xt7s1r6n3f9s https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7s1r6n3f9s/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1947-09 bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Education on the March: A Progress Report", vol. XV, no. 7, September 1947 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Education on the March: A Progress Report", vol. XV, no. 7, September 1947 1947 1947-09 2022 true xt7s1r6n3f9s section xt7s1r6n3f9s   

0 Commonwealth of Kentucky 0





A Progress Report


I _ .
“(0‘ {AX-'4’?"
. 4“, / _

F“ H Published by

' Superintendent of Public Instruction


\ “ Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.


i VOL XV SEPTEMBER, 1947 No. 7








A Progress Report


Published by


Superintendent of Public Instruction





  A,4 n.


All agencies need to evaluate progress from time to time. This
bulletin presents a partial record of efforts made toward the develop-
ment of a more adequate state program of education.

Part I of this bulletin contains addresses and excerpts from
addresses made by Superintendent John Fred \Villiams. These re-
flect his inspirational and courageous leadership which charted the
course of progress in public education.

Part II contains a progress report. This report contains some
of the significant achievements in education over the four year

Under the leadership of Superintendent Williams, all phases
and all levels of» education have increased in effectiveness, and
“education is on the march.” For his high ideals and unexcelled
qualities of leadership we, his administrative ) staff, express our
sincere appreciation. Gleaming from his writings and reports of the
Department, we have. prepared this bulletin.

AS'l‘ajT—b'trite Department of Education
September 10, 1947





Superintendent of Public Instruction





In tribute to his effective leadership during the first year of his
administration as Superintendent of Public Instruction, Superin-
tendent Williams was given the first “Award of Merit” of the Ken-
tucky Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. The selection
was made on the basis. of outstanding educational service by vote of
all members in the Association. The award carried the following

“To John Fred Williams, State Superintendent of Public In-
struction, for his outstanding qualities as an educator and leader,
his high professional attitude in a political office, his ability as an
administrator, his skillful and successful approach to the Legisla-
ture and the public generally, his grasp of Kentucky’s educational
shortcomings, his fearlessness in fighting for greater educational
opportunities for our children and for higher educational and
financial standards for our teachers, his cooperation with the
Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and other educa-
tional organizations, his maintenance of high morale among teachers
1n the difficult war years, his personal qualities that inspire confi-
dence and produce devoted followers; the Kentucky Association of
Colleges and Secondary Schools is honored to present this, its first
annual Award of Merit,”

















Addresses and excerpts from addresses delivered by
John Fred Williams, Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion, January 2, 1944—January 5, 1948

A progress report



 ‘ed by PART I

nstruc- Addresses and excerpts from addresses delivered by John Fred

Williams, Superintendent Public Instruction,
January 28, 1944—January 5, 1948.












EDUCATION TODAY—Address before the Convention of the Kentucky
Education Association, April 1, 1944

STATE LEGISLATIVE PROGRAM-—Ra(li() Address over WLAP, Wednes-
day, November 28, 1945

itt County Teachers, July 18, 1.946

A NEW CONSTITUTION FOR KENTUCKY——Address before the Fourth
District Education Association, Elizabethtown, Ken-
tucky, October 11, 1946

RESPONSE ’l‘() \VELCOME ADDRESS*T{911tllUl{y Education Association
Convention, Thursday, April 17, 1947












Superintendent of Public Instruction

Address before the Convention of the Kentucky
Education Association, April, 1944

Education in Kentucky has made many substantial gains in
recent years. Thanks to the tireless efforts of teachers, administra-
tors, supervisors, the Kentucky Education Association, and many
other allied organizations, we have succeeded in obtaining many of
the prerequisites which are essential to efficient educational service.
Our greatest handicap is and has been the lack of adequate financial
support. This handicap prevented us from rendering efficient
school services in the years before the war and it has caused the
impact of the war to be more devastating- in its effects on the schools
of our state. The situation at present is such that unless an imme-
diate and substantial increase in financial support is made, a com-
plete breakdown in educational facilities in many sections of the
state is inevitable.

