xt7sj38kfv75 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7sj38kfv75/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1940 journals kaes_circulars_003_347 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 347 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 347 1940 2014 true xt7sj38kfv75 section xt7sj38kfv75 z  . i~»i-[ii
  Circular N0. 347 Lexington, February, 1940  
ll   eoLLEeE or AGRICULTURE lj 
  Extension Division  
k V  THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director i  
O   Published in connection with the ·‘ · ~ . . _   ,’AV  
it 1  ttssattttztté $:;%;.2tbteststarttttrgiiziiiiiiiaiéviifiifiiitfiiitiiiiiéi.€?tiittiii`fi?   Y
xg   ut May ts, 1914. °f C°“g”S§  
ig 5    
By A. J. ommy  
y _ Experience has shown that mistakes made at planting time are  
P responsible for many orchard failures. Hundreds of fruit trees are  
  set every year that do not live to  
bearing age and many that do .· 
1       Q N  are unprolitable. This loss of  
j     time and money can be avoided  
°   yi_$ i j . n1=_;     by taking proper precautions.  
    A well planned orchard, proper-  
  `ll`l`ll lm]
il  pllfpose. The experience of local growers usually is lll\'2llllZll)l(` lll uml
  determining what to plant. .r\ detailed discussion of fruit varieties ’G
 l T

   4 ‘  
  t ll
it V ;<— .
jj  Planning and Planting an Oro/turrl 3 l  
is  l O l
  will be found in Kentucky Experiment Station Bulletins Nos. 394,   if  
 { `l`ree—l·`ruit Varieties for Kentucky, and 396, Grape and Small—Fruit    
  Varieties for Kentucky. The limited list of varieties suggested be-   A  
  low includes a few of tl1e kinds that are popular in Kentucky. Other     s  
Q  varieties may be required to meet individual needs. Varieties are l  
  listed in the order of ripening.    
  .\t·1·1.t·;s. Transparent, Gravenstein, Polly Eades,* \~Vealtl1y, G l  
  Paducah, Grimes,* Delicious,* _]onathan,* Golden Delicious,* Stay- l  
  man, Turley, Mlinesap, Rome. A    
  l)l·ZA(jl·IliS. Mayflower, Carman, Alton, l-liley, Golden jubilee,    
F  Halehaven, South Haven, Belle of Georgia, Elberta.   j
  Pt,uMs. Green Gage. French Damson, \*Vild Goose.      
  Swut;*t‘GH12tLt·1s. Transparent, Polly Eades,* Paducah*, \\’ealthy, _]ona»  
  l.ll2ll1,* Golden Delicious,* Grimes,* Stayman, Turley, Rome,`*   -l`i  
  lilack Ben.* (\\'inesap and l)elicious, prominent in many orchards.      
F`  are omitted because their record as money makers is poor.)  
  l)l·Z[\(iHliS. Carman, Golden _]ubilee, Halehaven, South Haven.    
l  l`liley, Belle of Georgia, Elberta.  
V  Where T0 Plant,. The site is a matter of major importance.  
 lj lilevzttion and air drainage should be provided to reduce frost hax-  
  élltl. The soil should be deep, well-drained and fertile because  
 Q lllesc factors are essential to deep rooting, tree vigor and long, pro-   t».’ Z  
  il is more important than that of the surface soi]. Trees cannot   '-._ ~  
  llll`i\'t? in wet st)i]s_ The tliretjtion of the slope of llte léllltl llSll21ll}’  
=  is of little importance.  
I  When T0 Plant, Plantings ntade either in the late lall before  
" llll‘ gl`()lll](l freezes or in the spring before gt`t>\\’lll sl21l`tS llZl\`(? l)CCll  
  `ll(`(`CSSl.lIl il] KC[][[l(Tk}'_ E\l)Q[`iQ]](`Q(l g]`()\\'(j]`S USIIZIHY l)]`C[Cl` llirlll  
  Plillllillg because the roots can begin to establish tltemselves dttfillg  
Q  'lle winter and are ready to absorb water and nutrients from the  
_;  wil as soon as growth starts. If the weather ill llltf Sptlllg l$ mol  
illlll moist the advantage in fall planting may be slight lllli ~]>l`lll§  
    pollen producers    ':‘  

 a- l /xwmur/cy lixtmtsmn Circ1zlur‘,\'o. 347
  weather is rather undependable. 1,ate spring planting is always type.
