xt7sf7664h2c https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7sf7664h2c/data/mets.xml Thompson, Samuel Hunter, 1876- 1910  books b92f4421t4702009 English Eaton & Mains; Cincinnati, Jennings & Graham  : New York Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Appalachians (People) Tennessee, East --Social life and customs. The Highlanders of the South. text The Highlanders of the South. 1910 2009 true xt7sf7664h2c section xt7sf7664h2c 












C I N C I N N A T I : J E N N I N G S Ic G R A H A M

C opyright, 1910,










F r o m Whence They Come W here They L i v e T heir Characteristics T heir Manners and Customs W h a t They D o T heir Service W h a t They D o N o t K n o w T he Problem O ther Denominations T he Methodist Episcopal Church T he Progress of the South U n t o the Last .   

13 19 26 29 34 3 44

54 65 69 72 79


T he Home Place A G enuine "Razorback" A n O l d Church in which Methodists Continue W orship A W eaver and Lover of Cats to SO 79 Frontispiece



FOREWORD I N the gathering of materials for this brief account the writer has sought to strike a happy m edium between any existing extremes; he has e ndeavored to be conservative in all things, and he has been careful to give only such statements as may be readily substantiated. W i t h the hope of stirring the people everywhere t o a deeper sense o f their obligation to their less f ortunate brothers, and with the desire to create w ithin the minds of those who can the spirit of h elpfulness to those who cannot but would if they c ould, i s this little volume sent forth.

C huckey, Tennessee.


INTRODUCTION I T w as a very happy thought on the part of the H ome M issionary Board to ask P rincipal S amuel H . T hompson to prepare this little volume descriptive of our work in the South. N o one in all my a cquaintance is better prepared to do such work i ntelligently a nd effectively than P rincipal T hompson. H ere he has lived and wrought for years. A l l w ho know him are deeply impressed with the earnestness o f his consecration and his splendid s ervice to the cause o f Christian education i n Tennessee. A s our g reat C hurch becomes a ware of the i mportant work being done i n this section the result is sure to be a lively interest and a more active c ooperation. I a m glad to bid this little volume a hearty Godspeed and to hope for it a mission of blessing to m any lives.



I T i s rather singular that a people migratory in t heir h abits may be able to trace their ancestry f or a n almost unbroken period of nearly twenty c enturies. This is s till m ore singular when we c onsider that these people w ere p robably continent d wellers to begin w i t h ; later, islanders; after many y ears they migrated to another island, and thence t o a g reat a nd rapidly developing continent   North A merica. P eople migratory both by habit and by n ature usually lose sight of such remote things as a ncestry and lineage i n the nearer and more personal i nterest of posterity and sustenance therefor. M oreover, it would not be expected of a people in the times of struggle where might makes r ight, o f conquest not only for gain but for life as well, and of the making of a new home, that t hey should preserve i n fullness of detail such r ecords. Thus we f ind l ittle written of the early h istory o f this people. B ut f rom the time of the invasion of Ireland about the beginning of the present era by some f oreign tribes, probably from the European continent n ear by, forty-six in number, who w ere v ictors on the Hibernian Isle, we have a p ractically u nbroken a ccount of the people known to history as the Scotch-Irish. A m o n g the tribes above m entioned w as one known as the Scotriage, and subsequently by the Latinized form, Scoti. They