Gains Made by Education in Recent Years

In the midst of this war emergency we are prone to overlook the
many accomplishments that education in our state has achieved in
recent years. These accomplishments at present are overshadowed
by the deficiencies which have been made more glaring by the impact
of war. However, they represent substantial gains accomplished by

the united efforts of the profession with the guidance of intelligent

Deficiencies in the Peace Time Period

Despite these notable gains in education, grave deficiencies, as
I have previously pointed out, existed before the war in our educa-
tional service. We have provided much of the framework for an
efficient school program, but we have failed to provide the substance
to make it function. As a result, before we entered the‘war, Ken-
tucky’s schools ranked Very low in many of the things essential to a
EOOd public school systen‘x.

The deficiencies, in Kentucky ’s prewar school system may be
interpreted by some as an indictment of the teachers and profes-
sional leaders of the state. This would be a hasty and unjustified












1.“. _...._.__‘ __ A ___.



generalization. Studies in the field of education have shown that, by
and large, educational systems of the United States render services in
proportion to the money expended for these services. It is my opin-
ion that in many instances we have received better educational
service than we have paid for. It is also my opinion that the many
deficiencies cited in Kentucky’s educational services are directly
traceable to our failure to provide adequate financial support. Many
local school authorities were stymied in their efforts to provide effi-
cient school service by the lack of things with which to make the
wheels turn.

In 1940 the average salary of teachers in the elementary and
secondary schools. in the county school systems was $611 or $11.94
per week when computed on a 52 week basis. With a salary schedule
like this, the county systems lost many of their best teachers to more
fortunate school districts of the state, to more fortunate school systems
in other states, and to business and industry. Many of their best
teachers, through loyalty to their local schools, remained. However,
finding the cost of living going ever and ever upward, many were
forced to divide their energies by finding part—time employment to
supplement their meager incomes. Those who continued to devote
their full time to the profession found their professional usefulness
was hampered by the precarious social and economic positions they
were forced to occupy.

When war came, Kentucky ’s schools were not in a condition to
absorb the shock from its impact. Many states felt it necessary to
increase the amounts appropriated for the public schools. For
example, our sister state of Ohio, which may be said to have had an
adequately financed system of schools in peace time found it neces‘
sary to make a sizeable increase in its educational fund in order to
safeguard its children. In Kentucky, the shock was extremely
severe and our children continue to suffer.

During the present school year, 4,020 emergency permits have
been issued to persons who do not meet legal requirements for teach-
ing‘ in order to keep schools open for more than one-fifth of Kell-
tucky’s school children. Less than 14,000 of Kentucky’s 25,000
legally certificated teachers have made their services available to the
schools this year.

Teachers’ salaries, which were inadequate in peace time, in—
creased only 8 per cent from 1940 until the fall of 1943. The cost
of living during the same period increased 22 per cent and in some
sections as much as 35 per cent. This salary scale was insufficient
to hold emergency teachers. Records show that 60 per cent of the


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persons who held ei‘nergency permits in the school year 1942-43 did
not apply for reinstatement of their permits for the present school

Unless we receive a. substantial increase in financial support for
next year, school facilities in many sections of the state will suffer
a complete breakdown. The ranks of qualified teachers will be fur-
ther depleted. Not a sufficient number of persons. meeting the
present low standards for emergency permits will be available to
staff the schools. Many county superintendents have estimated that
at least 40 per cent of their schools would be closed, and that 75 per
cent of those open would be staffed with emergency teachers.

It is possible that we shall find it difficult, under the most favor-
able circumstances, to provide efficient school services next year. We
must overcome accumulated difficulties. We must do our utmost for
the children of Kentucky today. \Vc cannot neglect them today and
salvage them tomorrow. \Ve would only add incalculable difficulties
to the post war era, and endanger the future of our democracy.

We need at least $15,000,000 from the State Treasury for the
common school fund for each of the next two years.