. 2 risky. Kent
: t _ __ _ .
·‘ Preparation of The Land, bmce the orchard is to occupy the 5
l L land a long time, terracing, if needed, should be done and the land P
T _ shottld be brought to a good state ol WCW
J l fg yp fertility beliorc the trees are set. lt is *¤d€1'
t   essential that orchard soil contain an Mill
il   abundance ol humus and it is diflicult S
{ ; 1.;:   . \ to build up the supply alter the orchard sun .
t‘  /"   ’.  . . , . . . . _ _
F · ’ /   x is established. Ihus, ll is desirable to Iatlu
  ` V   AM turn under properly fertilized soil lll1· roots
r     )l`()\'€l'll€IIL cro >s and to use manure on mm;
tt     _=»_ the land lor a lew years preceding they
      planting to orchard. the
I l Z   { _
t   t i"‘}   I _ soil
; 1 { tv   Arrangement of Trees. llw is lm
”’ #2   . . . . ~ `
__ . t ,   square system ol planting is prelerrcd E
  Vp as     b most orchardists. Provision should
{ t Q xers
tl ·   ~ ..2; be made lor rood >ollination, since .
t ' My ifyaa 5 peru
·l ~ r’ r M   { manv varieties are sell'-sterile and the . .
I A   } ’ _ _ _ _ I/llly
;  _.  at ;  trees cannot bear lruit without the and ‘ In U
l . .    ol Jollen lrom other suitable varieties .
L  . g i ; _ t ` , begt
 ·Z ’ y e l growing nearby. Ihe pollen ol some ‘ I
Vi : `  l" . . . . .
  ’ l \ \‘ar1et1es is ol little value; also some do Il
» I _ _ _ s t>ll
l-· y y " not bloom ar the right time. I·or CX- — Tm
" =T"’  Z` ....   Q . · · , _ `
ll"      ample, an early blooming variety ltlst In I
t·    V-.·. “   ~/4, ~ ’'/' `~ M ` · - · , . . ` ` `
`    i‘*·=   ~ .  “i*`* ’’’* 5       t’,_ l)(Jl1Cl()llS may not serve to pollmatc A ·
t: ·  `   `   3*  . ··.’  K  l,.., YW .r.. MQB . , tree
?·    . _ V .,,,.»¤ -fl  late blooming sort such as Rome. UN C
B l     ually an arrangement equivalent to it I *
`T  . < _ ·· '_,,,. Q_ w‘  L g e ,   z   _ _ k V V ` , .`
    l . 2   ·t»—* i§‘?g¢.» row ol the pollen variety to 5 or ~1 tous . *31*
*        ol the Variety to be pollinated ts Adi- ~ fu l
.         qttate. Note pollen varieties ntallsttl ; mgll
»‘   _· ,   at , wg. Wh
 5. mm z. Medmmstmt pmt. “"l‘ ‘“‘ *‘”*“‘*l‘ ( )· "" l’·‘%° (ll _.
BQ   DTSES DI`llD€d to H.lJOLlli Z" Spurs, V < . lll
ir  well started. give an opportunity \\7jueggp Stayman and Bléltfli [Will tqylt
 ‘ for a good selection of scaffold ’ _ _ _ ‘ _
 li br““°l‘°s· apples cannot pollinate their own 0] ir Sl
{ Q eacli other`s blossoms elletttively, nor the blossoms ol other \‘21t`t<‘l""· him
 g Most varieties ol peaches except Hale are se1t.let~ttle and do net E
 ~ require pollinizers. ~lnn
Y  . . . the
lil  Nlost \'2`tl`lCt1Cs of )l1t1ns will )()lllI]l/C other varieties ol tht‘ >?Ull‘
l`. to tl
l l I
 t = 

  Planning and Pfrmttnng an Ol'(.`/'I(L7`l1   I i  
  type. The three types are japanese. European and American, see i ·  
  Kentucky Bulletin No. 394.   {
  Sour cherries are self-fertile.   e  
  Planting Distances. Satisfactory planting distances for fruit   , ;  
  trees depend on kind and varietal habit. The following are con- f 'A ’
  sidered standard distances. Apples, 35 to 40 feet apart; peaches _i l
1  and plums, 20 to 25 feet; cherries and pears, 25 to 30 feet.   ’ =  
  Setting the Trees. Careless exposure of the roots to drying by t   `  
  sun and wind during the process of planting is responsible for the I  
  failure of many trees to grow. .-\fter removing broken or injured i ~ ·  
  roots the young trees should be set in a hole large enough to ac-   ‘  
  connnoclate the roots without crowding and slightly deeper than    
  they grew in the nursery. The soil should be worked in around 2 ..  
