xt7sj38kf74g https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7sj38kf74g/data/mets.xml Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station 1950  journals  English Lexington, Ky Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky fruit notes, vol. 4, No. 2, March 1950 text Kentucky fruit notes, vol. 4, No. 2, March 1950 1950 2012 true xt7sj38kf74g section xt7sj38kf74g I
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V V°1· 4 Mmh, 1950 Nu. 2
¤  at Articles for "Kentucky Fruit Notes" are assembled Page
  under the direction of W. D. Armstrong, Hurticul- CI-Own Borer Cgntml ''''` " ''"''‘‘'‘‘‘ 2
    turist, at the Western Kentucky Substation, Prince- P€a°h Tree BOTH C¤¤¤¤1 `''''" ' '''’`' 4
I   ton, Kentucky. The 400 Crete Per Acre Club ----------- 5
L Some Peach Variety Notes ......... ---- 5
L New Apple and Peach Pest ----.-------- 7
t Strawberry Insect Work ----------- ---- 8
9 A .
r Parathion ·-—- ------—----- ·- ---—-----— 9
3 Hints and Observations ------—-——- -—-— ll
Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station
E Lexington, Kentucky
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P. o. Ritcherl `
Widespread injury by the strawberry crown borer during the late summer of 1948
in the jackson Purchase, the Bowling Green —Frank1in, and the jefferson County berry grow--
ing areas of Kentucky has prompted further studies on control measures Since growers
have made little use of methyl bromide fumigation or poison baits, the control methods
recommended in Ky. Agr Expt. Sta, Bul. 468, attention has been turned to newer insecti»
Laboratory- test.- In April 1949, several hundred over ~wintering adult crown
borers were collected by W. D Armstrong and the writer from a borer -ruined straw »-
berry patch near Sharpe, Kentucky. From Z to 13 adults were found on or about each plant.
These adults were taken to Lexington, where laboratory tests were made with a number of -
the newer organic insecticides. Each material was dusted evenly over 4 potted straw-
berry plants, using a hand duster. Ten crown borer adults were placed at the base of each
t plant and confined by means of a cylindrical, 16 mesh, galvanized wire cage placed over
the plant,
Results are summarized in Table 1.. Of the materials tested, 1 and 2. percent
‘ Parathion, 5 percent Chlordane, and 20 percent Toxaphene dust gave excellent control.
) Poor results were obtained when benzene hexachloride (odorless) dusts were used. i
They contained l 1/Z percent and 3 percent of the gamma isomer, each with 5 per-
cent DDT dust. Fair results were obtained with DDT spray (1 lb actual) and a dust con-
taining 2 l/Z percent compound 118.
Parathion was the quickest acting of the materials tested, killing most of the crown Qi-
borer adults in 3 days. Where Chlordane and Toxaphene were used, many affected beetles
continued to move their appendages for 5 or 6 days but none recovered. Beetles affected by
benzene hexachloride, however, often recovered and proceeded to feed normally.
V · Field tgisi On April 20 a newly set strawberry patch was located in jefferson county
which was being invaded by crown borer adults from adjacent old patches, one of which had
been plowed under several months previously. Two plots each 140 feet long and 4 rows wide
. were dusted, one with 5 percent Chlordane dust and one with Z0 percent Toxaphene dust,
using a knapsack, continous duster. The rest of the patch was left untreated.
. Five days later, dead or dying crown borer adults were fairly common about treat-
ed plants, especially on the side of the new patch closest to the old patches. Some beetles
were lying beneath the leaves near the crowns of the plants; others were in depressions
in the soil surface, in some cases out in the open a foot or more away from plants. Many
live beetles were still present in the untreated area.
12i_s_g1_ss_iogn; These tests indicate that several of the newer insecticides can be
A used to kill adult crown borers. Since new patches usually become infested by adults
  crawling from nearby old patches, the best method of control appears to be one thorough
N 'l""Since Aug. 1, 1949 with North Carolina State College, Raleigh, N.C.

 . 17 .
.   3
treatment of all old patches early in the spring, followed by treatments of new patches,
at least on the borders closest to an old patch or other sources of infestation such as
° cinquefoil (five -finger). Treatment of new patches would require the use of very little l
material, since only a puff of dust is needed per plant.
