xt7s7h1dk60n https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7s7h1dk60n/data/mets.xml Duke, Basil Wilson, 1838-1916. 1867  books b92-111-27909403 English Miami Printing and Pub. Co., : Cincinnati : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Confederate States of America. Army. Morgan's Cavalry Division. United States History Civil War, 1861-1865. Morgan, John Hunt, 1825-1864. History of Morgan's cavalry  / by Basil W. Duke. text History of Morgan's cavalry  / by Basil W. Duke. 1867 2002 true xt7s7h1dk60n section xt7s7h1dk60n 

          HII STORY





            18 6 7.


Entered according to Act of Congress in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-six.
                   By MRS. HENRIETTA MORGAN,
     In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Kentucky, at Covington.



                 HERITAGE OF THE STATE,


  'odlth  'B'aobltwomtu     of  tut   oufut



This page in the original text is blank.



TAHE writer presents to the reading public the narrative of an arduous
   and adventurous military career, which, commencing at a period but
little subsequent to the outbreak of the late civil war, continued through
the four eventful years.
  He has endeavored to make the work a correct and graphic representa-
tion of the kind of warfare of wlich MORGAN was the author, and in
which his men won so much celebrity. Strict accuracy has been attempt-
ed in the description of the military operations of which the book is a
record, and it is hoped that the incidents related of personal daring and
adventure will be read with some interest..
The author regrets that, for reasons easily understood, the book is far
less complete than he desired to make it. The very activity of the s5r-
vice performed by MORGAN'S CAVALRY prevented the preservation of datta
which would be very valuable, and a full account of many importiant
operations is therefore impossible. Limited space, also, forbids the men-
tion of many brave deeds. If many gallant and deserving men were
noticed as they deserve, the book could not be readily finished.
To the friends whose contributions, assisted the work, the author
returns his warmest thanks.
To Mr. MEADE WOODSON, to whom he is indebted for the maps which so
perfectly illustrate his narrative, he is especially grateful.
He regrets, too, that many of his old comrades have altogether failed
to render hih aid, confidently expected, and which would have been very
valuable.                                               B. W. D.

This page in the original text is blank.



                             CHAPTER I.
History of Morgan's Cavalry-Why written-First enlistments-Popularity of
    Morgan-Mipsrresentation of the press-New uses of davalry........  9

                            CHAPTER II.
Early. AiY e of General Morgan-His qualities as a commander-His personal
   qualities........................................................................................  18

                            CHAPTER III.
Political condition of Kentucky in 1861-Bewilderment of the people-Camp Dick
   Robinson-First entrance of Confederate troops .31

                            CHAPTER IV.
Military situation in the West-Advance to Bowlinggreen -Scarcity of arms-
   Organization of the army-Want of discipline-Qualities which compensated
   for its  absence.................................................................................  57

                            CHAPTER V.
Morgan leaves Lexington-Roger W. Hanson-Service on Green River-Scouting
   -Our first skirmish-Narrow escape-Terry's Rangers .88

                            CHAPTER VI.
Retreat from Bowlinggreen-Evacuation of Nashville-Our Fourth Ohio acquaint-
   ances-Scouting near Nashville-Morgan holds Murfreesboro'-Dash on
   Mitchell-Night attack-Capture of Gallatin-Stampede of our pickets--
   Promotion of Morgan-Concentration at Corinth .110

                           CHAPTER VII.
Battle of Shiloh-Death of Sidney Johnson-Result of the battle-Expedition
   into Tennessee-Cotton burning and telegraphing-Defeat at Lebanon-Ex-
   pedition to Cave City in Kentucky ............. ............................... 138

                           CHAPTER VIII.
Reorganization at Chattanooga-First raid into Kentucky-Fight at Tompkins-
   ville-Capture of Lebanon-Telegraphic strategy-Morgan master of the sit-
   uation-Figbt at Cynthiana-Evade the pursuing troops ............... ........ 169

                            CHAPTER IX.
Capture of Gallatin-Active service near Nashville-Fights at Gallatin and
   Cairo-bestruction of the railroad-Sojourn at Hartsville-The videttes-
   Kentuckians running from the draft-" The Vide e."... 208