  the roots by shaking the tree sideways and up and down as the    
  soil is added and then tamped firmly against the roots as the hole   V  
  is being filled.      
  Fertilizers. Newly set LYCCS are not capable of utilizing fertili-   V‘_’_  
  ters until new root development has taken place and during this  T  
  period some fertilizers may injure the roots; consequently, fertil-  
  i/ing at planting time is not recommended. I-lowever, manure may   if__‘·'    
 Y be used safely as a mulch and this will be benehcial after the trees      
0  begin to grow.   Y
  Records and Labels, \/Vhen the planting is completed a record   u
  should be made showing the location of each variety on a chart.    
0; Then the labels which were wired to the tree at the nursery should  
  he removed because the wires will soon girdle the bark and the  
  tree may be ruined.  
 if Soil Management, l·`rom the time of planting until the trees  
 _ hcgin to bear, thoro cultivation of the soil during the spring and  
2  early summer is desirable to assure healthy, vigorous growth. Dur-   v_,'l    
  ing the latter part of the summer a cover crop, used to improve the  
_  ~oil, should be sown and a cover of rye or barley should be grown  
Q llllring the winter, Of course, a cultivated crop, such as tobacco.  
 J *'2ll`l)’ potatoes or truck crops. may be grown during tht} early y€L1l`>,  
  if such a crop does not crowd the trees and ample fertilizers and  
L  hllmus material are added to maintain the fertility of the soil.  
  Spraying. Young trees rarely need much spraying during the  
g *UllllllCl` following planting, lf apliis should betionle Zllllllldfilll Hf  
the tips of the new shoots, one of the best ways to eradicate them is  
‘ lo dip the tips of the shoots into a solution made of l teaspoonful of    

E ti ]\i!’}lfIl(`/{j' Extmtstimi Circular No. 347
  a l()—perccnt nicotine solution to l gallon ol soapy water. This is abou
  cheaper 2*lll(l 111ore ellectiye than spraying. In later years, spraying cut
`Y with nicotine solution may be more practical. Sotnctintes catein bacl
  pillars or other insects may be lound eating tl1e leayes. These are .\l'tc
? . . . . V .
,_ easily killed by spraytng with lead arsenate and l1lU€ at the usual selet
  strength. or l heaping tablespoonlul ol lead arsenate and l heaping ` l
It tablespoonlul ol` hydrated liine by C
l ¤$w==`i_` to l gallon of water. ln the to s]
JR "\ — — .
it ik y lall alter the hrst Sllllll]lCl`. _ p
~ , est _
t   peach trees should be exam- dm;
  ` vg  , ined lor borers, see Kentucky mus
#1 T " ?"?"‘¤   Horticulture Leaflet No. li. U, |;
  > · ` (lontrol ol` the Peach Tree {mil
it A V * *· ig Borer. During the winter lol- (,[ tl
3    >  1% lowing the hrst sunnner the or 6
V i {Ji  ·#`·i\"`  "" "M”’ l . , . . ,.   I _ J
,_ \ - »·_·   ,,,,,,-ex 1/, » toitnant sprays s iould Jcgtn. W ,,
E ’ y 1- ; J/‘%_, ‘ , [ ’ _ _ ‘ _, ‘
{1 [T" % .   *2% tt Sec kentucky lgxtension (.11*- the
  y  Q  _'   · cular No. 295, Peach and Plum my
=" ' `  ' 5 >ray Schedule, and Horticul- _
. , /)]I[l.