The Highlanders of the South

seem to have been victors over all other tribes and to have led the later invasions of B ritain. E a r l y they showed advanced elements of thrift and progress. Cormac, a chief of the I rish S coti, is said t o have introduced, as early as the t hird c entury, w ater m ills i nto Ireland, and to have established schools for the study of law, military affairs, and the annals of the country. Laws attributed to him c ontinued i n force all through the M iddle A ges. Is i t a ny wonder that the descendants of such chiefs have been always a liberty-loving people? T hese Scoti chiefs and their progeny continued to keep themselves known i n the border warfare o f I reland and B ritain, i ncluding Scotland, to which c ountry they g ave i ts present name, u ntil the accession of James V I of Scotland to the B ritish t hrone in 1 603. S ome vainly thought at this time t hat because the I rish w ere the original " S c o t i " the S cottish k i n g would sympathize with oppressed, d uke-ridden, a nd tax-burdened Ireland. B u t not so. Could these same people look upon their b eloved isle from then to now they would see b ut little difference so far as oppression is concerned. B ut they did not close their struggles for liberty because o f discouragement. Forced to take the " Black O a t h " of Charles I, they continued to be objects of oppression, after having again migrated, t his t ime from Scotland to Ireland, early in the seventeenth century, taking residence in the county U lster, k nown later as the Ulster Plantation. In subsequent persecutions of trade by W i l l i a m I I I , a l iberal-minded man but forced as k i n g to suppress, i f possible, the I rish w oolen trade, the Ulster

F rom W hence They Come


w eavers w ere n ot crushed, but rather their industry flourished. T he Scots of Ulster w ere s upplemented by some H uguenot r efugees, w ho established manufacturing i nterests in the county. However, a little later c ommercial r estraints brought their interests to n aught. T h e sacramental t est o f 1 7 0 4 w as seemingly j ust as hurtful to the Scottish Presbyterians in Ireland as to the I rish C atholics, though the former d efended the town of Londonderry in favor of the c rown. B u t the last straw came i n 1 772, w hen the " Steelboys" rose against the exactions of absentee l andlords, w ho often turned out Protestant yeomen t o get a higher rent from the Roman Catholic c ottiers. The dispossessed patriots, true to their l iberty a nd justice-loving inheritance, migrated to t he g reat A merican continent and carried w i t h t hem an undying hatred of England which had m uch t o say i n the A m e r i c a n Revolution so soon t o follow. Thus it is seen that not only for i njustice to America, but to other colonies as well, d id E ngland h ave t o account. P r i o r to this time, however, many of the ScotchIrish, so called by their having g one f rom Scotland t o Ulster, had come to the southeastern coast o f N o r t h A merica, settling i n the Carolinas, some o f t hem forming a part of the "Regulators" who w ere defeated by the crown troops under Governor ( Tryon at the battle on the Alamance R i v e r early i n the seventies o f the eighteenth century. They h ad a gain resisted oppressive taxation, the tax this t ime b eing levied to erect a m ansion for the B ritish g overnor. M a n y of these defeated patriots had


The Highlanders of the South

t o flee into more remote sections, not a few going i nto the territory out of which have since been c arved the States o f Tennessee and Kentucky, and h elping to settle those unbroken forests. W h i l e a l arge per cent of the some five millions o f people i n the Southern Appalachians are ScotchIrish, i t must not be supposed that all are of that descent. There is a strain of other blood, but doubtless the oldest strain is Scotch-Irish. N e x t t o these people come the Germans and D u t c h     " Black D u t c h " they are called by many. O f more recent years many emigrants to these f ertile valleys a nd w ell-timbered h ills h ave been what are known l ocally as "Pennsylvania D u t c h , " being descendants of early Dutch and German settlers in the land o f P ennsylvania. It must not be forgotten that a mong many of the Southern peoples the word " D u t c h " i s meant to imply Germans as well as the people from H olland. T hese settlers, whether of the pure German or Dutch strain, prove good and v aluable additions to the native population, being i ndustrious, e nergetic, thrifty, and economical. I n m any instances they have a trade and ply it well. S ome of them are potters; others, carpenters, m asons, and blacksmiths. N o t a few of the early G erman settlers have given able and successful m inisters, one German family giving four sons to t his g reatly needed profession. Another family of G erman a nd Scotch-Irish blending has five p reachers, three sons and two sons-in-law. A l l of these n ationalities have contributed to the sturdy y eomanry of the country districts. N o r should w e forget a few French people who came to the W estern wilderness and contributed their share

