the importation of arti-
cles which are almost exclusively made abroad.
   Sewing Machines.-There are several agencies, representing
the most popular sewing machines now before the public.
   Copper Works.-There are several manufactories of this class,
filling orders for the largest distilleries, boilers, steamers, lightning
sods and chemical operators, soda fountains, beer and tubing, and
evaporating pipes for salt wells.



                     Louisville and Vicinity.                 xl

   Bell Works.-One of the oldest and most extensive manufac-
tories of brass bells for church, school, and all other purposes is
located here.
   Plantation Machine Works.-Manufacture extensively cotton
gin drivers and cotton presses, either for steam or horse power. Cap-
ital, 50,000.
   Electrotype and Stereotype Foundry.-It has one, doing
an extensive business extending over the entire South.
   Direct Importers of Foreign Wines, Fruits, and Lux-
uries.-The city has a goodly number of wholesale and retail dealers
in foreign and domestic wines, being French, Italian, German, and
American merchants. A large business is also done in choice fancy
foreign fruits and delicacies. At least four wholesale firms are specially
   Edge Tools.-There are three manufactories of edge tools and
choice fine pocket and table cutlery, and two manufactories of surgical
   Bellows Manufactories. -One very large and complete,
making an article of bellows that is very superior and in use by
smiths and in forges over the entire West and South.
   Auction and Commission Houses.-Our city has three of
the largest auction and commission houses in the country, employing a
very large capital, and selling to city and country dealers. One auction
firm has been in successful operation since 1826. There are a large
number of smaller auctioneers, who sell a large amouint annually.
   Plumbing and Gas Fitting, and Supplies for Same.-The
city is supplied with several extensive manufactories, and there are
besides many dealers in all the articles pertaining to plumbing, gas
and steam fitting, and supplies for same.
   Scales.-Two scale manufactories do a large business.
   Iron Cornices.-Three extensive manufactories of galvanized
iron cornices are in full and successful operation, with a rapidly in-
creasing demand for their wares.
   Brass Foundries and Lock Manufactories. -There are
three of this class of manufacturers, who supply locks and builders'
hardware. The great Southern depot of supplies for manufacturers,
the largest in the United States, is located in this city.


Resources and Business Advantages of

    Terra Cotta and Drain Pipe.-There are two manufactories
of terra cotta, statuary, vases, door and window caps, and drain pipes.
These are articles much sought after by reason of their cheapness,
their ornamental and durable character. Also one manufactory of
cement pipe and well linings.
   Jewelry.-The number and extent of the manufactories and
dealers in clocks, watches, diamonds, and jewelry has secured for
Louisville the fame of being the most extensive market in the South.
   Children's Carriages and Toys.-There are several large man-
ufactories of children's wagons, baby carriages, etc., where strong and
durable work is made.
   Saddles and Harness.-Louisville is one of the leading saddle
and harness manufactories of the South and West. There are about
twenty manufactories, with ample capital. With 'the best quality of
leather to select from, they are able to make horse collars, harness,
saddles, and bridles of more lasting quality and cheaper than any
where else in the United States.
   Trunk Manufactories.-Trunk manufacturing is an important
interest. There are several factories. Two of these are the largest in
the South or West. Every known variety and style is made.
   Iron and Hardware.-Louisville is a great center for the storing
and distribution of every variety of iron, nails, steel, and builders'
hardware. There are numerous wholesale firms, who employ a large
capital, and have a business, like, that of dry goods, clothing, etc.,
extending into every Southern state.
   Car Works.-The Ohio Falls Car Works is one of the largest
manufactories in the world. They build all kinds of passenger and
freight cars, and their works are located at Jeffersonville at the head
of the falls. A very large capital is employed. They have stocked
many of the Western and Southern roads. The cheapness of iron,
coal, and lumber, added to the facility of distribution, was the prin-
cipal reason for the location of the works at this point.
   Furniture.-Louisville is especially proud of its furniture manu-
factories. It is the second city in the United States in point of quan-
tity and quality of products in this line.. The capital involved in
furniture manufacturing and in chairs, etc., will aggregate 2,000,000,
employing 2,000 operatives. There are two manufactories located at
New Albany. The abundance and cheapness of lumber also gives to



Louisville and Vicinity.

this business the greatest advantage. Walnut lumber is 5 to Io per
thousand cheaper in Louisville than in Cincinnati, and 30 less than
in New York. Every city and town in the Southern States can show,
in addition to other manufactured goods, bills of lading for furniture
from Louisville.
    Sash, Doors, and Blinds.-These are made in large quantities
 and shipped to all points. There are six large mills constantly at
    Lumber Yards.-Of these there are a great number, and, as
 previously stated, we have lumber in bard woods more abundant and
 cheaper than any city in the Union.
    Stained Glass and Decoration Painting.-Louisville has a
 wide reputation for the wonderful skill its artisans have displayed in
 many branches of industry, and among these are the decorations in
 the churches. Louisville artists are frequently called upon by other
 cities to display their taste and skill in the decorative art.
    Dry Goods and Notions.-The city is fully represented in all
lines of this business. It has been the aim of its merchants to make
this a market in every way equal to New York and Boston, and this
in a great measure they have done. They duplicate orders to the
great houses of the East. This could not be otherwise, since they
procure their goods directly from the manufacturers of Europe as
well as of this country, and thus save the profit charged by the im-
porter and jobber, while their store and other expenses are not one
half as much as they are in the East.
    Clothing.-Neither New York nor other markets can carry more
complete stocks of ready-made clothing, however much larger they
may be, than Louisville. The ample capital of the wholesale dealers
enables them to import cloths direct from Europe, or to deal direct
with home manufacturers, and to bring the manufacture of garments
immediately under their own supervision. Their clothing is guar-
anteed as to quality and work and as -to fashion in styles.
   Drugs.-The drug trade of Louisville is one of the most impor-
tant in the West and South. It involves an immense capital, and
dealers successfully compete with all other markets for the South-
western trade. A large importing trade is carried on direct with
France and England.
   Tobacco Manufactories.-Louisville stands among the fore-
most of cities for the manufacture of tobacco. The chief reason for