, ture Leallet. No. l, .-\pple$]>1‘21}‘· '[`]u»
 [ ing Progratn. y [hc
  2 Protection, The trunks ol .  Thc
  young lruit trees should be I  pm`,
ill protected lronr rodents, ])Zll`l,li* · I
»¤  »   ularlv rabbits and mice. d1tt‘- pl _
 1         _ 1 _ _ _ · is ic
  3 ~~:~r·" ·__¤= ,     ,·_,; ~   ing the lall, winter 1/lll(,l sp1‘111g· [Um
’ I ‘v:"4V `;;~’f$’;   "L  {}. vy:b?...,'”i5;;.~v   V `( · · `
(I  · "‘ . -·-.   I he best protection IS 21ll’<>l`cl<>\\‘ 1 bpm
  . . . *
  ground leyel to a height ol IS or 20 inches. mm
  lnnnediately alter planting. tl1e young trees Slll)lll(l be pruned \
.··  · ‘ y 1
’ 2 to balance tl1e tops with the roots. since considerable root area 11*** pm`,
I  |`<`lll<)\'C(l when the trees were dug. ililiis pruning also I`acilital<‘~ tll<` (mv
 L deyelopnient ol the lirainework desired, The pruning dillers s<>tt¤“ . mlm
  what with dillerent kinds ol` trees. (mk,
  Apples and Pears, ()ne-year whips usually are cut t>=1<`|< "’ sari
· I N
E  T

  2 at  
  5. ·i
  /’/rooting uml P/rotting an ()n·/uml 7 Q . _  
.  . 1
  about 3 feet. The side branches of two—year—old trees should be   - i
  cut back about half and the central or leading shoot may be cut    
  back a little or left unpruned according to the tree form desired,   _  
"  After the first season’s growth the framework branches should be     A  
  selected and the other branches removed. E . 1
  Peaches. The young tree should he pruned to a single stent     l
5  by cutting the top back to about three feet and the side branches      
  to spurs or stubs about 2 or 3 inches long. · Q  
  Plums and Cherries. The first pruning for these is similar to  
  that of the apple. The development of the framework of trees    
  must be started during the hrst year or two if the desired form is    
i  to be attained. Apples, [wars. and .ywz·cI clmrrit·.r are commonly   , j
  trained to a form known as modihed central leader. This consists   `  
  of the encouragement of the main stem until it has reached a height f   in  
,  of 6 or 8 feet when its vertical growth is checked by heading back V   ‘ ._ 
E  to a side branch. Three or four side branches. well distributed along      
  the trunk to avoid the weakness that develops when the branches  if- '.·‘·; 1
  are close together, are selected for scaffold branches. Pr·ar·/mt.  
  />f1nns and sour rlicrrirs are pruned to open-center or vase form.   E
  The central leader is removed and 3 or 4 selected branches form     ‘'I_  
‘  the framework. Good distribution along the trunk is important.  
 Q The center of the tree should be kept open to let in sunlight and    
.”V prevent shading out of the lower branches.   y‘iV  
Q in all kinds of trees the pruning, after the framework is estab-    
Q liShed. should be limited to slight corrections needed to maintain    
 Y form. and the removal of cross or interfering branches in the cen-  
Y ter of the tree, until bearing begins. Trees of pre-bearing age often  
gv iippear to be too thick, but the Iirst crops will spread the tops.  
I Pruning dwarfs a tree in proportion to the severity of the cuts and  
déiays the time when bearing will begin. The heading back of zi   _‘-_ {.3
. h1`Hnch dwarfs its total growth. but stimulates the growth of side  
A b1`?1nChes. The removal of 3_ side branch thins the top and i~  
 V- lllili/ed to open the branching to let in light.  
._ :\ young orchartl started with careful planning and attention  
I Pmvides the foundation for successful prodttction of fruit. but  
` <`¥11‘<‘ must continue thruout its life. Information on the details o|  
‘ll?U1ElgCmet1t ol- bearing orchards may be t>l)taine(l ill t>IhCl` ]>l1l)li-  
($3IiODs Of the Exmiigigii Division and l)t1ll€[i!]s of the Ktfliillfiil  
Agricultural Experiment Station.    

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