xt7sbc3svd3j https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7sbc3svd3j/data/mets.xml Freemasons. Grand Lodge of Kentucky. 1808  books b92-107-27901994 English Printed by Daniel Bradford at the office of the Kentucky Gazette, on Main Street, : Lexington : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Freemasons Constitution. Freemasonry Rituals.Moore, James. Clarke, Cary L. Masonic constitutions, or, Illustrations of Masonry / compiled by the direction of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, and adopted by them for the regulation and government of the subordinate lodges under their jurisdiction ; with an appendix containing remarkson the degrees of Master mark masons, Super excellent master, and Royal arch masons ; by James Moore and Cary L. Clarke. text Masonic constitutions, or, Illustrations of Masonry / compiled by the direction of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, and adopted by them for the regulation and government of the subordinate lodges under their jurisdiction ; with an appendix containing remarkson the degrees of Master mark masons, Super excellent master, and Royal arch masons ; by James Moore and Cary L. Clarke. 1808 2002 true xt7sbc3svd3j section xt7sbc3svd3j 





                OF THE




                OF THE






          RO YL .ARCH lMAlSON.S.

      elrmberm of the Grand Lodge of Xentucky.



                  1 808

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                     UNITED STATES,
                                 KEINVrUCKr DisrRicir sc'.
  BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the thirtieth dav of March, in
  D    the year onethotisand eight hundred and eight, and in the thirty-
second year of the Independence of the United States of America, Yaeaes
Moore, and Cary L. Clarke, of the said district deposited in this office the
title of a Book, the right whereof they claim as Proprietors, in the wor(ds
following, (to wit.) " Masonic Constitutions, or Illustrations' of Masonry;
  compiled by the direction of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, and adopted b/
  them for the regulation and government of the Snbordinate Lodges under
A their jurisdiction-With an Appendix, containing remarks on the Degrees
" of Master Mark Masons, Snper Excellent Master, and Royal Asrch A1a-
sons"-In conformity to the act of congress of the United States of Arnerica,
entitled, " An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the co-
pies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such
copies, during the times therein mentioned." And also to an act, entitled
" An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of
Maps, Charts and Books, to the austhors and proprietors of such copies
during the terms therein mentioned. and extending the benefits thereof to
the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."
    IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my haui. as
.:-r_.  Clerk of the District Court of the Unitel States, in :t lfor
L     S  the Kentucky District aforesaid, and the seal of my sa id office
S L-S.- S at Frankfort, this 30th day of March, 1808, and of the in(le
    : -:t; pendence of the United States the thirty-second.
                                THOs. TUNSTALL, c. x. D. C.

  BE IT KNOWN, that we Yames Moore and Ca)y L. Clarhe, dI)
hereby assign all our right, title, claim or demand, to the title of the 3h5 e
mentioned work, to George M. Bibb, as acting G. M. of Free and Ac-
cepted Masons for the state of Kentucky and his successors foreser.
  IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, we have hereunto set our hands a. l
seals this 30th day of March, A. D. 1808. A. L. 5808.
                                 JAMES MOORE,         (Seal.,)
                                 CARY L. CLARKE. (Srat.)

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   THE necessity of a work explanatory of the principles
and constitutions of ancient Masonry, has long been obvious
to the brethren of the western country. Impressed with this
opinion, and desirous of remedying the deficiency, the Grand
Lodge of Kentucky appointed a committee to prepare and
arrange a treatise upon that subject ; in pursuance of which
appointment, the following sheets have been compileu and
arranged for their inspection: in doing which, the compilers
have endeavoured to combine utility with precision, instruc-
tion with amusement, and advantage with convenience; still
having special regard to the ancient land marks. How far
they have succeeded is left to the candour and good sense of
the honest reader to determine: from their brethren, they
ask for that indulgence for imperfections which the want of
extensive opportunities of research, and their attention to bu-
sy avocations, may demand; to those authors from whom
they have largely extracted, they are bound to acknowledge
the amount of their obligations; from the older and more sci-
entific Masons, they expect that candour and forbearance
which are characteristic of the fraterflity. Happy however
in the sanction and the approbation of the Grand Lodge of
Kentucky, if any brother shall be instructed or improved, if
the craft in general shall be benefited, and the science of Ma-
sonry be exhibited in a more correct point of view, then will
-the reward indeed be ample,
             Of the Society's sincere friends,
                                 THE COMPILERS.

