xt7s7h1dm05s https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7s7h1dm05s/data/mets.xml The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. 2002 bulletins  English The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Frontier Nursing Service Quarterly Bulletins Frontier Nursing Service, Vol. 78, No. 2, Fall/December 2002 text Frontier Nursing Service, Vol. 78, No. 2, Fall/December 2002 2002 2014 true xt7s7h1dm05s section xt7s7h1dm05s FRONTIER NURSING SERVICE  
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Fir·st Mary Breckinridge Day, 1962
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2002 Mary Breckinridge Festival Parade

 · US ISSN 0016-2116
Introduction to FNS I
Courier Program News - Barb Gibson 2
Wendover News — Barb Gibson 5
Mary Breckinridge Healthcare News - Malle Noble 10
A Word {rom the Mary Breckinridge Chair of Midwifery
— Kitty Ernst 13
Website Information 15
In Memory of Robert Phipps, Jr. - Barb Gibson 16
Mary Breckinridge Festival - Mary Ethel Wooton 17
Denistry & the FNS in 1950 - Allan Fogle, MD 21
In Memoriam 23
Urgent Needs 29
Cover: Top photo: First Mary Breckinridge Festival Day - 1962. Left
to right: Betty Lester, Mary Breckinridge, Anne Cundle, Molly Lee.
Second photo: Old FNS jeep. ·‘
Frontier Nursing Service Quarterly Bulletin
Published at the end of each quarter by the Frontier Nursing Service
Subscription Price $5.00 a year for Donors/$15.00 for Institutions
Volume 78 Number 2 Fall/December 2002
Periodicals postage paid at Wendover, Kentucky 41775 and at addi-
tional mailing oiiices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to FNS,
Inc. 132 FNS Drive, Wendover, Kentucky. Copyright FNS/Inc. 2000
All Rights Reserved.

Frontier Nursing Service
  U you have never been introduced to the Frontier Nurs-
ing Service we would like to take this opportunity to brief you on
_ the history and the on-going work of the Service. Please share
this information with afiend
Born in 1881 into a prominent American family, Mary
Breckinridge spent her early years in many parts of the world -
Russia, France, Switzerland and the British Isles. Alter the death
of her two children, she abandoned the homebound life expected
of women of her class to devote herself to the service of others,
particularly children.
Mrs. Breckinridge established the Frontier Nursing Ser-
vice (FNS) in Leslie County, Kentucky in 1925, then one of the
poorest and most inaccessible areas in the United States. Mrs.
Breckinridge introduced the first nurse-midwives in this country.
Riding their horses up mountains and across streams in blizzard,
fog or flood, the FNS nurses brought modern healthcare to fami-
lies throughout an area of 700 square miles.
Until her death in 1965, Mary Breckinridge was the driv-
ing force behind the work of the Service whose influence today
extends far beyond eastern Kentucky. Through the Frontier School
of Midwifery and Family Nursing, hundreds of nurses have been
trained and this important concept of family healthcare has been
" carried throughout the world.
Today, FNS, Inc., is organized as a parent holding com-
pany for Mary Breckinridge Healthcare, Inc., Frontier Nursing
Healthcare, Inc., which includes four rural healthcare clinics (Com-
munity Health Center, Beech Fork Clinic, Kate Ireland Healthcare
Center and Dr. Anne Wasson Healthcare Center) and for the Fron-
tier School of Midwifery and Family Nursing — the largest mid-
wifery program in the United States.
Remarkably, the purpose and philosophy of the FNS has
remained constant since 1925.