1949 Laboratory Tests of Organic Insecticides for Control of Strawberry Crown
Borer Adults. (Counts made 3 to 5 days after treatments.)
’ ____;’;=;;=;&.P;e¢l__*._.__
I Treatment April 9 April 14 April 27
2% Parathion ——--—~— 100 100 None used
l l/2% gamma BHC
(odorless) ————— 65.5 10.3 None used
20% Toxaphene ····· 96.9 100 None used
5% Chlordane --——— 100 100 None used
No Treatment -————— 2.6 0 4.3 1
, DDT 1 lb. Actual
_ per 100 gallons - - ·— - — None used 65.8 None used
5% DDT · —·——- ·· — — -· None used 32.4 None used
1% Parathion ——-——- None used None used 100
2 1/2% Compound 118 — None used None used . 76.3
Q 3% gamma BHC
R, (odorless) — — ·— — — None used None used 30.6
§u1Infn_a_ry. One and 2 percent Parathion dust, 5 percent Chlordane dust, and 20
percent Toxaphene dust all gave excellent control of strawberry crown borer adults
in laboratory tests. Five percent Chlordane and 20 percent Toxaphene were tried in
the field and gave similar results. Early spring treatment of old strawberry patches
and repeated treatment of borderrrovvs in newly set patches are suggested as means of
controlling crown borer by killing adults before egg-laying occurs.

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4 .
j. G. Rodriguez
The most important enemies of the peach tree are the peach tree borer and the
lesser peach tree borer. The former is the most common and the most destructive,
causing heavy losses in Kentucky orchards. These species are closely related and,
except for habit, are difficult to distinguish.
Injury Borers may be identified by the fact that the peach borer attacks the
base of the trunk, from Z or 3 inches below the surface to about a foot above the sur-
face while the lesser peach tree borer attacks the upper part of the tree trunk, the
crotches, or any wounds in the bark. jelly -1ike gum, including sawdust—like frass,
exudes from the borings of either borer and this is an indication of infestation.
I_;.ife History. Both borers overwinter as small worms in bark crevices or in
portions of the trunk in which they feed; they resume burrowing and feeding in early
spring. The more advanced of the peach tree borer l`arvae attain full growth, about 1
inch, by the middle of l\/[ay. They then spin silken, dirt and gum-covered cocoons on
the surface of their burrows or in the soil, and change to the pupal stage. The first _
moths emerge in late june and continue emerging through September., They are clear-
winged, blue and orange moths resembling wasps. The moths of the lesser peach tree
i borer may also be mistaken for wasps but they may emerge somewhat earlier.
C_on_t1j£>_h The summer treatment is the same for the control of both species.
Use 4 lb of 50 percent wettable DDT per 100 gallons of water and spray only the trunks,
including the crotches. Apply july l, August 1, and September 1. lf the lesser peach
tree borer is also present, it may be advisable to begin the treatments about june 24.
lf a heavy infestation of either exists, spray at 3—week intervals. Care should be taken  
to assure thorough coverage of the trunks; remove all trash, weeds, or grasses from z 
around the tree trunks.
The fall treatment of paradichlorobenzene (PDB) applied at soil level is effective
only on the peach tree borer. Apply PDB crystals about October 1, when the soil is dry.
Clear trash from the base of the tree trunk, remove gum if present and place a band of
crystals around the trunk, taking care to allow at least 2 inches between the band and
the trunk. One ounce of PDB is advised for treating a full grown tree and from l/2. to
3/4 oz on trees from 3 to 5 years old, depending upon the size of the tree. Do not use
more than l l/2 oz on any tree. Cover the crystals with about 3 inches of fine soil,
piling it towards the trunk, and compact the mound with the back of the shovel. Re-
move the soil after four weeks from trees less than four years of age; on older trees
the mounds may be removed in the spring.
For lesser peach tree borer control, paint the wounds with a mixture of PDB
dissolved in crude cottonseed or linseed oil. Warm 2 qt of oil, dissolve 1 lb of the PDB
crystals and apply with a paint brush. Make this treatment about October 1 and apply
only to the area of the wound. lt is not necessary to remove gum, frass, or loose bark
V from the infested area.