                            CHAPTER X.
Again on the march for Kentucky-Bushwhacking experience-The Confederate
   army enters the State-Service in front of Covington-Efforts to embarrass
   the retreat of the Federal General Morgan-Fight at Augusta-Retreat of
   the army from Kentucky-Morgan captures Lexington.......... ............ 229

                            CHAPTER XI.
Morgan's retreat through Southwestern Kentucky-At Gallatin again-Scouting
   and ambuscades-Driven from Gallatin-A week's fighting around Leba-
   non-Battle of Hartsville  ,   ..................... .................. 282

                            CHAPTER XII.
December raid into Kentucky-Capture of Elizabethtown-Fight at the Rolling
   Fork-Escape from the toils     .       ..  ..................... 317

                           CHAPTER XIII.
Service during the winter of '63 and '64-Cluke's raid into Kentucky-Battle
    of Milton-Defeat at Snow's Hill .....................................................

                            CHAPTER XIV.
Service in Tennessee, and on the Cumberland in Kentucky-Fight at Greasy
    Creek-Active scouting-The division starts for the Ohio-Crossing of the
    Cumberland in the face of the enemy - Fights at Columbia, Green River
    and Lebanon - Cr o  g the Ohio-The militia objecting-Fight with the
    gunboats-March through Indiana and Ohio-Detour around Cincinnati-
    Defeat at Buffington.........................................................................

                            CHAPTER XV.
Life in prison-Escape of Morgan from the Ohio Penitentiary -Exchange at
    Charleston  ......................................................................................

                            CHAPTER XVI.
Services of the remnant of Morgan's command while their General was in prison-
    Reception of General Morgan by the people of the South-He is assigned
    to command in Southwestern Virginia-Fight with Averill-Action at Dub-
    lin Depot-Last raid into Kentucky-Capture of Mt. Sterling-Severe en-
    gagement next day-Capture of Lexington-Success at Cynthiana-Defeat
    at Cynthiana-Retreat from Kentucky..............................................

                           CHAPTER XVII.
Death- -of Morgan-Grief of his men-Subsequent active service of his old com-
    mand-Hard fight at Bull's Gap-A battle by moonlight, and a night-long
    chase-The Stoneman raid-Disaster at Jingsport-Fighting the enemy and
    the elements - Battle of Marion-Winter quarters at Abingdon-March tc
    Charlotte after Lee's surrender-Escort to Jefferson Davis after Johnston's
    surrender-The last Council of War-Surrender at Woodstock .............





                 CHARPTER I.

  IN undertaking to write the history of General Morgan's ser-
vices, and of the command which he created it is but fair that I
shall acknowledge myself influenced, in a great measure, by the
feelings of the friend and the follower;' that I desire, if I can do
so by relating facts, of most of which I am personally cognizant,
to perpetuate his fame, and, at th same time, establish the true
character of a body of men, who recruited and inured to war by
him, served bravely and faithfully to the close of the great
struggle. It may be that credence will be given with hesitation
to the statements of one, who thus candidly confesses that per-
sonal regard for his chief, and esprit-de-corps mainly induce him
to attempt the task I propose to myself. To all works of this
nature, nevertheless, the same objection will apply, or the moor6
serious one, that they owe their production to the inspiration
of hatred, and those who have witnessed and participated in t1se
events which they describe, must (under this rule), for that very
reason, be denied belief.
  General Morgan's-career during the late war was so remarkable,
that it is not surprising that the public, accustomed to the con-
tradictory newspaper versions of his exploits, should be disposed
to receive all accounts of it with some incredulity.



  It was so rapid, so crowdeq with exciting incidents, appealed
so strongly to the passions and elicited so constantly the com-
ments of both sides, that contemporary accounts of his opera-
tions were filled with mistakes and exaggerations, and it is
natural that. some should be expected in any history of his
campaigns, although written after the strife is all over.
  Convinced, however, that, if properly understood,.his reputa-
tion will be greater in history than with his contemporaries,
and believing that the story of his military life will be a contri-
bution not altogether valueless to that record which the Southern
people, in justice to themselves and their dead, must yet pub-
lish, I can permit no minor consideration to deter me from
furnishing correct, and, I deem, important information, which
my relations, personal and official, with General Morgan enabled
rae to Qbtain. A correct representation of a certain series of
sevents sometimes leads to a correct understanding of many
more, and if the vail which prejudice.and deliberate unscru-
pulous falsification have thrown over some features of the contest
be lifted, a truer appreciation may perhaps be had of others of
greater moment and interest.. I may add that, as no one has
been more bitterly assailed, not only while living but even after
death, than General Morgan, so no man's memory should be more
peculiarly the subject of vindication and protection to his friends.
  But there are also other and cogent reasons why this tribute
should be rendered him by some one, who, devoted to the in-
terests of the living chieftain, is sensitive regarding the reputa-
tion he has left. The cruel ingratitude which embittered the
last days of his life, has -ma'de his memory all the dearer to the
many who were true and constant in their love and esteem for
him, and they feel that he sirould be justly depicted. The fame
which her desired will be accorded him; the reward for which
he strove is his already, in the affection of the people by whom
he hoped and deserved that the kindest recollections of him
should be cherished and the warmest eulogies pronounced, In
the glory won, in the tremendous and unequal struggle, in the