We need an increased appropriation for the Teachers’ Retire-
ment System in order that the state may match the teachers’ con-

tributions, and that the Retirement System may remain actuarially

We need increased appropriations for Vocational Education and
Vocational Rehabilitation in order that these agenciesI may carry on
their important functions during the war emergency and in the post—
war era.

Although the $15,000,000 appropriation for the common school
fund is of immediate importance, there is a definite need, which will
become more acute at the end of the war, for equalization of the
maximum tax rates for the various school districts of the state. The
problems of furnishing adequate building facilities and pupil trans-
portation can be met only by permitting the people of all school dis—
tricts to levy a maximum tax rate of $1.50 if they see fit. This will
serve to further equalize educational opportunities among the school
districts of the state.

When we obtain a $15,000,000 common school fund, our teach-
ers’ salaries will continue to be far below the national average. We
Should continue to strive for federal aid for education in order to
equalize educational opportunities among the states of the Union.












Must Justify Increased Financial Support

,If increased financial support for education is granted, the pro-
fession should improve the educational service it renders to the
children of the state. If the Legislature grants our request for a
$15,000,000 school fund (and this amount is small enough in view
of present conditions), every member of the profession should feel a
solemn obligation to contribute to the improvement of our school
service. Local school authorities and teachers should be sure that
the people of the state receive $15,000,000 worth of school service for
this. expenditure.

We must increase in importance the pogition of the school in the
community. We must enroll and keep in attendance in our schools
a much larger per cent of the total number of children in, the state.
'We must improve the quality of classroom instruction.

To improve classroom instruction, we need local supervisory
service. Qualified supervisors or helping teachers can help the
teachers do a little better the things they cannot do well by them-
selves. The work of the superintendent has increased to the extent
that he has. little time to go into the classroom and help where help
is needed. The need for helping teachers and supervisors has in-
creased as the teacher shortage has increased. To help equalize the
chances of those children who must have emergency teachers, boards
of education should set aside a sum sufficient to employ helping teach-
ers and supervisors to work with teachers in the classroom.

\Ve need to increase the staff of the Division of Supervision of the
Department of Education so it may integrate the activities of and
render more helpful services to local supervisory staffs. State and
local supervisory personnel, performing their duties in a democratic
manner, can be of immeasurable service in improving the quality of
classroom instruction.

In conclusion, may I say that “teaching is larger than all other
professions combined. Teachers are pivotal to democracy. Democracy
cannot continue to exist without strong, alert, well informed teachers
willing to lead”. \Ve should not be timid in our requests for public
support for our cause. \Ve should meet the challenge to serve better
the children of Kentucky in this hour of their extreme need.

Note: Figures quoted in this paper are based on information on file in
the State Department of Education.




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Superintendent of Public Instruction

Radio address over WLAP, Wednesday, November 28, 1945

Today there is a rising tide of sentiment in favor of better
education. It is. observable in all ranks of life. It stems from the
realization that we are entering a new age, an age in which the
maintenance of prosperity, and peace, and the preservation of de-
mocracy are of basic importance. It is realized that education is
indispensable to the atttainment of these objectives and that civiliza-
tion has now become a race “between education and catastrophe.”

There is evidence that here in Kentucky more and more people
are becoming vitally concerned about education. More and more is
there a group consciousness that the work of the schools cannot be
overlooked. On every had we find people who are willing to look at
the real issues involved.

They are concerned about Kentucky’s low rank among the
states in education. Kentucky ranks among the states forty-sixth
in the per cent of her adult population who have completed college;
forty-seventh in the per cent of those who have completed high
school; and forty-eighth in the per cent of those who have com—
pleted one year of high school. We rank forty-eighth in the length
of school term; forty-third in the per cent of school attendance; and
forty-seventh among the states in the amount of money spent per
classroom unit. True Kentuckians are concerned about the low
estate of education in the Commonwealth.