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   THE Almighty Architect and Grand Master of the Uni-
verse having created all thin- s very good, and according to
Geometry, last of all formed man after his own image, en-
graving on his heart the said noble science; which Adam
soon discovered by surveying his earthly paradise, and the fa-
brication of the arbour, or sylvan lodgment that God had pre-
pared for him, a well proportioned and convenient place of
shelter from heat, and of retirement, rest and repast after his
wholesome labour in cultivating his garden of delights, and
the first temple or place of worship, agreeably to his original
perfect and innocent state.
  It is very immaterial whether we should antiquate our mys-
tery or make it coeval with mankind, by insisting that the
first man, Adam, had some knowledge of geometry; yet it
is a very probable assertion that Adam's time must have been
employed in those preservative inventions that were coinci-
dent with his existence, and that he contrived for his dear as-
sociate, the fair and delicate Eve, some covering, with cur-
tains of safety around her mossy sofa from the inclemencies
of the weather, as well as from the danger of being devoured
by the wild beasts, with which they were surrounded; from
hence we may derive those innate affections, the peculiar re-
gard and special attachment that Masons, independent of na-
ture and improved politeness, have cver preserved for the
fair sex.


  The traditional account upon this subject is, that Adam af-
ter having been driven from paradise on account of his diso-
bedience to the commands of his Creator, together with his
son's, held frequent conventions or Lodges for the purpose of
devising and inventing such improvements in Architecture
and Geometry as would be conducive to their future happiness
and convenience in the world.
  The information of Moses, the Grand Master of Israel,
may certainly be relied on, who informs us that Jabal, the son
of Lamach, was the father of such as dwelt in tents, and of
such as have cattle; his brother's name was Jubal, he was
the father of all such as haadle the harp and organ.
  That Tubal-Cain, so called by the Hebrews, the eighth
man from Adam, had so improved himself in geometry that
he became the first inventer as well as instructor of curious
swith work. The rpost learned expositions agree that the
Egyptians and Grecians called him by the name of Hephais-
tos, and held him to be the first inventor of Metalic opera-
tions by fire-the Romans ascribed to him the same art, by
the name of Xulcan.
  The sons and grand sons of Adam, were successors of eaoi
other in the direction of the Graud works of Architecture mid
Geometry, till godly Enoch, who was a prophet, foretold
the destruction of the earth for sin, first by water, and after-
wards by fire; wherefore Enoch erected two large pillars, the
one of stone, the other of brick, whereon he engraved the
abridgment of the arts and sciences, particularly Geometry
and Masonry. Josephus confirms this account of the pillars
-having been erected and the discoveries particularly in
-Astronomy having been engraved thereon, and also that the
-atone pillar was standing in his time. Lib. 1. chap. 2.
  At last when the world's destruction drew nigh, God
commanded Noah to build the great Ark or floating Castle,
and his three -sons assited as deputy and two wardens; that
-edifice though of wood, only was fabricated by Geometry, a
curious and large piece of Architecture, and finished when
Noah entered into his six hundredth yearAon board of
which he and his three sons and their four wives passed, and