I 3


Resources and Business Advantages of

the superiority of our brands is that our manufacturers are on the
market every day, and can thus select the choice qualities of leaf,
and from the largest stock in the world. Great care is bestowed in
the process of manufacture. This branch of business affords employ-
ment to over 2,000 people and pays a weekly revenue tax of nearly
   Book Publishers.'-This is one of the most important book,
job, and blank book manufacturing points in the United States. Three
of the houses are among the largest for their specialty-that of blank
books-and one makes a successful specialty of school books. Their
united capital is not less than I,0o0,ooo.
   Flour, Grain, and Produce      Brokers.-Louisville has a
number of extensive dealers in flour, grain, and produce. In fact
it has become a point for the concentration of flour and produce by
reason of its superior shipping facilities not only with the South and
Vest, but even with portions of the country more remote. The flour
of many important mills at the Northwest finds a ready market here,
notwithstanding the large mills in operation here.
   Manufacturers of Musical Instruments.-This city has long
been famous for the production of fine pianos and organs. There are
four manufactories of the former and one of the latter. An evidence
of the popularity of this manufacture is the increase in the demand.

   Publishers of Music.-There are two houses publishing music.
One of these has been in existence for twenty years, and is the largest
in the Southwest. They have I 7,000 plates for music.
   Breweries.-There are a number of large breweries which do
an extensive business and ship heavily to the South and West, which,
coming under the head of luxuries, yields a heavy tax to the govern-
   Hops and Malt.-There are several extensive houses dealing in
malt and hops.
   Dealers in Tobacco and Cigar Manufacturers.-There are
scores of cigar manufacturers and a number of wholesale dealers in
plug tobacco and cigars. Their stocks are very large and their trade
extends to every part of the United States.

   Metallic Burial Cases.-There are two manufactories of this
class, supplying the trade of the South.



                      Louisville and Vicinity.                  I 5

    Bourbon Whisky.-As the climate of France and Germany has
made those countries famous for the richness of their wines, so has
Kentucky become noted for the peculiar and superior quality of its
Bourbon whisky. This finds a ready sale in all parts of the world
among dealers in pure liquors, druggists, and compounders of medi-
cines. There are over thirty wholesale dealers in this article of com-
merce in Louisville, with a capital of several millions of dollars.
Genuine Bourbon whisky is made only in Kentucky.

   Commercial Organizations.-The Mississpti Valley Trading
Contpany.-Louisville has been selected as the headquarters in America
of this company, the object of which is to open up a direct trade be-
tween the Mississippi Valley and Great Britain. The English section
of the company was organized by the co-operative societies of Great
Britain, who number over 50oooo heads of families and represent
3,000,000 people. The American section is in rapid process of organ-
ization, and the prospects are very encouraging. The joint capital of
the company is 25,000,000.
    The American Co-operative Union.-This union has selected Louis-
ville as a headquarters, and is working in harmony with the Mississippi
Valley Trading Company. Three stores have been started in Louis-
ville, and numerous others are springing into existence all over the
states. A publishing company, called "The Co - operative Journal
Company' has also been organized, and is already publishing an
official journal, which is obtaining a rapid 'circulation.

   The National Grange.-This is the headquarters of the National
Grange. Its objects are the social and moral improvement of the great
body of husbandry, and also the keeping of full and accurate statistical
reports of the soils and the productions of every section of the coun-
try. It has also a commendable system of benevolence by which the
inhabitants of any state or section suffering from famine or short crops
may be supplied at once with the necessaries of life.
   Hogs, Cattle, Horses, and Sheep.-It will require no labored
statement at our hands to make good Kentucky's claims to'be the lead-
ing stock-producing state of this country, as for years past our stock-
raisers have in many instances carried away from county, state, and
national fairs the medals of gold and silver, the highest awards given
in testimony of the best blooded stock. This. fact is so well known
and so fully conceded that it requires only to be stated in order to be


Resources and Business Advantages of

   Cheap Building Material.-Rock, Lime, Clay, Cement, and
Sand.-It can not be said of any other city in the United States as it
can of Louisville that the chief articles entering into building material,
rock, brick clay, lime, sand, and hydraulic cement, are found in large
quantities within the city limits.
   Cement Mills and Stone Quarries.-Eight cement mills
make 450,ooo barrels of cement annually, which finds a market from
the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the Canadas to the Gulf There
is fully one million dollars