There is also great concern about Kentucky’s low rank among
the states in items which measure the well-being of the people. We
rank fortyiifth among the states in per capita income; forty-fourth
111 per capita retail sales; forty—second in per capita output of indus-
tries, including farming and mining; and forty-third in the circula-
tlon of ten national magazines per one thousand population.

The relationship between education and the well-being of the
people in Kentucky is apparent. In general, states that rank high
111 education rank high in the items which measure the well-being
0f the people. According to an United States. Chamber of Commerce
Pllblication: “Education is an essential instrument through which

iOIHmerce, industry, and agriculture can be expanded in a rising













_lt is asked what can he done to improve Kentucky’s educa-
tional program. Movements are now under way in several areas of
action to secure more effective use of the resources the profession
now has available. The profession in the state is making an organ-
ized effort this year to increase enrollment and attendance; to im—
prove health education; to improve instruction in the elementary
grades; to improve the high school program of studies; and to de-
velop a better in-serviee teacher education prog‘am.

‘We have used the increased funds made available two years
ago to make some improvements in our educational program. Sala-
ries of teachers have been increased during the past few years from
about $782 per year to $1,094 per year on the average. The number
of school districts with a seven months term has been reduced recent-
ly from more than 70 to 45 We have given more attention to health,
education by the institution of a Division of Health Education. We
have begun to attack the problems of instruction through increased
staff in state supervision and through the employment of some 80 or
90 helping teachers and supervisors in local. school systems. We have
improved teaching service by means of iii-service programs of educa-
tion for thousands of teachers.

But additional legislative action will. be necessary if substantial
improvements are to be attained in our school service. The Ken-
tucky Education Association, the State Department of Education,
the Kentucky Congress of Parents and Teachers7 and many other
organizations have joined in. proposing a legislative program which
is designed to improve certain glaring deficiencies in Kentucky’s
public schools. The following program will be submitted for the
consideration of the 1946 Legislature:

1. A minimum school term of eight months for every child in
the Commonwealth. This is necessary if we are to increase
our educational stainling. Forty-five of Kentucky’s coun—
ties now have seven months elementary terms. Retarda-
tion is appalling in these districts. An abnormally large
number fails to complete a grade in one year. After two,
or three or four years of retardation the child drops out of
school. The short term is not the only cause at retarda-
tion, but it is a major cause, which results in poor attend-
ance. 1 decent standard of educational service de-
mands a longer elementary school term. If the child in the
elementary grades is to have a fair chance, we cannnf
“short change” him in the matter of term length.




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2. We propose a. minimum salary of $800.00 per year for

every teacher. This will mean a. much higher average
salary for all teachers regardless of where they teach.

No school will be a good school unless it has good
teachers. If Kentucky is to raise its educational standing,
we must retain well. trained teachers. who are now in the
profession and attract young people of caliber and devotion
to the profession. One—fourth of Kentucky’s present
teaching staff are emergency teachers and do not meet mini—
mum standards of training. We shall need to train from
live to eight thousand teachers in the near future if we are
to meet the needs of Kentucky’s schools.

We cannot hope to retain trained teachers now in the

profession and attract young people of ability to the profes—
sion unless this $800.00 minimum salary is made to sup-
plement the teachers’ salary fund. In one fourth class
city in Kentucky this year, the highest salary a teacher
with a Master’s degree may receive is $1,500. The garbage
collector in that city gets $1,800. The teacher with an
AB. degree can get three dollars per month more than the
assistant garbage collectors in that city. The average
teacher’s salary in Kentucky is. lower than that paid char-
women for scrubbing the floors in federal office buildings.
We must make provision for adequate facilities for an effi-
cient and safe system of school transportation through
state financial aid. Transportation facilities are not avail-
able for many children who do not live within reasonable
walking distance of schools, or cannot walk with safety
over heavily traveled highways. In many districts, facili-
ties are available but are not sufficient to provide safe and
health-protecting transportation. These conditions serve
as a deterrent to enrollment and regular attendance, and,
consequently, contribute to the influences which are respon-
sible for Kentucky’s low rank in education.
We propose expansion of the facilities of the State Depart—
ment of Education, so that there may be employed a. suffi-
cient number of trained people to render efiective services
demanded by the public schools. Many needed services
have not been inaugurated and others have been suspended
because of lack of financial support. If Kentucky is to
improve its educational standing, the Department of Edu—
cation must be in a position to lead.
















improvement in the high school program through currie-
uluni adjustment and cooperative planning in terms of
needs of young people.