1 if 5
The above DDT trunk sprays have been giving good borer control where used in
Kentucky the past two seasons. Where these sprays are well—applied, no other control
method has been needed for the peach tree borer. However, regular inspections should
be made following the sprays and if for any reason good control is not had, the regular
PDB treatment can still be applied at the proper time.
j, Homer Miller, County Agent
Marshall County
Hats off to Charles Cone of Benton, Marshall county, for his high yield of Tennessee
Beauty strawberries that won for him the 1949 sweepstakes in the Kentucky °‘400 Crate
' Per Acre Club," He harvested 420 crates of Tennessee Beauties from a measured acre.
Of the 420 harvested, 370 were shipped through the McCracken County Strawberry Growers
Association. It was estimated that at least 50 crates were picked after the shipping season
closed, Forty —eight crates were harvested from the plot on the last day of the shipping
season, For this high yield, Mr, Cone was crowned "State Strawberry King" by the
Kentucky Horticulture Society during its annual convention in Louisville December 5 and
6, 1949.
The berries were grown on level Clarks River "second bottom" land that does not
p overflow. The land was in dark fired tobacco in 1946-47 and WGS Set to berries in the
- spring of 1948 It had been heavily fertilized with barnyard manure, phosphate, and com-
' plete fertilizer, Set about the first of March, the inspected plants were kept clean and
g well-—cultivated, They were mulched with l l/2 tons of straw per acre about December
l and were top—dressed with 250 lb of 46 percent phosphate about MarCh l, Insects had
j caused considerable damage in surrounding fields, so a mixture of 5 percent Chlordane
  and 5 percent DDT was used at the rate of 20 lb per acre when about one -·fourth of the
plants were in bloom, Mr, Cone estimated that dusting increased the yield of berries
at least 60 crates per acre,.
A 2—acre field of Aroma berries, planted at the same time, were grown beside the
Tennessee Beauties and were given the same cultivation, rnulching, and spraying. This
variety yielded only 220 crates per acre,
VV,. D, Arrristrong
A great many new peach varieties are now being offered for sale and mostlof them
are being tested in experimental plantings at Lexington or Princeton or with variety ·
cooperators in the state.. Most of the varieties are being developed by the fruit breeding
programs of the various state experiment stations or by the U, S, Department of Ag-
riculture, A few have been originated by individuals or nurserymen. Since the Ex-
periment Station is well informed on new varieties, it is strongly urged that growers con-
tact the Station before ordering a large number of any new variety, While some of these
are adapted to Kentucky, many of them are not and often time and money can be saved
by consulting the University, not only about peaches but on all types of fruit to be planted
in the state, Some established varieties are discussed on lthefollowing page , followed
by a list of promising newer sorts.

 . V g ‘° ’
6 ,
The Elberta, the large yellow, freestone peach ripening in Kentucky about August
l in the southern part of the state to August 15 in the northern part, continues to be the
leading variety.
Of other older varieties, Georgia Belle is still an excellent white freestone peach
1/Z week ahead of Elberta. However, it is soft and hard to handle, is often small and
seems to be a favortie of peach insects. For these reasons and because it ripens S0
close to Elberta, it is losing popularity.
Hale is not being planted in Kentucky because, in general, its tree is weak and
non -vigorous and it is extremely difficult to protect its fruit from insect and disease
attacks, chiefly brown rot.
Some strains of Shippers Late Red are doing well in Kentucky. However, this
variety has been badly mixed up by nurserymen and the Station does not recommend
planting it unless definite assurance can be had that the trees are all of the same type (
and that they are not Hales, The American Pomological Society is trying to straighten
out this and other varieties that have different types being sold under the same name.
Halehaven (yellow free) ripening Z weeks ahead of Elberta is the second most pop-
ular variety in Kentucky. It is usually hardier than Elberta and sets a heavy crop each .
year, but it needs to be thinned heavily and often needs extra sprays against brown rot.
july Elberta (yellow free) ripens with Halehaven. It is a very fine peach and some
prefer it to Halehaven. july Elberta is doing fine in western Kentucky near Paducah.
july Heath (also called Othelle) is a white clingstone that also ripens with Halehaven.