F rom W hence They Come


i n m aking a fertile field o ut of a dense forest. S ometimes they were r efugees; a gain, they came o f t heir own free w ill, s eeking a new country. E ngland d id not f ail t o contribute valuable material f rom h er overplus of island population   a population whose ancestors under H e n r y I, H e n r y I I I , a nd K i n g J ohn first received a taste for constitutional l iberty and slept not u ntil possessed by them o n b oth sides the Atlantic. P erhaps a few other nationalities have come, but t heir influence is not so marked. Once in a g reat w hile one finds an old Spanish name whose owner doubtless descended from some follower of Cortez, P izzaro, o r De Soto. F r o m s uch cosmopolitan sources one would e xpect a cosmopolitan people. But such is hardly the case, as w ill be seen later. O ut o f this strange heterogeneous mass there has evolved a compact whole presenting a s olid f ront a gainst Romanism. E a r l y came the Presbyterians, M ethodists, and Baptists. It would seem that the Methodist Church took the lead among the c ommon people. W e read from a distinguished h istorian o f one of these m ountain States, James P helan i n his H istory o f Tennessee: "These [the M ethodists] w ere fond of touching the emotions a nd feelings of their congregations, and appealed d irectly to their hearts. They brought religion home to the hearts of their hearers, whereas the old Presbyterians only t ried to affect their reason by the use of logic and of quotations from the B ible, a nd by expositions of doctrine. The M ethodists soon outstripped the Presbyterians, a nd have since spread all through the Southwest."


The Highlanders of the South

T he same writer pays the following tribute to the circuit-rider: "The circuit-rider has done more to b uild u p, broaden, and strengthen the Methodist C hurch t han all other human agencies c ombined. A s the number of preachers was insufficient to give one to each congregation, it became necessary for one preacher to take charge of several churches a nd t ravel from one place to another. H e also at times organized new congregations. The circuitrider was generally a man of g reat b ravery, and was ready to face d eath at any time in order to advance the cause o f religion and to save a s oul. H e was not often a man of much learning, but he was pure as a c hild a nd k ind a nd gentle. Frequent m ention is made by some of the early writers of the c ircuit-rider, w ith his saddlebags, on a rawboned h orse, plodding unconcernedly through a forest w here a bullet from an Indian gun might at any m inute b ring him to his death." I n c onnection with the establishment of churches i t i s a significant fact that the Roman Catholics never gained much ground among these m ountain people. However, in the opinion of the writer they are gaining more now than ever before. They are establishing little missions, with the hope of m aking t hem larger, wherever they can get a few souls. In the rapidly growing towns they seek t o be ready for the newcomers from the N o r t h and E ast. I n some sections they send out literature s oliciting financial aid for what they term a worthy a nd needy mission field. A l l they say may be true, b ut if you are afraid of Romanism get ready to c ombat it at once, and first of all and more effectively where it finds virgin s oil.


A C L E A R estimate of any people cannot be f ormed w ithout a knowledge of the natural features b y which they are surrounded. Topography often has as much to do with the formation of character as racial inheritances. A man cannot be correctly estimated unless the mountains that encompassed h im o r the plains that spread out before his feet o r the rivers that nourished his vegetation are k nown a nd measured. It may be that he dwells on the highland, where the cool breezes o f summer are b ut l ittle m ore than the breath of winter; or that h is abode is in the valley, where the rudest blast f rom the fiercest storms never reaches his humble b ut homelike cabin. Perchance he dwells among the fertile prairies or r olling l ands of the g reat W est, whose v irgin s oil renders him independent so far as the g oods o f this world are concerned. B ut a ll these t hings are character-making elements. A n y g ood geography w ill s how the natural features of N o r t h A merica by the relief maps. The S outhern A ppalachians are seen to be well supplied w ith w ater whose drainage is most excellent. The streams shown on the relief maps are perhaps the least important save as a sort of receiving canal f or the other and smaller streams. In the thousands of valleys to be found among these m ountains i t is doubtful if you f ind one five miles long destitute of running water in some form. Some->