Better facilities for vocational education and vocational re—
habilitation. The times call for greater emphasis upon
helping people prepare themselves for earning a living.
Better method of financing school lniildings through a pro-
cedure .t'or accumulating a sinking fund. In many districts
school plants are overcrowded or are unsuited to house
programs designed to meet: the needs of the children. In
many districts new sites must. he purchased and buildings
erected. If Kentucky is to have a school program which
will raise her educational standing, that program must he
housed and equipped on a plane of etl’ectiveness.

Better attendance laws. Since 72.58 per cent of the chil-
dren of school age not enrolled in school, are not in the,
compulsory school age. An amendment to the compulsory
school law should be passed.

Better textbook service through provision for local adop—
tions, thus enabling localities to keep teaching materials so
they will meet the needs of their 1‘)rograms more ade-

A minimum salary of $3,000 for the Superintendent of
Public Instruction who is to be, my successor.

Improvement and expansion of the facilities of the state
institutions of higher learning.

To implement this program of improvements, the 1946 Legis~
lature, is requested to make the following financial provisions:


A common school per capita fund of $18,000,00000 to sup-
port a minimum school term of eight months and a mini-
mum annual salary ot‘ $800.00.

An appropriation of $2,000,000.00 for districts located in
the poorer economic areas of the state.
(A per capita fund of $18,000,00000 and an equaliza-
tion fund of $2,000,000.00 are required to guarantee a
minimum school term of eight months and a minimum
annual salary of $800.00.)
An appropriation of $500,000.00 to aid pupil. transporta—




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4. An appropriation of $125,000.00 to the Superintendent of
Public Instruction. (This is a little more than eight-tenths
of one per cent of the present common school fund and a
little more than six-tenths of one per cent of the common
school t'und requested for the next, biennium.)

0. An appropriation of $730,410.00 for vocational education.

6. An appropriation of $100,000.00 for vocational. rehabilita-

A permissive tax levy of $1.50 for each school district of
the state. Fifty-six districts now have this privilege. There
is no reason why it should not be granted to all other dis-
tricts. of the state. This would enable any local district,
when it so desired, to secure funds to provide an educa-
tional program for its children more in keeping with the edu—
cational program of the surrounding districts. The passage
of this measure will make possible. among other things,
more adequate buildings, grounds, and equipment.

8. That the city commission of municipalities having munici—
pally owned utility plants shall permit boards ot.‘ educa—
tion to share in the net profits of such plants to the extent
of the yield of the school levy on the book value of such
properties. This is necessary to restore revenues lost by
the board of education from the tax-paying corporations
which originally operated utility service.

9. An increase of approximately fifty per cent in thc pre-war

appropriations for the institutions of higher learning.

This state legislative program is not a cure-all for Kentucky’s
educational ills, but, taken as a whole, it does represent a reasonable
and significant step toward the attainment of a minimum goal in
education in Kentucky. Can we afford to take this step? In reply
to this question, I should like to quote from a columnist in one of
the state’s small city newspapers. He said—“Can we alford to
make our public schools as good as those in any other state? Why,
bless you, we can’t att'ord not to.”

It is said that too much emphasis has been given to a compari-
son of Kentucky’s program to those of other states. This would be
true if it were a mere matter of keeping up with the J oneses, but far
more is involved. The future economic, cultural, and political de-
velopment of our state is at stake. Involved, too, is the ability of
our children to compete in the future on a comparable basis with
the citizens of other states.



