having received their cargo of animals by God's direction,
they were saved in the Ark. Thus from these four grand
officers the whole race of mankind are descended.
  After the flood, Noah and his three sons having preserved
the knowledge of the arts and sciences, communicated them
to their growing offspring who were all of one language or
speech, and it came to pass as they journeyed from the east
towards the west, they found a plain in the land of Shinai and
dwelt there as Noacides or sons of Noah.
  One hund red and one years after the flood, the descendants
of Noah becoming numerous, he partitioned the earth amongst
them and ordered them to disperse and take possession;
but fearing the ill consequences of their separation they were
unwilling to disperse, but resolved if they must do so to trans-
mit their memorial illustrious to all future generations: they
accordingly employed themselves under grand master Nim-
rod, in the large and fertile vale of Shinaralong the banks of
'the Tigris, in building a -great and stately tower and city, the
largest work the world ever saw; but they knew not when to
(desist till their Maker provoked by their vanity interrupted
their grand design by confounding their speech; hence the
city was called Babel or confusion.
  From Shinar the sciences and arts were carried to the dis-
tant parts of the earth, notwithstanding the confusion of the
dialects, that indeed gave rise to the Mason's faculty and uni-
versal practice of conversing without speaking, and knowing
each other by signs and tokens, which they settled on their dis-
persion or migration, in case any of them should meet in dis-
tant parts who before had been in Shinar.
  It would be tedious and uninteresting to trace the regular
progression of Masonry and the arts from these dates of anti-
quity down to modern times; we shall content ourselves with
mentioning, a few of the most remarkable particulars, the
earliest and most remarkable display of industry and the art i
after the confusion of Babel, was exhibited by the E-vptians,
who were soon renowned for their taste and skill in the sci-
ences; the celebrated cities of Memphis, Heiiopolis and
Thebes, with its hundred gates, besides their palaces and so-


pulchres, their obelisks and statuesstheirfamotts pynainids, th,
greatest of which is reckoned the first of the seven wonders of
the world, stand as monuments of the industry and perse-
verance of this people.
  The Egyptians excelled all nations also in their amazing
labarynths, one of them is said to cover the ground of a whole
province, containing many fine palaces and one hundred tem-
ples, disposed in its several quarters and divisions, adorned
with columns of the best porphyre, and the statues of their
gods and princes. Abram who was born in the 2608th year
of the world, having sojourned in the land of Canaan till he
was seventy-five years of age, was driven by famine down into
Fgypt, where he received instruction in all the arts of Geome-
try and Architecture, which he carefully communicated on
his return to the free born of the Canaanites and particularly
to his descendants; Isaac and Jacob did the like also to their
families, while Joseph in process of time became the grand
master of the Egyptian Masons. About eighty years before
the Exodus of Moses, the Israelites became enslaved by the
Egyptians, who caused them to labour exceedingly in stone
and brick masonry, and made them build up many strong and
stately cities. At length the measure of their sufferings be-
ing completed, Moses marched out of Egypt at the head of
six hundred thousand Hebrew males, marshalled in due form;
for whose sake God divided the Red Sea to let therm pass
through and drowned Pharoah and the Egyptians that pursued
them. A. M. 2513.
  While marching through Arabia to Canaan, God was
pleased to inspire their grand master Moses, Joshua his de-
uuty, and Ahobab and Basaleel, grand wardens, with 'wisdom
of heart, and the next year they raised the curious tabernacle
whe re the divine Shecina resided, and the holy Ark, the symbol
of God's presence, which was framed by Geometry, it most
beautiful piece of symmetrical architecture, according to the
pattern which God discovered to Moses on Mount Sinai, and
which was afterwards the model of Solomon's Temple.
  But the temple of the most high at Jerusalem, far exceeded
in magnificence and splendour, all the other structures in the



-world beside; it was btfilt by that Oisest man and most glori-
ous king of Israel, Solomon the son of David, the prince of
peace and Architecture, the grand master Mason of his day,
who performed all by divine direqction, and without the noise
of tools; all the stones, timbers find foundings, being brought
ready cut, framed and polished to Jerusalem.
  It was founded in the fourth year of Solomon on the second
day of the second month of that year, after the Exodus 480
years, Anno mundi 2993, before Christ 10 11.
  The following number of operators are said to have been
employed in carrying on the work:
  1 st. .Rulers, provosts or overseers of the)
    people in working, who were expert S      3,600
    master Masons,                   I
  2. Of the stone cutters and sculptors,]
    layers, builders, who were expert fel-   80,000
    low crafts,
  3. The levy of assistance under the no-)
    ble Adonerain, who was the grand jun. 5.  30,000
    warden.                          J