pride with which they speak the names of the dead heroes whose
martyrdom illustrated it, the Southern people possess treasures
of which no conqueror can deprive them.
  A man who, like General Morgan, uninfluenced by the public
opinion of the State in which he resided, yet surrendered -for-
tune, home and friends to assist the people of the South
when embarked in the desperate and vital strife which their
action had provoked, because sharing their blood and their con-
victions, he thought that they had an imperative claim upon
his services; who pledged his all to their cause, and identified
his name with every phase of the contest, until his death became
an event of the last and most bitter-such a man can never be
forgotten by them. It is impossible that the memory of his
services can ever fade from their minds.
'in the beautiful land for which he fought and died, the tradi-
tions which will indicate the spots where he struck her foes, will
also preserve his name in undying affection and honor. The
men of the generation which knew him can forget him only
when they forget the fate from which he strove to save them;
his name belongs to the history of the race, and it can not die.
  A narrative of the operations of a command composed, in
great part, of Kentuckians, must possess some interest for the
people of their own State. So general and intense was the
interest which Morgan excited among the young men of 'the
State, that he obtained recruits from every county, numbers
running every risk to join him, when no other leader could en-
list a man. The whole State was represented in his command.
Many Kentuckians who had enlisted in regiments from other
States procured transfers to his command, and it frequently
happened that men,the bulk of whose regiments were in prison,
or who had become irregularly detached from them by some of
the many accidents by which the volunteer, weary of monotony,
is prompt to take advantage, would attach themselves to and
serve temporarily with it. Probably every native citizen of
Kentucky who will read these lines, will think of some relative




or friend who at some time seried with Morgan. Men of even
the strictest "U Union principles," whose loyalty has always been
unimpeachable, and whose integrity (as disinterested and as
well assured as their patriotism) forbids all suspicion that they
were inclined to serve two masters, have had to furnish aid in
this way to the rebellion. Frequently after these gentlemen had
placed in the Federal army substitutes, white or black, for loyal
sons of unmilitary temperaments, other sons, rebellious, and
more enterprising, would elect to represent the family in some
one of Morgan's regiments. It is not unlikely, then, that a
record of these men, written by one who has had every oppor-
tunity of learning the true story of every important and inter-
esting event which he did not witness, may be favorably received
by the people of Kentucky. The class of readers who will be
gratified by an account of such adventures as will be herein
related,' will readily forgive any lack of embellishment.,' My
practical countrymen prefer the recital of substantial facts, and
the description of scenes which their own experience enables
them to appreciate, to all the fictions of which the Northern war
literature has been so prolific.
  The popular taste in Kentucky and the South does not re-
quire the fabulous and romantic; less educated and more prim-
itive than that of the North, it rejects even the beautiful, if also
incredible, and is more readily satisfied with plain statements,
supported by evidence, or intrinsically probable, than with the
most fascinating legend, although illustrated with sketches by
special artists.
  There rests, too, upon some one identified with this command,
the obligation of denying and disproving the frequent and
grave charges of crime and outrage which have been preferred
against General Morgan and his soldiers. So persistently have
these accusations been made, that at one time an avowal of
"belonging to Morgan " was thought, even in Kentucky, tan-
tamount to a confession of murder and highway robbery. To
this day, doubtless, the same impression prevails in the North,