» Courier Program News
-Barb Gibson
  **9 I `  
* if  _. .    
M . _ L 
Jamie Hartung Michael Thompson
Jamie Hartung left November 29 and Michael Thompson
left December 9. During their time here, they were each placed at
a rural healthcare clinic two days a week. At the clinics they had
an opportunity to shadow providers, assist with fulfilling patient
needs and do work on various projects on-going at the clinics.
In addition, both Couriers worked on a Community As- J
sessment Project which involved three parts: l) patient education; I
2) specialists in the community and surrounding area and 3) re- “
sources in the community. They created notebooks with informa-
tion concerning mental health services, school programs and ac-
tivities, drug awareness and enforcement, patient transportation,
diabetes support groups, nutrition, 4-H and Boy/Girl Scouts, food ·p
banks, homeless shelters, social services, and many other resources
available to Leslie Countians. Notebooks were placed in all clinics I
making this information available to providers and patients. .
Both Jamie and Michael plan to go to medical school.
They feel that their experiences at FNS will be instrumental in ‘
their career decisions.
We appreciate all the work Jamie and Michael contrib-
uted during their stay! `

s A Courieris Journal
,~ Susan Spencer Small served as a Courier at Frontier
Nursing Service during the fall 0f1948 and spring of1949. Mrs.
Small recently shared her journals with us, written during those
* periods. Below are excerpts j$·om her journals representing the
point of view of a young college graduate new to the mountains:
Monday, September 20, 1948 - The Pennsylvania train
j was late in Cincinnati and I nearly had heart failure. But I made
the L&N train for Corbin. Finally the bus took off for London.
I There I changed for Manchester. On this bus I sat next to a woman
[ who had served on the jury. She told me about a feud in Hyden
where a road house was dynamited after a man was shot on the
street. Her more juicy tale concemed a rape case - the husband
i having offered his wife in a "horse swap." Well, I thought these
things were tall tales told about Kentucky but it seems not!
, In Manchester I changed for the last time. From here on
the scenery really became lovely. We kept getting deeper in the
  hills. At last Hyden appeared in the valley. There waiting for me in
1 an Army jeep was a FNS senior Courier with shaggy hair, pants
3 and shirt. A little way dovm into the stream bed, we crossed the
; Kentucky River which at this season is as dry as the Sahara. Round-
i ing a bend in the one track road we found an ancient Ford stalled
i in front of us. The men hitched their tired looking mule onto it and
  pulled the works out of our way.
  We arrived at Wendover just in time for tea at the Big
  House with Mrs. Breckinridge. After that we all went out to shoo
I the chickens into the coop - Mrs. Breckinridge, Miss Lewis and all
i stood there waving branches and shouting to them.
. Wednesday, September 22, 1948 - This was my day for a
trip to a center. Jean, Miss Lewis and I piled into a jeep for Hyden
I where we were to meet the plumbing men and take them to
§. Bowlington. However, they never showed up and we waited an
3 interminable time. Then we dumped Miss Lewis, picked up Brownie
l and headed for Bowlingtown fmally. The main road is through
K more mountainous country than around Wendover. Then we tumed

- off on a gravelly road which goes through Busy and almost to j
Buckhom. The country couldn’t be more beautiful. The trip seems
to be about 40 miles and took the better part of two hours. "
The Center is a white house just above the same river, the
Middle Fork ofthe Kentucky, which is in front of Wendover. Vera `
Chadwell, the nurse there, just came from England a few months
ago. This house was electrified just a few weeks before we ar-
rived. It has a lovely living room with the usual fieldstone fire-
place. We ate on the back porch with the well driller pounding j
away on solid rock the whole time. Jean and I looked over the L
horses of which there are two. They seem to be a little less nervous
and sturdier probably because they are worked harder.  
When everything was accomplished we took off with me i
at the wheel. l discovered that the jeep isn’t as difficult as it ap- i
peared but at one point I began careening down the mountain be- Q
fore I went into second. The roads couldn’t be much narrower plus j
that much passing and at close quarters. The real test came driving `
from the mouth ofthe creek in. You simply have to go as slowly as  
possible and not jerkily. Brownie pretended she was Mrs. Breckin-  
ridge with a broken back. I was to drive most careii1lly so as not to I
wrench it or she’d yell. She did, all right.  
This was the big night of a square dance in the basement  
of the Garden House. It began around a quarter of eight when  
enough people had arrived. The orchestra consisted of one piano  
and a few guitars. We danced around the post in sets of about ten.  
None of this New England four set stuff. The only ones they did I "l
knew were "Around that Couple and Swing to the Wall" and "Birdie  
in the Cage." Another interesting thing, the caller was right in the  
midst of things dancing away. Pebble and Mr. Benton of the lum— g
ber company, went in a "hoe down" during one dance - very fast I
and fancy stepping. We almost collapsed from the heat and ener—  
getic dancing but the boys are very nice and can push you through .
most anything. Good naturally too.  