This peach is fairly hardy, bearing good crops of medium to large peaches, and is quite a
favorite over Kentucky as a local sale and home canning variety. Several orchardists who
feature orchard sales consider this one of their best money makers. Ig
Golden jubilee (yellow free) ripening 3 l/Z weeks ahead of Elberta, is now well es·
tablished. It is a bit hardier than Elberta, usually needs a little or no hand thinning, and
is also fairly resistant to brown rot. The variety softens rapidly, however, and drops
badly upon ripening. It is a poor shipper which needs to be handled quickly and with extra
Red Bird Cling (also called Early Wheeler) which ripens 5 l/2 weeks ahead of Elberta,
is of such poor quality and is so susceptible to brown rot that it should not be planted any
more. The variety is especially subject to brown rot in the blossom blight stage. This
stage of the disease carries over to the green fruit, usually spoiling most of the crop. When
this variety is set among later kinds, the brown rot thatstarts on Red Bird usually spreads
to the surrounding trees, often causing a serious loss of fruit. The diseased fruits that fall
to the ground (most of which are never picked up) remain to carry the disease over winter,
causing more trouble the next season. Tl\/lost growers who have had this variety have either
taken out the trees or are planning to do so. They would be money ahead if they cut down
every Red Bird tree and never planted another. The same is true for individuals who have
only one or two trees.
i f Mayflower (white semi -cling) is the earliest established variety, ripening 8 weeks
ahead of Elberta. However, it is soft and watery, of poor quality and hard to handle. It
has been steadily declining in popularity and usually a few trees are enough.

P 7
Below is a list of some of the newer peach varieties that are showing promise in
Kentucky, starting with the earliest:
Name T Weeks ahead of Elberta
ype in ripening
Dixired · · - ·· -—-- — yellow cling 6
Erly Red Fre - V - — —- - white semi —cling 5
]erseyland --———-— yellow free 5
Dixigem —-———— - — — yellow free 4 1/2
Raritan Rose ——--— white free 4
Redhaven ———·- -— — — yellow free 4
Cumberland ————— ·— white free 3 1/2
n Fair Beauty —·--—- yellow semi -ecling 3
Triogem " ‘···· · - - yellow free 3
Fairhaven »— -· -~ — -- — — yellow free 3
Sunhigh ——-———-- - yellow {ree Z
Ambergem ·— -—·—-— yellow cling 2
Goldeneast ·» ~ - - »— - — yellow free 1 1/2
Veteran —--~————— yellow semi~cling l 1/Z
Sullivan Early Elberta — yellow free 1
Summercrest —--——— yellow free 1
A Redskin · - - -· — ~ -— — — yellow free with Elbgrta
3 Afterglow -—————- -— yellow free l week after
The above list contains new varieties £or» any season, both white and yellow, and
both freestone and clingstones and all are doing well in Kentucky, lf a few of these are
5 selected according to the preferred season and color there is reasonable assurance of
  a crop if good care is given, the weather cooperating.
Many others are being tried and otherntmots will be added to the list as they prove
W, D. Arrristrong
The red —banded leaf roller showed up in Kentucky in small numbers in 1947 or
1948, but it was not until 1949 that it was present in numbers large enough to cause 6.
heavy loss to orchards and to present a serious orchard problem for both peaches and
apples, l/Vhen the 1949 peach harvest survey was made covering 17 peach orchards lo-
cated near Mayfield, Paducah, Princeton, Madisonville, Henderson, Louisville, and Bed- I
ford, 12 of these had leaf roller injury to the fruit, ranging from l to 44 percent. Only (
4 orchards had no leaf roller damage, It also caused heavy damage in a number of apple
orchards, While most damage was observed in western Kentucky, there was evidence of
slight damage in central and northern Kentucky and much injury probably occurred in '
areas not covered in this survey, {
The pest passes the winter in the pupa stage and the moths emerge in early spring.
They lay their eggs on the foliage, The young, active, greenish—yellow worms feed on the
leaves, webbing several together where they over-lap, Later in the season they attack
the fruits, eating out grooves and trenches in the surface of the fruit , often near the
stem, at the suture, where fruits touch each other, or where leaves come in contact with
the fruit. T l . , , . ». , `

 4   '
8 .