and yet, when it is considered how it was produced it is sur-
prising that it should or could last so long.
   The newspapers are of course responsible for it, as for every
other opinion entertained at any time by the Northern public.
   It will repay any one who will take the trouble to examine
the files of these papers printed during the war, if he desires a
curious entertainment. Ai-ong many willful misrepresentations
of Morgan's as well as of other Confederate commands, many
statements palpably false, and regarding events of which the
waiters could not possibly have obtained correct information,
will be found under the most astounding captions, proclaiming
the commission of " unheard of atrocities" and " guerrilla out-
rages," accounts of Morgan having impressed horses or taken for-
age and provisions from Union men, while highly facetious de-
scriptions of house-burning, jewelry snatching, and a thorough
sacking of premises are chronicled, without one word of condem-
nation, under the heading of " frolics of the boys in blue." In
thus referring to the manner in which the Northern newspapers
mentioned the respective combatants whose deeds their reporters
pretended to record, I have no wish to provoke a renewal of
the wordy'war.
   The Southern journals were undoubtedly sufficiently denun-
ciatory, although they did not always seem to consider a bad
deed sanctified because done by their friends. Nor have I any
intention of denying that inexcusable excesses were committed
at various times by men of Morgan's command. I freely admit
that we had men in our ranks whose talents and achievements
could have commanded respect even among the "Bummers."
There were others, too, whose homes had been destroyed and
property " confiscated," whose families had been made to "feel
the war," who were incited by an unholy spirit of revenge to
commit acts as well worth relation, as any of those for which
'the " weekly a' of his native township has duly lauded the most
industrious Federal raider, actuated by a' legitimate desire of
pleasure or gain. It will not be difficult to prove that such prac-




tices met with rebuke from General Morgan and his officers,
and that they were not characteristic of his command. There
are other impressions about Morgan and " Morgan's men" which
I shall endeavor to correct, as, although by no means so serious/
as those just mentioned, they are not at all just to the reputa-
tion of either leader or followers. It is a prevalent opinion
that his troops were totally undisciplined and unaccustomed to
the instruction and restraint which form the soldier. They
were, to be sure, far below the standard of regular troops in
these respects, and doubtless they were inferior in many par-
ticulars of drill and organization to' some carefully-trained
bodies of cavalry, Confederate and Federal, which were less
constantly and actively engaged in service on the front.
  But these essential requisites to efficiency were by no means
neglected or in a great degree lacking. TPhe utmost care was
exercised in the organization of every regiment to place the
best men in office-General Morgan frequently interfering, for
that purpose, in a manner warranted neither by the regulations
nor the acts of congress. No opportunity was neglected to at-
tain proficiency in the tactics which experience had induced us
to adopt, and among officers and men there was a perfect ap-
preciation of the necessity of strict subordination, prompt un-
questioning obedience to superiors, and an active, vigilant
discharge of all the duties which devolve upon the soldier in
the vicinity or presence of the enemy.
  - I do not hesitate to say that " Morgan's Division," in its best
days, would have lost nothing (in points of discipline and in-
struction) by comparison with any of the fine cavalry commands,
which did constant service, of the Confederate army, and the
testimony of more than one inspecting officer can be cited to
that effect. More credit, too, has been given General Morgan
for qualities and ability which constitute a good spy, or success-
ful partisan to lead a handful of men, than for the very decided
military talents which he possessed. He is most generally
thought to have been in truth, the " Guerrilla Chief," which the



                   NEW USES FOR CAVALRY.                   15

Northern press entitled and strove to prove him. It will not
be difficult to disabuse the minds of military men (or, indeed, in-
telligent men of any class) of this impression. It will be only
necessary to review his campaigns and give the reasons which
induced his movements, to furnish an authentic and thorough state-
ment of facts, and, as far as practicable, an explanation of at-
tendant circumstances, ant it will be seen that he had in an em-
inent degree many of the highest and most necessary qualities
of the General.
  An even cursory study of Morgan's record will convince the
military reader, that the character he bore with those -who served
with him was deserved.
  That while circumspect and neglectful of no precaution to
insure success or avert disaster, he was extremely bold in
thought and action. That using every means to obtain extensive
and accurate information (attempting no enterprise of importance
without it), and careful in the consideration of every contin-
gency, he was yet marvelously quick to combine and to revolve,
and so rapid and sudden in execution, as frequently.to confound
both friends and enemies.
  And above all, once convinced, he never hesitated to act; he
would back his judgment against every hazard, and with every
resource at his command.
  Whatever merit be allowed or denied General Morgan, he is
beyond all question entitled to the credit of having discovered
uses for cavalry, or rather mounted infantry, to which that arm
was never applied before. While other cavalry officers were ad-
hering to the traditions of former wars, and, the systems of the
schools, however inapplicable to the demands of their day and
the nature of the struggle, he originated and perfected, not only
a system of tactics, a method of fighting and handling men in
the presence of the enemy, but aIso a strategy as effective as it
was novel.
  Totally ignorant of the art of war as learned from the books
and in the academies; an imitator in nothing; self taught in all