2 Wendover News
I by Barb Gibson
Wendover has been bustling with lots    
of activity during the last three months.The U l _V ,  
‘ Big House got a new roof and new septic ·   .  
lines were installed to the Upper Shelf after ya.,   
we found that the pipes had holes in them     ·  
I allowing water from the mountain to flow — I *     °  _  
§ into the septic lines causing overflow pro- Y - ‘.  
` blems. There was lots of brush cutting and clean—up in and around
, Wendover and Hurricane Pasture. The Big House Bed & Break-
  fast Inn and the Courier dorms were re-decorated. Wendover got a
Q new phone system! The Gilt Shop was changed from the Big House
g to the Barn. Thanks to Mr. & Mrs. Floyd Hines, new carpet was
installed in the Bam Apartment and a new washer was purchased.
I Staff had several "toy wrapping” parties in preparation
I for our Christmas party project at the rural healthcare clinics. We
E will update you on the success of these parties in the next QB.
l After cleaning up Hurricane Pasture, George Wooton
  planted a clover cover crop and we are working with the 4H Agent
  and County Extension Agent to possibly put a cane crop in Hurri-
  cane Pasture.
  We entertained/hosted the following guests and functions
  since the last report:
[ August 23 Kathern E. Montgomery, Cleveland,
{ Ohio.
  August 27 Mary Breckinridge Festival meeting/
I dimer (group of 20).
  Mary Halley, Lexington, Kentucky.
Jeanna R. Conder, Winchester, Kentucky.

- August 31 Dr. & Mrs. Andre Liioi & family,
Hanover, Pemisylvania. Dr. Lhoi worked
at Mary Breckinridge Healthcare in l
the 1980’s.
September 3 Mary Breckinridge Festival meeting!  
dimier (group of 20).
September 4 & 5 Claudia Runge, Louisville, Kentucky.
September 4 - 7 Joann Cox, Panama City, Florida.
September 8 Southern & Eastern Kentucky Tourism
Group (group of 10).
September 10 Mary Breckinridge Festival meeting/ .
dinner (group of 20).
September 16 Heidi Froemke and FNP’s for dinner I
(group of 7). 1
September 17 Mary Breckinridge Festival meeting/ 1
dinner (group of 20).
September 18 & 19 Mr & Mrs. Hedberg, Cedar Rapids,  
Michigan. f
September 20 Priscilla Becker and Jackie Wintle,  
Washington, DC.
September 21 Jean Fee, McKee, Kentucky (group of
September 27 Jewel Finn, George Adams, Julia Lawry, I `
John Finn, Capac, Michigan.  

October 1 CNEP & CFNP Level III dinner
(17 students/faculty).
October 2 Mary Breckinridge Pageant (group of
p 10).
October 3 Noel Fernandez, Pamona, New York.
October 8 James & Louann Laurance, Wrginia
Beach, Virginia.
October 9 Sue Holiday, Lexington, Kentucky
(group of 6).
October 14 Mary Halley, Lexington, Kentucky.
  October 16 APEX and Mary Breckinridge Health-
l care staff meeting (group of 10).
1 October 17 Jane Leigh Powell, Ridgeland, South
October 18 FNS Board of Govemors - Jane Leigh
p Powell, John Foley, Bill Hall, Ken
i Tuggle at Wendover for Board meeting.
( Jennifer Mercer, CFO, also spent the
i Board and Faculty dimmer (group of 43).
October 23 Mary Duncan, Mary Jane Duncan,
Margaret Hobson and Emestine Thomp-
son, Louisville, Kentucky.
  October 28 & 29 Mary Halley, Lexington, Kentucky.