               In all free Masons,             113,600
  Besides bondmen, labourers and bearers    70,000
    of burdens,                              0

                                  In all        183,600
  Solomon was much obliged and assisted by Hiram, king of
Tyre, who sent him many of his best artists and builders, to-
gether with the firs and cedars of Lebanon. But above all he
sent his name-sake Hiram Abbiff, the most accomplished de-
signer and operator on earth, who in Solomon's absence filled
the chair as deputy grand master, and was the principal sur-
veyor and master of the work.
  Solomon partitioned the fellowcrafts into certain Lodges
with a master and wardens in each, that they might receive
commands in a regular manner, might take care of their tools
and jewels, might be regularly paid every week, and be duly
fed and clothed, c. and the fellow crafts took care of their
succession, by educating entered apprentices.



  Thus a solid foundation was laid of perfect harmony amongst
the brotherhood; the Lodge was strongly cemented with
love and friendship; every brother was duly taught secrecy
aund prudence, morality and good fellowship; each knew his
peculiar business, and the grand design was vigorously pur-
sued at a prodigiousexpence. No structure was ever like this
for exact proportion and beautiful dimensions from the most
magnificent portico in the east, to the SANCTUM SANC-
TORUMI in -the west, with numerous apartments, pleasant
and convenient lodgings and chambers for the kings and
princes, the Sanhedrim, the priest, and Levites of Israel; and
the outer court for the Gentiles, it being an house of prayer
for all nations; and capable of receiving in all its courts and
apartments together, about three hundred thousand people-
it was adorned with one thousand four hundred and fifty-three
columns of parien marble, twisted or sculptured or fluted
with twice as many pilasters, both having exquisite capitals or
chapters of several diffccnt noble orders, -and about two thou-
sand two hundred and forty-six windows, and it was lined with
mass gold set with innumerable diamonds and other precious
stones, in the most harmonious, beautiful and costly decora-
  It was finished in the short space of seven years and six
months to the amazement of all the world, when the cape
stone, was celebrated with great joy by the fraternity. But
their joy was soon interrupted by the sudden death of their
clear master Hiram Abbiff; whonm they decently interred in
the Lodge near the temple agreeable to ancient usage.
  Aftcr H irarn Abbiff was mourned fo., tc tabernacje of Mo-
ses and its holy reliques being lodged i- :  temple, Solomon
in a general assembly dedicated and cc-.-. crated it by solemn
prayer and costly sacrafices past numbc:-, w ith the purest mu-
sic, vocal and instrumcntal, praising Jehovah upon fixing the
ho!y Ark in its proper place, between the cherubims, when
Jehovah filled his own temple with a cloud of glory.
  This glorious edifice attracted soon the inquisitive connois-
seurs of all nations, to travel and spend some time at Jerusalem,
to Dorvcv its peculiar excellencics, as much as was al!owedo