that he knew and did, his success was not more marked than
his genius.
  The creator and organizer of his own little army-with a
force which at no time reached four thousand-he killed and
wounded nearly as many of the enemy, and captured more than'
fifteen thousand. The author of the far-reaching "raid," so
different from the mere cavalry dash, he accomplished with his
handful of men results which would otherwise have required
armies and the costly preparations of regular and extensive
  I shall endeavor to show the intimate connection between his
operations and those of the main army in each department where
he served, and the strategic importance of even his apparently
rashest and most purposeless raids, when considered with refer-
ence to their bearing upoi the grand campaigns of the West.
When the means at his disposal, the difficulties with which he
had to contend, and the results he effected are well understood,
it will be conceded that his reputation with the Southern soldiery
was not undeserved, and that to rank with the best of the many
active and excellent-cavalry officers of the West, to have had,
confessedly, no equal among them except in Forrest, argues him
to have possessed no common ability. The design of this work
may in part fail, because of the inability of one so little accus-
tomed to the labors of authorship to present his subject in the
manner that it deserves; but the theme. is one sure to be inter-
esting and impressive however treated, and materials may, in
this way be preserved for abler pens and more extensive works.
The apparent egotism in the constant use of the first person
will, I trust, be excused by the explanation that I write of mat-
ters and events known almost entirely from personal observa-
tion, reports of subordinate officers to myself, or personal
knowledge of reports made directly to General Morgan, and that,
serving for a considerable period as his second in command, it
was necessarily my duty to see to the execution of his plans,
and I enjoyed a large share of his confidence.



                     SPIRIT OF THE WORK.                    17

  For the spirit in which it is written, I have only to say that
I have striven to be candid and accurate; to that sort of impar-
tiality which is acquired at the expense of a, total divestiture of
natural feeling, I can lay no claim.
  A Southern man, once a Confederate soldier-always thor-
oughly Southern in sentiments and feeling, I can, of course,
write only a Southern account of what I saw in the late war.
and as such what is herein written must be received.



                 .CHAPTER            II.

  JoHN HUNT MORGAN was born at Huntsville, Alabama, on the
first day of June, 1825. His father, Calvin C. Morgan, was a
native of Virginia, and a distant relative of Daniel"Morgan, the
rebel general of revolutionary fame. In early manhood, Mr.
Morgan followed the tide of emigration flowing from Virginia
to the West, and commenced life as a merchant in Alabama.
In 1823, he married the daughter of John W. Hunt, of Lexing-
ton, Kentucky, one of the wealthiest and mpst successful mer-
chants of the State, and one whose influence did much to de-
velope the prosperity of that portion of it in which he resided.
  Mr. Morgan is described by all who knew him as a gentleman
whom it was impossible to know and not to respect and esteem.
His character was at once firm and attractive, but he possessed
neither the robust constitution nor the adventurous and- im-
petuous spirit which characterized other members of his family.
He was quiet and studious in his habits, and although fond of
the society of his friends, he shunned every species of excite.
ment. When failing health, and, perhaps, a distaste for mer-
cantile pursuits induced him to relinquish them, he removed
with his family to Kentucky (his son John was then four years
old), and purchased a farm near Lexington, upon which he lived
until a few years before his death.
  John H. Morgan was reared in Kentucky, and lived in Lex-
ington from his eighteenth year until the fall of 1861, when he
joined the Confederate army. There was nothing in his boy-
hood, of which any record has been preserved, to indicate the
distinction he was to win, and neither friends nor enemies can
deduce from anecdotes of his youthful life arguments of any
value in support of the1 views which they respectively entertain
of his character. In this respect, also, he displayed his singular