— October 29 & 30 Susie & Brad Stewart, Jekyll Island,
Georgia. l
October 3l Claudia Runge & husband, Louisville,
Kentucky. ,
Joanne Cox, Panama City, Florida.
November l Nature Conservancy, Lexington, Ken-  
tucky (group of 19). .
November I2 - 13 Mary Halley, Lexington, Kentucky, and A
Jearma Conder, Winchester, Kentucky.
November l3 Dr. & Mrs. John Ammon, Burlington, 2
Kentucky. l
November 15 Frontier Bound dinner (43).  
November I6 Keith & Brandi Bashan, Bowling Green, ;
Tours i
September 4 Amy Camion, Lexington, Kentucky (
(group of 3).  
September 8 Geiger & Associates, Atlanta, Georgia  
(group of 5).
September l2 Southeast Community College, Pine-
ville, Kentucky (group of 40).
September 26 Central Kentucky Tech, Danville,   i
Kentucky (group of 9). ~
October l & 3 WB Muncy Headstart, Wooton, Ken--  
tucky (group of 20).  

October 8 Somerset Tech, Somerset, Kentucky
(group of 25).
October 9 First Presbyterian Church, Frankfort,
Kentucky (group of 14).
October 21 Big Creek Elementary School, Big
Creek, Kentucky (group of 32).
1 October 21 Hayes Lewis Headstart, Yeaddiss,
Kentucky (group of 8).
University of Kentucky Nursing Stu-
dents, Lexington, Kentucky (group of
, 11).
  October 25 Wayne County Area Tech, Monticello,
Kentucky (group of 21).
5 October 29 University of Tennessee, Knoxville,
1 Tennessee (group of 13).
1 November 7 Central Kentucky Tech, Danville, Ken-
tucky (group of 9).
  November 20 & 21 Hayes Lewis Headstart, Yeaddiss,
2 Kentucky (group of 17).
1 November 21 University of Kentucky Nursing Stu-
dents, Lexington, Kentucky (group of
November 25 Lincoln Memorial University, Harrod-
` gate, Tennessee (group of 20).
  November 26 Berea College, Berea, Kentucky (group
Q ofll)

_ Mary Breckinridge Healthcare, Inc. News
by Mallie Noble, Administrator I
Mary Breckinridge Festival {
The staff were busy this fall planning .  
for the 40th annual Mary Breckinridge Festi-      
val events held during the first week of Oct- .     l
ober. The Mary Breckinridge Festival is one `Ii‘   .» M _ i i _  l
ofthe oldest festivals in the State. The Festi- iu   _A.l_ t °  
val was well represented by this year by FNS . I
employees (see details on page I7). Q
Kentucky Hospital Association Leadership Conference
On November 7, I attended the Kentucky Hospital Asso- .
ciation (KHA) Annual Leadership Conference in Lexington. This  
was a very intense and informative conference sponsored by KHA. I
Govemor Paul Patton was present for the welcoming and addressed 5
the Sate of the Commonwealth. Govemor Patton spoke on issues i
concerning the State Medicaid Program shortfall not only in Ken- i
tucky, but nationwide. The State is planning to implement a DRG 5
system for Medicaid in-patient stays at the first of the year. The ‘
issue of critical care nursing and allied healthcare worker shortage J
was also addressed. i
Tom Barker, Esq., Senior Outreach and Policy Advisor
for Medicare and Medicaid Services also spoke at the Conference. y
Mr. Barker stated that there are 40 million people without health ri
insurance. The goal next year will be to reduce regulatory burdens  
and get the govemment out ofthe hospitals and physicians offices  
and allow providers to treat patients. ~
KHA’s legislative priorities for the 2003 Kentucky Gen- i
eral Assembly will include Tort Reform to address the rising cost *
of medical malpractice insurance in Kentucky. With the rising cost
of malpractice insurance providers will be leaving their practice
and moving to other areas. 86% of Kentucky is medically ‘
underserved. This will cause patients and hospitals to suffer. I