the Gentiles, and they soon discovered that all the world witla
their joint skill, came far short of the Israelites in the wis-
dom, strength, and beauty of Architecture, when the wise king
Solomnon was grand master of all Masons at Jerusalem, and the
learned king Hiram was grand master at Tyre, and inspired
Hiram Abbiff had been master of work, when true and corn-
pleat Masonry was under the immediate care and direction of
Heaven; when the noble and wise thought it their honor to
be the associates of the ingenious craftsmen, in their well
formed Lodges; and so the temple of Jehovah, the one true
God, became the just wonder of all travellers, by which as by
the most perfect pattern, they resolved to correct the arch-
itecture of their own countries upon their return.
  From this time Masonry ill systematic form could be traced
as propagated and encouraged by all the succeeding kings
and princes in their time throughout the civilized world; but
the various revolutions of empires, the rising and falling of
kingdoms in succession, would produce such changes in every
art, science and institution, as could not with propriety be
here enumerated; the inquisitive Mason can ascertain from
history and various records, that the royal Art was encou-
raged and propagated through the 'whole age of promise and
expectancy, by both the Jewish and Roman kings, till in pro-
ces of time, the word was made flesh, or the Lord Jesus Christ,
Immanuel was born, the Architcct or grand master of the
Christian church, in the computed year of Masonry 4000;
during the reign of Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of
Judea, our Lord Jesus Christ was crucified and by his order,
without the wal!s of Jerusalem, and rose again from the dead,
on the third day, for the justification of all that believed in
  Rude ages of barbarity, ignorance and oppression inter-
vened at different periods of the world, during which it was
difficult to propagate, and keep alive the various imnprove-
ments and discoveries that had been adopted; but institutions
and advancement in Ecience, thus founded on the eternal rock
oftruthsarenot to beeasilv demolished. AschrLtianity and
civilization progressed, Masonry also rose into esteem. We



find that it was early introduced into Great Britain by the Ro.
mans; Cvsar, particularly, and the other Roman gerterals
who succeeded him, were reckoned patrons and protectors of
the craft. The successive wars which ensued between the
contending emperors and generals, considerably obstructed
the progress of Masonry in Britain, till the time of the empe-
ror Carausius, by whom it was revived and particularly en-
couraged. Having shaken off the Roman yoke, he contrived
the most effectual means of rendering his person and govern-
ment agreeable to the people, and assuming the character of
a Mason, he acquired the love and esteem of the most en-
lightened part of his subjects; he possessed real merit, en-
couraged learning and learned men, improved the country in
the civil arts, and in order to establish an empire in Britain, he
collected into his dominions the best workmen and artificers
from all parts. Among the first class of his favourites came
the Masons; for their tenets he professed the highest venera-
tion, and appointed Albamus the principal superintendent of
their assemblies. Under his patronage Lodges and conven-
tions of the fraternity were regularly forroed, and the rights
of Masonry regularly practised. To enable the Masons to
hold a general counsel, to establish their own government, and
correct errors among themselves, hle granted to them a char-
ter, and commanded Albamus to preside over them as grand
master. This worthy knight proved a zealous friend to the
craft, and afterwards assisted at the initiation of many persons,
into the mysteries of the order. Albamus or St. Alban was
the first who suffered martyrdom for the Christian religion in
Britain, and the old constitutions affirm, that hie was employed
by the emperor Carausius to build a wall round the city of
Vcmlam, and erect for him a splendid palace, and that to re-
wa'd his diligence in executing those works, the emperor made
him steward of his household, and chief ruler of the realm.
However this may be, we are assured from the corroborating
testimony of antient historians, that he was an able architect
and real encourager of the craft.
  Masonry made but slow progress in Great Britain from the
time of the dcparture of the I.omans, till the year A. D. 557,