T h e Highlanders of the South

times it is a rapidly flowing stream having its s ource at the head of the valley, or, as sometimes o ccurs, far up on the mountain side gushing forth i n p urity and abundance. A n d it may be right here that an i llicit d istillery exists and "moonshine" w hisky m ay flow as freely and almost as abundantly as the crystal water. I n t his Appalachian system of about 1 7 5 , 0 0 0 square miles there dwell some four or five m illions o f people who are essentially l ike o ther folks, and w ho are first of all patriotic. A century and a h alf ago this was practically an unbroken forest. N o one east at that time thought habitation in these m ountains possible, much less p robable. It is remembered that General Washington declared that i f the B ritish s hould defeat h im in the valleys of the New England rivers and elsewhere he would take his handful of troops beyond the Alleghanies a nd there forever defy approach. T he Father of his Country was by no means alone in regarding the Appalachians as the natural w estern l imit o f the country, and the formidable l imit o f all progress in the direction of the setting s un. I t would not be expected that a system of m ountains so large even as to h ave i ts northern o rigin i n Newfoundland and its southern disappearance among the h ills o f northern Alabama w ould be a barrier to men who braved the Atlantic f or c onscience' sake. Even larger barriers would not have d eterred them. A s population increased a nd men desired more forest area passes w ere f ound i n the mountains and the way was opened f or the pioneer, the advance guard of c ivilization. D aniel B oone, the noted hunter and trapper, and

W here They Live


others of his k ind w ho could not endure a neighbor so close as five miles kept up a constant search for n ew and untried hunting grounds. It was often the purpose of the settlers to make for themselves a l ittle place of their own and discourage others f rom t aking land near by, thus reserving fertile spots for their own k ith a nd kin. T he mountains are not always h i g h ; nor are the v alleys always deep. T a k i n g the Appalachians as a w hole, they vary from a few hundred feet above sea level to the lofty height of almost seven thousand feet, as seen in Clingman's Dome, Mount M itchell, a nd others. It is true that habitations are not found at many places on these h ighest peaks, yet Cloudland, 6,394 feet i n height, is a g reat s ummer resort, and people do live there t hrough the winter. The hotel here is built d irectly across the surveyed line between the States o f N orth C arolina and Tennessee. F r o m some of these m ountain streams the smaller t owns and cities get their water supply, and that a bundantly, o f the purest water known. W e know one l ittle t own whose supply of water comes from a m ountain spring the estimated capacity of which i s ten m illion g allons daily. Another use of these r apidly flowing streams is to t urn s mall corn m ills g rinding perhaps ten to twenty bushels of meal p er day. A few t urn r oller flouring m ills, b ut the t rade is almost entirely local custom. Recent d evastation of forests by lumber dealers has b rought innumerable steam saw m ills, w hose work is n ot so commendable, because i t means not only a decrease of our Southern forests but the impoverishment o f the land as well. M r . Graves and his


The Highlanders of the South

F orestry Commission would do well not merely to pass t hrough this section touching only the p rincipal c ities, but they should go deep i nto the mountains and there see what the onward march of socalled civilization has done. A side from the finest of hemlock, poplar, cherry, b irch, oak, pine, gum, walnut, maple, and almost e very o ther species o f timber found on this continent, many herbs of medicinal properties grow in abundance i n these r egions   even to this day the " yarb doctor" is not so uncommon   ginseng, called " sang" by the mountain people; mandrake or may apple, m ullein, w ild i ndigo, lady's slipper, black s nakeroot, burdock, lobelia, P o o r Robinson's tobacco, catnip, and many other herbs the essences o f which are often used as simple remedies by these people, and frequently with more effect t han "doctor stuff," as the people sometimes derisively refer to the medicine given by practicing physicians. M any o f the useful minerals and some o f the p recious metals are found in these m ountains. N o t i nfrequently stories are told of men who mine their o wn lead and run their own bullets in the handladle for the old-fashioned "bear g u n " or smaller s quirrel r ifle. I ron ore is perhaps the most abundant of the minerals found. The ore produced from the mines of these m ountains is said to be the finest i n the United S tates. I n one of these v alleys there are ridges containing seemingly an i nexhaustible supply of i ron o re assaying ninety-six per cent pure i ron, s aid to be the richest known outside of Denmark. Nothing need be said of the V irginia c oal fields. Their riches are too widely k nown to need comment here. M u c h z inc is