Linda Craft, RBS, Director of Nursing, attended a KHA
meeting on Strategies to Promote Nursing and Allied Health Ca-
? reers. KHA’s staff is setting goals to collaborate with school sys-
J tems and local communities to inspire the youth in our areas to
  consider nursing or allied health careers in Kentucky.
j. We have some ofthe most compassionate, knowledgeable,
and professional nurses you can find anywhere. Here in the moun-
. tains of eastern Kentucky, we are beginning to feel the eifect of not
I having enough nurses and allied health workers. Fortunately, we
  are not feeling the brunt of what the larger urban areas are experi-
i encing. The shortage has brought with it a newfound respect to the
nursing practice as a whole. One ofthe biggest problems that hos-
pitals will be facing in the near future will be the shortage of nurses
who care for the patients in the hospital setting.
j It is very important that involvement in recruitment and
l retention of nursing and allied health workers begin at an early
  Many thanks to Mike Rust and the staff at KHA for their
l hard work and dedication to healthcare.
{ The healthcare delivered today at Mary Breckinridge
Healthcare is a legacy, one of which Mary Breckinridge would be.

_ New Healthcare Centers Update
by Heidi Froemke, Dupont Chair I
Director of Rural Health Clinic Operations  
It has been a long road, but the end *
is in sight. The new company, Frontier Nur-  
sing Healthcare, Inc. (FNH, Inc) will soon »   p
consist of four rural health clinics, Beech A ,   ~" 7    
Fork Clinic, Community Health Center, —      
Kate Ireland Healthcare Center and the Dr.   L .  j r  ->fi· 1  
Anne Wasson Healthcare Clinic. Through w    
the hard work of many people and with the assistance of our con- ‘
sulting firm, APEX, our plan is to have the new company, and it’s  
rural clinics, seeing patients by January 6, 2003. I
I have been given the responsibility of spearheading this i
forward movement to completion. Much work remains to be done. ’
The Kate Ireland Healthcare Center (Manchester, KY), is taking I
shape quickly. The building is to be fmished by the end of`Novem-  
ber. The process of moving will take place throughout the month  
of December. The Dr. Anne Wasson Healthcare Clinic (Hyden,
KY) is moving into the old Home Health Building across the park-
ing lot from the Mary Breckinridge Hospital. A fresh coat of paint, I
a new floor, a renovated lab and fresh curtains will soon complete I
the clinic. The move from the Kate Ireland Women’s Clinic (in the I
Hospital) to the Wasson Clinic takes place the very end of Decem- l
ber. We’re on a fast track to complete this project somewhere be-  
tween turkey dimier and New Year’s Eve celebrations!  
These two new clinics will combine the best tradition of i
FNS - Family Nurse Practitioners and Certified Nurse Midwives I
working under the same roof to deliver healthcare to all ages.
Beech Fork and Community Health Center will do what °
they do best, hold the line while we move forward with the new
clinics. Sanding, vamishing, spraying, painting, hammering . . .
these are only a piece of the project. There are still licenses, per- °
mits, and inspections to complete and pass successfhlly. We’re on
the move, thanks to the hard work and contributions of many, many
wonderful workers!

F by Kitty Ernst
l I have just come from another Frontier Bound where a
l new class of very talented nurses began their journey into their
education for nurse-midwifery and family nursing practice. In little
l more than a decade, we have admitted more than 1000 such nurses
; from all 50 states and from 7 foreign countries. They are the nurses
  making the two year transition from, as one student stated, " wanna
i be to gonna be" nurse-midwives and nurse practitioners. Many
l have waited years for the opportunity that the distance education
i program developed at the Frontier School of Midwifery and Fam-
; ily Nursing is providing.
l The program has earned the respect of nurses, midwives
i and physicians throughout the land. It not only offers a strong and
challenging curriculum that prepares graduates for today’s com-
A plex world of health care delivery, but it is a program that respects
l and builds on the years of experience that the nurses that come to
it bring. The orientation and beginning studies are heavily laced
with the rich heritage of the Frontier Nursing Service and the les-
sons to be leamed from the wisdom of its founder, Mary Breckin-
ridge. The purpose of weeklong experience is to build a sense of
j community, a bond, among the students and with the faculty that
diminishes the geographical distances between them as they work
  together over the next two years preparing for their life mission.
  I have been connected to Frontier in one way or another
l for over half a century. I have found that this connection, this bond,
is a hallmark of the unique experiences of all who have been part
of this service over the years. I often wish that some of the past
Q couriers, nurses, and supporters ofthe Service in the city commit-
tees could come to a Frontier Bound. They would experience, first
hand, the fact that, through the distance education program, their
= faithful support made it possible for the vision of Mary Breckin-
ridge to continue and that it is alive and well and growing at an
unprecedented rate. It truly is the Banyan Tree that she hoped would