Kentucky is a great state, rich in t'uditiou, celebrated in song
and story. It has coal, oil, gas, forests, soil~important natu'al re-
sources which are essential in making a great state——but people are
its greatest resources. But the people must be educated. “All the
children of all the people” must be educated. Education is power.
Education is an instrument through which commerce, industry, and
agriculture can be expanded in rising degree. Education pays. We
must use education to build a better Kentucky.


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Superintendent of Public Instruction

Address given to Breathitt County Teachers, July 18, 1946

We have heard much talk in the last two years about Ken-
tucky’s low rank among the states in education. We have heard
much about low salaries for teachers, poor attendance, short school
terms, inefficient, and uneconomical school organizations, deficient
courses of study, and a lack of suitable buildings, grounds and
equipment. A search light has been turned 011 Kentucky’s schools
and their inadequacies and deficiencies have been mercilessly ferreted
out and exhibited to the public.

It was said and is still being said that such publicity is detri-
mental; that it creates a feeling that there is no hope for Ken-
tucky’s schools; and that it has served to discourage young people
of devotion and caliber who would enter the teaching profession.
Since members of the profession have taken the lead in the move-
ment to advertise our deficiencies and point out our needs, it is said
that they have erred; that they could not afford to admit their low
estate; that to do so amounts to self abneg‘ation, and self humilia-
tion ; and that a defeatest attitude is fostered in the profession.

There is something to be said for these points of View. Never-
theless, I am glad that the movement to publicize our deficiences and
needs. did take place, and I am happy that members of the profes-
sion took the lead in the movement. It is true that defeatism and
despair resulted, but out of defeatism, despair, and gloom some of
the most constructive movements of history have been born. Out
of the theme, “Kentucky ranks 47th in Education,” has. come the
slogan, “Kentucky’s schools are on the march,” and there is evi-
dence that this is not a paper slogan.

There is ample evidence that the people of Kentucky are on the
march; that they want better educational opportunities for their
children; that they respect the profession for its frankness in point-
ing out the deficiencies and needs of the schools; and that they will
not be satisfied until. their children have educational opportunities
which approximate the average available to the children of the

The people through their elected representatives have since J an-
uary, 1944 increased the common school fund from 10 t0 181/2
















million dollars and to 1.915 million dollars for the school year
1947-48. The people through their representatives have increased
the school term from 7 to 8 months for 72 of Kentucky’s counties
so that this year every elementary school child in Kentucky may
have the opportunity to attend school for at least 8 months. They
have made provision for increased financial support for education
from local sources. They have increased financial support for the
University of Kentucky, and the four state teachers’ colleges, for
the State Department of Education and for vocational education.
in short, the people have increased support for all levels and phases
of education in Kentucky. The people are on the march. They are
willing to follow the profession in its efforts for better schools in

There is ample evidence that the profession


teachers, admin-
istrators, supervisors, and boards of education in Kentucky are on
the march. They are earnest. in their efforts to trans, ate gains into
improved educational opportunties. The slogan, “Kentucky’s

schools are on the march,”

is being translated into action. The
principal and faculty of every high, school in Kentucky are re-
examining their programs and are this year formulating a specific
high school philosophy and are building a program to comport with
this philosophy and meet the needs of the young people to be
served. The attendance and enrollment problem is receiving spe—
cial attention everywhere. In service training of teachers, and im-
provement of instruction are being emphasized. Sincere attention
is being directed at many places. in the state to uneconomical and
inefficient units of school organization on the elementary, high
school, and district levels. The profession is on the march.

But we must be realistic about the progress we are making. We
cannot afford to become enshrouded in a cloud of false optimism.
We have much to do and a long way to go. We must continue to
point out our weaknesses and needs and at the same time give evi-
dence of constructive improvements in these areas. \Ve cannot do
what ultimately needs to be done with the increased support recently
made available. In fact inflation has gone a long way towards
neutralizing our financial gains. But in spite of this we must come
to the real