W here They Live



f ound, b ut not i n pockets such as to be of g reat v alue. Copper is found in some of the States, and the mines therein worked to advantage, as at the f amous Ducktown or Copperhill mines in Tennessee. Phosphate beds are so abundant as to be m aking m en r ich. N o finer marble is in the c ountry than here. Tennessee building stone is f amous throughout the nation. L a n d p laster (gypsum) has made many a poor farmer wealthy despite his ignorance. M i c a , f eldspar, hematite, a nd barytes are some of the many other useful m inerals f ound. Traces of gold and silver are h ere, but not more than a few hundred thousand d ollars' w orth of these m etals have been mined. T hey do not occur in g reat a bundance. E very s tranger coming here is delighted with the sublime scenery. Bishop Foster did not hesitate to say that it is as grand as any in the Alpine r egions. Others have testified to the grandeur b eing unsurpassed by the Rockies and other famous r egions. There are many varieties of valleys and h ills o ccasioned by the numerous forms of the m ountains themselves. It is no uncommon thing to be on some of these h igh peaks basking in the s unshine while just below you a few hundred yards m ay be a heavy cloud drenching any mountain c limber n ext below it. "The Battle above the C louds" i s no myth. T he climate is most salubrious. People live to a g reat age in these m ountains. Their vigor and a gility are wonderful. W e know a man in his n inety-sixth y ear who frequently shaves h imself, a nd has no trouble to walk without a cane. The s tory is t old o f a Northerner coming South in


T he Highlanders of the South

search of health, and, finding- what appeared a d elightful place in the mountains near Asheville, he was about to engage l odging when he came i n c ontact with one of the natives in the front yard o f his own household. The native was shedding tears as if in g reat p ain, though he was to all appearance threescore and ten. The stranger accosted him to know the cause o f his distress when the following conversation took place, as we h ave it: " What is the cause o f your distress, my friend?" s aid the kindly disposed stranger. " Pap whopped me," replied the native. " Good g racious, man, where is your father?" " U p i n the loft puttin' granddad ter bed," was the characteristic reply. T hus you see people never die in these m ountains. Without more levity, it is more evident every year that eventually many parts of these m ountains w ill be utilized for the erection of s anitariums for the treatment of consumption, t uberculosis, bronchitis, and catarrhal diseases. W i t h a ll these a ttractions, the habitat of the S outhern Highlander is yet one of seclusion and r etirement. H e really has not much ambition to change i t. But once he goes a -roaming he may stay a way f or years. In some places he resents the c oming of the locomotive, and looks upon so tame a t hing as a pike road as an intrusion into his rightful d omain. In many counties not a railroad has gone, a nd may not go for years. The narrow m ountain p ublic roads are often impassable in w inter and the rainy season of the spring. Even horsemen have a difficult time to get across the

W here They Live


m ountains at such times. The only sure way is on f oot, and then you may be stopped by swollen streams, fallen trees, or other barriers. The bridle p ath is the most convenient and safest o f all the r oads. T hus has the horizon of the mountaineer been l imited by the surrounding mountain tops and the heads o f the valleys in which his humble dwelling has been located. H i s has been a time of rest a nd peace a nd quiet. H a s he profited by it?