_ bring shade to Wide Neighborhoods of men.
One of the special moments at the end ofthe first week of
Frontier Bound is the dinner and tour at Wendover. My assign- *
ment on that evening is to sit in a rocker in the bedroom of Mrs.
Breckinridge and try to give the students a sense of this remark-
able woman. I point to the milestones of her life displayed in pho- C
tos and certificates on the walls and remind them these events were
all in preparation for the embarking on an extraordinary demon-
stration for the delivery of health care to women and children and
families in a forgotten frontier of America. I remind them that
these frontiers still exist in our rural and urban areas and through-
out the world and that their mission is to go there and bring the
hope that their services can bring to young families. The average
age of our students is 37 and I remind those who are feeling the
first flushes of hot flashes that she was 44 when she embarked on
this venture. I pick up one of her books, which are always full of
her notations to show the depth of her searching for meaning. I ask
them to open her tiny closet to point out that she did not clutter her
life with worldly possessions for all she had was contained in that
small space.
We believe strongly in the value of storytelling as a leam-
ing medium and devote one evening to stories from faculty and
students. Many poignant experiences are shared. Every evening
we form a circle to provide an opportunity for thoughtful repose
or for students and faculty to express their feelings about this be-
gimiing of their transition from competent experience nurses to "
competent nurse midwives and family nurse practitioners. We sing
the old midwife songs that Helen Browne taught me. We sing the
school song. We sing Amazing Grace for it has meaning for people
making a dramatic life change. The last evening is dedicated to the
student and faculty follies. This is an entertaining evening of skits  
by students and faculty.
One director of a university based nurse-midwifery pro-
gram who came to Frontier Bound remarked, "What I see is that 4
you are changing the culture of education and it is good.” I think
we have just developed a way to role-model midwifery in a part-
nership with our students.

We want mothers under our care to be confident about
giving birth and competent in nurturing their children. We want
. our students to be confident, competent practitioners and do all we
know how to do to make that happen. This is what the school has
always done. When I look back, this is what Mary Breckirrridge
I did when she handed me my diploma and said, "Go forth my child
and take care of mothers and babies.” I rode my horse over the
mountain to the Bowlingtown Center to relieve the British nurse-
midwife for a three—month holiday. After a one-week orientation
she left her district in my hands and with the confidence imparted
to me by Mary Breckinridge and this experienced midwife, I knew
I could do it.
Dr. Susan Stone, Dean and President ofthe school, is now
engaged with the leadership faculty in the long and arduous task of
taking the next quantum leap into the future. When this work is
completed, the Frontier School will become accredited to give stu-
dents the choice of a Masters Degree in Nursing. The affiliation
with Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing will contunue for
those who prefer that program or who already have a Masters
Degree and seek to apply their Frontier education to their pursuit
of doctoral studies. I hope that all our alumni and past supporters
will continue to help us bring this necessary academic venture to
Frontier Nursing Service - www.fr0ntiemursing.org
FSMFN Community Based Nurse Midwifery Education Program
(CNEP) - wwvv.midwives.org
FSMFN Community Based Nurse Practitioner Program (CFNP)
- www.frontierfirp.org

In Memory of Robert (Junior) Phipps, Jr.
' by Barb Gibson ,
, S   iii   ~
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Junior Phqzps - Christmas 1998 p
The staff at Wendover was greatly saddened by the death .
of our friend and co-worker, Robert (Junior) Phipps, Jr. Junior f
was a member ofthe maintenance crew at Wendover for 12 years. l
He was a friend to some and was like a brother to others. Q
Junior lived in the Upper Shelf at Wendover and ensured Z
the safety of Wendover during nights as well as working in main- I
tenance during the day. He was a dear and precious friend of Dr. f
Arme Wasson, retired physician, who lived at Wendover for sev- l
eral years until her death in March 2002. When Dr. Anne became I
ill, she would call Junior at all hours of the night to come to her. I
Junior was always there for her.
Junior’s happiest times were at Christmas when we had fi
our employee parties. He felt he was a part of the Wendover fam- ,
ily, and he was. We will miss his smile and will hold dear to our  
hearts the good times we had. U