Several materials will control the pest. Cne of these is lead arsenate. It is thought
that the use of less lead arsenate and more DDT during the last several seasons has
caused the build-up of the red-banded leaf roller.
In apples, it is suggested that where a heavy carry -over is known to exist, Z lb of
lead arsenate and 2 lb of lime be added to the regular pink bud spray. Also, since lead
arsenate is recommended in the calyx and first and second cover sprays, this will, in
turn, aid against the leaf roller.
Where the pest makes a sudden appearance on either apples or peaches and must
be checked at once, this can be done by spraying with Z lb of 50 percent Rhothane (also
known as TDE) wettable powder to each 100 gal or 1 qt of the 25 percent Rhothane emul-
sion per 100 gal. This is more effective than lead arsenate and can be used at times
when it is not desirable to use lead arsenate. Parathion at the rate of 3/4 lb of 15 per-
cent Rhothane emulsion per 100 gal will also control the leaf roller, when Rhothane is
not available. _
While this pest can be very serious, it need cause no great concern for it can also
be controlled fairly easily. The important thing is to watch the orchard closely for this
and all other pests so that control measures can be applied before serious damage is done.
} W., D. Armstrong
  Strawberry insect pests have caused heavy losses to the crop in Kentucky the past
few years but recent tests offer great promise of effective control., The strawberry
crown borer, an old pest, was more active and damaging in 1948 and 1949 than in a num-
ber of years. The strawberry weevil, often referred to as the "clipper," has caused ser-
ious crop reductions in the Bowling Green and Benton sections of southern and western I;
Kentucky, but is not reported in damaging numbers elsewhere. lt has long been a major °'
pest in Tennessee. The tarnished plant bug causes many cat~-faced, hardnosed, or "button"
berries. This pest was serious in 1948 in several parts of the state but was less serious
in 1949, It goes and comes and is more widely distributed than either the crown borer or
P the weevil. It was definitely established in 1948 that the tarnished plant bug caused a
type of cat·-facing that had often been mistakenly credited to frost injury or malnutrition.
In 1949 it was established also that the small millipede or "thousand legger" caused
serious injury to berries in the Experiment Station plots and in many commercial fields.
Injury was caused when this small pest ate into the berries, chiefly on the lower side or
where they touched the ground. “Thousand leggers" were often found curled up in the
cavities they had dug into the berries. In an untreated plot, 30 percent of the berries at
, one picking were injured by millipedes.
It was also observed in 1949 that extensive strawberry leaf injury was caulsred late
in the summer (chiefly in old patches) in central and northern Kentucky by the adult of
the strawberry root worm,. a small shiny black beetle.

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§ez2&1;e1_efsiesweszx_i11ses$-rees.ts-ir¤__se2e.rele. It hes eeee esteelished by Week
done in Kentucky and elsewhere that all of the above insects can be controlled effective-
ly by either of the following materials listed in their order of effectiveness: (l) 5 per-
cent Chlordane — 5 percent DDT dust; (2) 5 percent Chlordane dust; (3) 20 percent
Toxaphene dust. While the 5 percent Chlordane or the 5 percent Toxaphene are very
effective against several of the pests, it is thought that the combination of 5 percent
Chlordane and 5 percent DDT will give better all—around control than either of the
other materials singly.
Suggested Strawberry Dust Schedule
Use eemme;siallLeke_s_de§_pQest et ees ef39;i01b;>;e;;s£e- . - . - ...
l -__r_Q;s_Ls¤1¢L'KLries ---.__.- ,,-.-__._.__c- ._Msfe;Le;lsf_ ____ ___;F§§=2;e¤ed
l, Prebloom: Dust containing Crown borer adults
Early I\/{arch, or when 5% Chlordane
leave hibernation .20% Toxaphene
5% Chlordane
_____ _, _ W ._ _   _     __   _ H _.__   W,- __   .,.-5% -Q.l2I..-.-.- -._s_.__--__-.___._;.._..._
V‘ Z, Early bloom: 5% Chlordane plus Crown borers, wee-
When blooming is 5% DDT vil, tarnished plant
well underway OT bugs, millipedes,
_ 5% Chlordane root worm adults,
is OF ants and root aphis.
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