originality of character, and he is about the only instance in
modern times (if biographies are to be believed) of a distin-
guished man who had not, as a boy, some presentiment of his
future, and did not conduct himself accordingly.
  When nineteen he enlisted for the "Mexican War " and was
elected First Lieutenant of Captain Beard's company, in Colonel
Marshall's regiment of cavalry. He served in Mexico for
eighteen months, but did not, he used to say, see much of
"war" during that time. lie was, however, at the battle of
Buena Vista, in which fight Colonel Marshall's regiment was
hotly engaged, and his company, which was ably led, suffered
severely. Soon after his return home he married Miss Bruce,
of Lexington, a sweet and lovely lady, who, almost from the day
of her wedding, was a confirmed and patient invalid and sufferer.
Immediately after his marriage, he entered energetically into
business-was industrious, enterprising and prosperous, and at
the breaking out of the war in 1861, he was conducting in Lex-
ington two successful manufactories. Every speculation and
business enterprise in which he engaged succeeded, and he had
acquired a very handsome property. This he left, when he
went South, to the mercy of his enemies, making no provision
whatever for its protection, and apparently caring not at all
what became of it. As he left some debts unsettled, his loyal
creditors soon disposed of it with the aid of the-caterrbel
attachment law.
  When quite a young man he had two or three personal diffi-
culties in Lexington, in one of which he was severely wounded.
To those who recollect the tone of society in Kentucky at that
day, it will be no matter of astonishment to learn that a young
man of spirit became engaged in such affairs. His antagonists,
however, became, subsequently, his warm friends. The stigmas
upon General Morgan's social standing, so frequent in the
Northern press, need not be noticed. Their falsity was always
well known in Kentucky and the South.




  The calumnies, so widely circulated regarding his private life,
must be noticed, or the duty of the biographer would be neg-
lected in an important particular. And yet, except to positi ely
deny every thing which touched his integrity as a man and his
honor as a gentleman, it would seem that there is nothing for
his biographer to do in this respect. The wealth at the disposal,
of the Federal government attracted into its service all the pur-
chasable villainy of the press-North and South. It was not
even necessary for the Government to hid for them-they volun-
teered to perform, gratis, in the hope of future reward. Ta un-
dertake a refutation of every slander broached by this gang
against a man, so constantly a theme for all tongues and pens,
as was Morgan, would be an impossible, even if it were a neces-
sary, task. It is enough to say that he was celebrated, and there-
fore he was belied. General Morgan was certainly no "saint"
his friends may claim that he had no right to that title and not
the slightest pretension to it. While he respected true piety in
other men, and, as those who knew him intimately will well re-
member, evinced on all occasions a profound and unaffected
veneration for religion, he did not profess, nor did he regulate
hi5 life by religious convictions. Like the great majority of the
men of his class-the gentlemen of the South-he lived freely,
and the amusements he permitted himself would, doubtless, have
shocked a New Englander almost as much as the money he spent
in obtaining them. Even had the manners of the people among
whom he lived have made it politic to oonceal carefully every
departure from straight-laced morality, he, of all men, would
have been the least likely to do so, for he scorned hypocrisy as
he did every species of meanness. To sum up, General Morgan,
with the virtues, had some of the faults of his Southern blood
and country, and he sought so little to extenuate the latter
himself, that it may be presumed that he cared not the least
whether or no they were recorded.
  While no censure can, of course, be directed against those
who slandered him, as they did others, for hire-and it would




be as absurd in this age and country, to gravely denounce the
lie-coiners of the press, as to waste time in impeaching the
false witnesses that figure before military commissions-never-
thbless, as justice ought to be done to all, it should be remarked
that among the respectable people who furtively gave currency
to every story to his injury were some who owed their power to
harm him to the generosity of his grandfather, who, lov0d 4to
assist all sorts of merit, but was particularly partial to manual
  The qualities in General Morgan, which would have attracted
most attention in private life, were an exceeding gentleness of
disposition and unbounded generosity. His kindness and good-
ness of heart were proverbial. His manner, even after he had
become accustomed to command, was gentle and kind, and no
doubt greatly contributed to acquire him the singular popular-
ity which he enjoyed long before he had made his military rep-
utation. The strong will and energy which he always displayed
might not have elicited much notice, had not the circumstances
in which the war placed him developed and given them scope
for exercise. But his affection for the members of his family
and his friends, the generosity which prompted hiin to consult
their wishes at the expense of any sacrifice