Mary Breckinridge Festival 2002
by Mary Ethel Wooton
l Mary Ethel Wooton is a retired history teacher who works part
l time in the Property Valuation Ojice in Hyden and donates a
if tremendous amount of time working on various voluntary projects.
In late June of this year, several community activists in
Leslie County learned that there were no plans for a 2002 Mary
Breckinridge Festival and that the previous committee had dis-
V banded. These activists adopted the goal of continuing the Festival
and, more importantly, of tuming its focus back on the legacy of
Mrs. Breckinridge and the Frontier Nursing Seryice. Many volun-
teers came from all segments ofthe community and combined their
. talents and skills to make this one ofthe most successful Festivals
in recent history.
Among the early decisions made were to return the Festi-
val to the City of Hyden where all events could be within walking
distance of each other, to add new events more reflective of our
heritage, and to go into the schools with lessons on Mary Breckin-
ridge. Events were scheduled at the Public Library, the Coopera-
tive Extension Agency building, the Baptist Church, Community
Center and Hyden Elementary School campus. Parts of Maple
Street were closed to traffic to accommodate exhibits and musical
·· The Festival Committee created "Theatre on Main", a se-
ries of dramas presented at the Community Center and at the Li-
brary. The major attraction was A Stalwart Tree, a play written by
Leslie County High School students about Mrs. Breckinridge. The
cast included students and teachers from elementary schools and
”’ the high school, as well as members of the community. lt was the
j first effort in our county by "community players."
Another highlight was Laura Scott, Kentucky Midwife, a
'° performance presented by a member ofthe Kentucky Chautauqua.
A In addition to live dramas, The Forgotten Frontier, a movie pro-
€ duced by the FNS, was shown continuously at the Community
E Center on Saturday, the major day of the Festival.

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Scene II Mountain Born - play entitled A Stalwart Tree (Judy  
Napieg mother sitting and Jenna Asher on floor)  
The parade route was changed so that it concluded in town;
thus, those who viewed the parade could then walk to the other
attractions. The parade, with its heritage theme, was led by a rid-
erless horse in honor of` Mrs. Breckinridge. Other units included a
vintage FNS jeep, school floats featuring students dressed as Mrs.
Breckinridge, and a community float ridden by the "Golden Girls",
a group of nurse-midwives who studied at FNS and who still live
in the area. I
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Historical FNS Jeep

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"T he Golden Girls " IM to right: Skip Spell, Barb French and
Maribrn Osborne
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Lei to right: Ragen Caldwell and Hazel C ausey

Retired teachers partnered with the FNS staff at Wendover
_ and the Leslie County Extension Office to prepare lessons about
Mrs. Breckinridge. These lessons were presented in all classrooms ~
in all Leslie County elementary schools. Historical items, such as
photographs, a medical bag, and a nurse’s blue riding uniform,
were used in the presentations. From the photographs, coloring
booklets were created for use in kindergarten through third-grade I
classes. The four best-colored booklets were selected in each class- I
room and displayed on the windows of the County Extension  
Office during Festival week. In grades four through six, the stu-  
dents made posters about Mrs. Breckinridge and the Festival. The  
three best posters from each classroom were displayed in area  
businesses and offices during Festival week.
The Festival Committee is pleased with its efforts in 2002.
Attendance was much increased over recent years. Participation
in the parade and other events increased. New volunteers have l
joined and suggestions have been offered for additional events. We  
are working with a representative ofthe Kentucky Arts Council to I
advise us on how to improve the "heritage" aspect of the Festival. 4
The schools welcomed our efforts and have invited us back
next year. The English Department at the high school plans to i
make the play an annual production. We are working with the staff  
at Wendover to develop additional lessons