I F y ou should see a man make the sign of the ^ cross before e ating you would not need to ask his faatfOuL* r eligion; i f you should hear him say "hadn't ought o^u^^T a done that," or "Cunnel Johnson, suh, of Geo'gia," y ou would at once r ecognize his home section. I n the same w ay would you know the mountain m an by the way he talks, acts, a nd has his b eing. I t does n ot seem o ut of place to put loyalty as the first of the characteristics by which a man of the Southern Appalachians should be known. H e m ay not have a ny Indian blood in his veins, but l oyalty, to him, can h ave b ut one meaning, and that never to f orget e ither friend or foe. Likes and d islikes without any logical reason save t hat of an u nreasoning prejudice h ave cost m any a man his c ounty office and many a church its opening w edge i nto a c ommunity needing the influence only a c hurch could give. It is an old saying that if a m ountaineer likes you he w ill d ie for you, and if he dislikes you you w ill i n all probability die for h im. T he writer fears t his is all too true. M a n y a t ime has this loyal mountaineer been known to t ravel miles on foot, enduring severe c old and p ain a nd often hunger, to warn a friend thought to be in danger. Doubtless he would be just as zealous i n the pursuit of an enemy. H e has been k nown to divide his last morsel of food with a way-

T heir Characteristics


f aring m an, be he stranger or acquaintance. W h a t g reater loyalty could one find a nywhere? H e i s essentially a man of the woods, and prefers that his surroundings be such. "Store clothes" m ay have come to many of these p eople, but the r eal m ountain man prefers his "double Dutch b reeches" and his brogan shoes t ied with groundhog hide; while his wife, warm-hearted soul that she is, wants her "linsey-worsted" basque-andoverskirt set off with a l ittle " breakfast shawl" and a l arge kerchief bound over her head. Glowing c olors appeal to the hardy and simple-hearted m ountaineers almost as much as to the aboriginal t ribes on other continents of which we hear so m uch f rom traders and travelers. Y o u often see the mountain youth with a red handkerchief about h is n eck, and if it is s ilk i n quality and deep r ed i n c olor he is more the envy of his fellows. N o t less pleasing are these f ast colors to the feminine p art of the inhabitants, bright red and deep b lue b eing their favorite colors. If you doubt this just e xamine the calicoes and notions in a mountain c ountry store. It often matters not whether the c olors are fast or merely passing. The present s how is sufficient to sell the goods, and that is all f or w hich either the merchant or the customer seems t o care. Shirts, trousers, coat, shoes, socks, a nd h at constitute the wardrobe of the a verage S outhern mountaineer. V e r y few of them wear u nderclothes. They are hardy, and nearly all of t hem have early in life been subjected to some k ind o f h ardening process so that they do not m ind w hat many of us would term severe h ardships. U nkemptness, to coin a word, would perhaps be


T h e Highlanders of the South

a nother characteristic of this son of the forest. T he longer he wears his hair, and the more uncombed, the more of a mountain man is he. J usf a f ew weeks ago the writer saw a mountaineer come i n a stride of one of four mules drawing a lumber w agon. O n his head was the characteristic black s louch hat covering long, flowing locks of hair as b lack as the hat. H i s face had not seen razor or scissors in months. W o u l d you be surprised to k now that this man is a mountain correspondent to a c ounty newspaper? H i s letters are not s illy, b y any means, but contain good sense i n many instances. O f course, they need some editorial correction, but they are much better than no letters. T his m an is a typical mountaineer. I was abc.it to say illiteracy is another char a cteristic, b ut I ghall reserve the discussion on thai f or a nother chapter. I t hink it but fair to say that the average m ountaineer uses i obacco in some * 'klbtttg w ay; usually it is in all the w ays k nown to man. s-ntf-ffi A n d he knows not when he began to use it. H e chews, smokes, snuffs, and doubtless sometimes ft e n/   i7,t    t ^ j _ Y es, and he drinks the product of Ji'cv-/ f*t_   t i l l , too. A n d he w ill s wear some if he has   dip ;Y if, o ccasion. But these a lso are to be saved for a etWee exAjc-M c hapter. * iicfy W i t h a ll these s eemingly conflicting characteristics, he is k ind, w arm-hearted, cheerful, friendly, amiable, a nd gentle as a c hild. H e w ill g o out of h is w ay to do you a favor, and you can count him a " square man" every day in the week. H e w ill go with you to the last d itch, a nd cross it with you i f y ou need him.
ea s wee( s