whrn Austin, with forty monks, among whom the sciences
had been preserved, came to England. Austin was commis.
sioned by Pope Gregory to baptize Ethelbert, king of Kent,
who appointed him the first archbishop of Canterbury.
  This moUlr and his associates, propagated the principles of
hi liBty aimong -the inhabitants of Britain, and-by their in-
fluence in little more than sixty years, all the kings of the
keptaroky were converted. Masonry flourished underthc pa-
tronage of Autin; he seems to have been a zealous encou-
rager of Architecture, and appeared at the head of the frater-
nity in founding the old cathedral of Canterbury, in the year
;oo, and thecathedral of Rochester, in 602, St. Paul' s, London,
in 604, St. Peter's, Westminster, in 605, and many others.
  Some expert brethren arriving from France in 608, formed
themselves into a Lodge under the direction of Bennett Ab-
bott of Wirral, who was soon after appointed by Kinred, king
of Mercia, inspector of the Lodges and general superintendant
of the Masons.
  Masonry has generally kept pace with the progress of
learning; the patrons and encouragers of the latter having
been most remarkable for cultivating and promoting the
  No prince ever studied more to polish and improve the un-
derstanding of his subjects, than king Alfred, and no one ever
proved a better friend to Masonry. Mr. Hume in his history,
of England, relates the following particulars of this celebrated
  "1 Alfred usually divided his time into three equal portions:
  one was employed in sleep and the refection of his body by
" diet and exercise, another in the dispatch of business, and
" a third in study and devotion. That he might more exactly
  measut e the hours, he made use of burning tapers of equal
" lengths which he fixed in lanterns, an expedient suited to
" that r'ide age, when the art of describing sun dials, and the
" mechanism of clocks and watches were totally unknown
" By this regular distribution of time, though he often laboured
" under great bodily infirmities, this martial hero, who fought
" in person fifty.six battles by sea and land, was able during a



" life of no extraordinary length, to acquire more knowledge,
" and even compose more books than most studious men,
" blest with greater leisure and application, have done in more
" fortunate ages."
  On the death of Alfred in 900, Edward succeeded to the
throne, during whose reign, the Masons continued to hold their
Lodges under the sanction of Ethred his sister's husband, and
Ethward his brother, to whom the care of the fraternity was
entrusted. Ethward was a prince of great learning and an
able Architect; he founded the university of Cambridge.
  Edward died in 924, and was succeeded by Athelstane his
son, who appointed his brother Edwin patron of the Masons.
This prince procured a charter from Athelstane, empowering
them to meet annually in communication at York, where the
first Grand Lodge of England was formed in 926, at which
Edwin presided as grand master. Here many old writings
were produced in Greek, Latin and other languages, from
which the constitutions of the English Lodges are originally
derived. From this zra we date the establishment of Free
Masonry in England. There is at present a Grand Lodge of
Masons in the city of York, who trace their existence from
this period, by virtue of Edwin's charter; it is said, all the
Masons in the realm .were convened at a general assembly ih
that city, where they established a general or Grand Lodge
for their future government.
  Under the patronage and jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge,
it is alledged the fraternity considerably increased, and kingsi
princes, and other eminent persons who had been initiated into
Masonry, paid due allegience to that grand assembly. The
appellation of antient York Masons, is wvell known in all regu-
lar Lodges,and the universal tradition is, that the brethren of
that appellation, originated from the memorable assemblage
at York.
  On the death of Edwin, Atheistanc undertook in person the
direction of the Lodges, and the art of Masonry was propa-
gated in peace and security under his sanction.
   The craft continued to receive the encouragement of the
kings, the royal families and the ministry; some of whom



were commonly the grand master, and presided in the Lodges,
tilf the year 1425, at which time Henry VI. a minor, being
on the throne, an act of parliament was passed prohibiting and
forbidding the assemblies or congregations of Masons to be
held, and declaring that any person convicted of procuring
or causing such meetings to be holden, should be adjudged
guilty of felony, and all persons attending such assemblies
should be punished by fine and imprisonment at the will of the
king. But this act was never put in force, nor the fraternity,
deterred from assembling as usual, under arch-bishop Church-
ley, who still continued to preside over them. Notwithstand-
ing this rigorous edict, the effects of prejudice and malevo-
lence, in an arbitrary set of men, Lodges were formed in dif-
ferent parts of the kingdom, and tranquility and felicity reign.
ed amongst the brethren.
  In 1485, Henry the VII. came to the throne, who became
the patron of the craft, and under his auspices the fraternity
flourished, and Masonry progressed with an additional splen-
dor. On the 24th day of June, 1502, a Lodge of master Ma-
sons was formed in the palace, at which the king presided in
person as master; and having appointed John Islip, Abbot,
of Westminster, and sir Regmald Bray, knight of the garter,
his wardens for the occasion, they proceeded in ample pro-
cession to the east end of Westminster Abbey, where the
king laid the foundation stone of that rich master piece of
Gothic Architecture, known by the name of Henry the se-
venth's chapel. In the reign of queen Elizabeth, sir Thomas
Sackville accepted the office of grand master, during which
period, Lodges were held in different parts of the kingdom;
but the general or grand Lodge, always assembled in York,
where the fraternity were numerous and respectable.
  The following circumstance is recorded of Elizabeth: hear-
ing that the Masons wvere in possession of secrets which they
would not reveal, and being jealous of all secret assemblies,
she sent an armed force to York with intent to break up their
annual grand Lodge.
  This design, however, was happily frustrated by the inter-
position of sir Thomas Sackville, who took care to initiate