T H I S S outhern mountaineer is a queer mixture o f m anners and brusqueness. H e would extend to y ou the hospitality of his home for days at a t ime, b ut would resent any attempt on your part to introduce modern manners even i n the most l imited w ay, as the following incident w ill s how. A g entleman traveling in the mountains sought s helter from the night in the humble home of one o f these honest fellows. H e was t old that he might share the bed with the teacher of the mountain " skule." T he stranger graciously accepted the c onditions a nd bade his host a pleasant good-night. T he next morning, thinking to continue in the apparent good g races o f the owner of the house, the stranger saluted him with a cheery "Goodmorning, s ir." " I s taid hyar last night, tew; yer needn't be s peakin' t er me, stranger." A n d the good old mountaineer meant just what he said. N o ceremonies for him. H e had spoken w ords of greeting upon the a rrival o f the stranger the afternoon before, and they were enough f or h im even though the visitor should remain a guest a w hole week. N o unnecessary use of w ords for him. One greeting was sufficient for a ll t ime. T he mountaineer's manners are brusque and often blunt, but beneath the rough exterior there



T he Highlanders of the South

beats the kindliest heart kept i n the warmest breast any man e ver k new. S ensitive, too, is this man whose life is often one o f isolation and seclusion. Poverty seldom has a t hick s kin. L et this Highlander of the South but t hink y ou look upon him as one not up to the best as the outside world calls the best, a nd from that moment his manner toward you is cold and indifferent, if not impolite. N o man   not even an Indian     c a n show more indifference and utter unconcern for present people and things than can this m ountaineer when he so chooses. A man at no c ourt, be he plenipotentiary or a mere attache, needs m ore diplomacy and tact and ability than does the man who comes to reach this untutored c hild w ho has within him so much latent force, s trong and vigorous but undeveloped. Approach h im i n the right way and you forever h ave the key to his life, his habits, his hopes, his ambitions, and a ll that he holds dear. But approach him without s kill, f oresight, and judgment, and you are at once t ightly b arred from ever g aining this entrance so m uch sought and so badly needed. I n h is habits, manners, and customs he is almost p rimitive. T he hand loom is by no means a thing o f the past; nor is the hand grater for making corn m eal. T he geared or yoked oxen may be seen attached to a wooden plow. Y o u can yet find the p uncheon floor and buildings covered with boards h eld on by poles and logs and even rocks. Crude utensils for t illing the s oil m ay yet be found. M a n y horseshoes and plow points   "bull tongues"   are made in the ordinary blacksmith shop or forge. S plit baskets a nd splitbottom chairs are made by

1 heir Manners and Customs


these people, and they decorate their baskets with g ay colors made from their own compound of b ark, ooze, and wood coloring. Not a few make t heir o wn shoes, and almost all stockings are homeknit. L eather is tanned often at a little bark yard w hose capacity is from one to ten hides per day or less. Harness or " gears," s addles, and other outfits for horses are made at home by the oil lamp, o r perhaps oftener by the light from the pine torch. H e gets h is meal at the little mountain m ill, a nd his f lour, t he little he uses, at a river m ill some distance from home. W h e n it comes to a question of m illing he usually carries his grist on his shoulders 4^e*l  &st" * t o the m ill a nd returns with it in the same manner. HO-IA^CL, H i s meat or bacon he raises himself, seldom CcUsZeJ. LSjtll^ b utchering anything but a "razorback," a term suggested by the thinness of the animal and also by the length of its nose. Needless to say that this species of swine is of mixed blood. H e comes to h is present state, however, largely by lack of care. N ever does he get any food save a corns and chest- CoU^Ji ~^td^Jr n uts and fruit from such other trees as the woods o f the h ills a nd mountains afford. F r o m this foraging direct is the hog butchered and used for f ood. N o w and then he is fed for a w eek o r two b efore going to g race the table of this man who l ikes h is corn pone and bacon. O u r m ountain