some of the chief officers she had sent on tils Auty. Thet
joined in communication with the Masons, and made so fa-
vourable a report to the queen on their return, that she coui-
termanded her orders, and neler After attempted 'tb distuiirb
the meetings of the fraternity.
  The year 166 6, afforded a singular and awifl 6ccatibi X
the utmost exertion of Masonic abilities.
  The city of London, which had been visited the Jpreceding
year by the plague, to whose ravages it is computed abov
100,000 of its inhabitaits fell a sactifice, had scarcely - reco-
vered from the alarm of that dreadful contagion, when a ge-
neral conflagration, reduced the greatest part of the city
within the walls, to ashes. The persons wlho were appiintltI
surveyors on this occason to examine the ruins, repotfI thlat
the fire overran 373 acres within thes walls, and busnt l3,0O
houses, 89 parish churches, besides chapels, leaving only II
churches standing. The Royal Exchange, Custom   Douse,
Guildhall, Blackwell hall, the two Cotnptets, fifty-two city com-
panies, halls, and three city gates were all destroyed. The da-
mage was computed at 1. 10,000,000 sterling. The most skilful
of the ci aft were called uporn on this occasion, to-devise plans for
rebuilding the city in a more elegant style, and in a way that ft
would not in future be so subject to'be destroyed by this ungo-
vernable element. The king and grand master, immediately
appointed doctor Christopfier Wfren, who was deputy gala
master, to be the surveyor general and principal arcihitect fir
rebuilding the city. This gentleman conceiving the charge too
important for a single person, selected mr.Robert Hook, Jfro.
fessor of geometry in Gresham college, to assist hbin, howele
immediately employed inmeasuring the ground, and adjusting
the strects,till they produced a plan which tnetthe approbation
of the kin-g, and agreeable tp the manner in which the cityhas
since appeared. On the 23d of O6tober, 1667, the king-in-per-
son, levelled in due form the foundation stone of the New Royil
Exchange, now allowed to be the finest in Europe. Many
other public and private edifices were commenced with zeal,
and finished with amazing rapidity and elegance. In 1671,
deputy Wren, began to build that great fluted column called



tHe mhumexkt, in merooy of the burning and rebuilding of
the city of London. This stupendous pillar was finished in
1677. It is built of Portland stone, of the Doric order: its alti-
tude from the ground is X02 feet; the greatest diameter of the
body of the columrn, is 15 feet; the ground plinth or bottom of
the pedestal, 28 feet square, and the pedestal 40 feet high.
Over the capitol is an iron balcony, encompassing a cone 32
feet bigh, supporting a burning urn of gilt brass. It is orna-
mented in a mastqrly manner with a number of emblems and
statues, descriptive of the object intended to be commemo-
  But few things remarkable occurred in the succeeding an-
pias of Masonry. Thus far we have thought proper to trace
its origin and progression, till we find the institution establish-
ed on a permanent basis, and reduced to proper system and
order. A further narrative of its history would occupy more
room than could be bestowed in this work: the enquiring
'craftsman can find var