xt7sqv3c085r https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7sqv3c085r/data/mets.xml Peter, Robert, 1805-1894. 18841880  books b97-22-37599384 English Yeoman Press, : Frankfort : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Geology, Economic Analysis. Chemical report of the soils, coals, ores, iron furnace products, clays, marls, mineral waters, rocks, &c., of Kentucky  / by Robert Peter. text Chemical report of the soils, coals, ores, iron furnace products, clays, marls, mineral waters, rocks, &c., of Kentucky  / by Robert Peter. 1884 2002 true xt7sqv3c085r section xt7sqv3c085r 

           N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR.

          OF THE





           OF KENTUCKY.



 This page in the original text is blank.



                       CHEMICAL LABORATORY,
                         LEXINGTON, KY., April, i878.
Professor N. S. SHALER, Director Kentucky Geological Survey.
  DEAR SIR: I have the honor to make herewith a report of
the results of the chemical work performed for the Kentucky
Geological Survey from February of last year up to the pres-
ent time.
                  Very respectfully,
                                  ROBERT PETER.

 This page in the original text is blank.


                MINERAL WATERS, ROCKS,
                     &c., OF KENTUCKY.

  Of the chemical analyses herewith reported, more than one
hundred and thirty in number, seventy-four are of soils, sub-
soils, and under-clays; of which three, reported in the Ap-
pendix, are from Texas. These latter were examined for the
purpose of comparison with our Kentucky soils.
  The -limits of variation, in the proportions of the essential
ingredients of the seventy-one Kentucky soils, are shown in
the following table, viz:

                             Per ct. Number.  County.  Per cent. Number.  County.

Organic and volatile matters vary from . . . 9. 185 in 2,037 in Hardin to 2. o45 inX z,g86 in Allen
Alumina and iron and manganese oxides vary
from.                       24.465 in 2,015 in Grantto 3.o96 In 2,02g in Grayson
Ilme carbonate varies from .      9.425 in 2,0o5 in Grant  to .o3o in 1,968 in Alen
Magnesia varies from.          824 in 2,022 in Grantto.025 in 2,042 in Hardim
Phosphoric acid varies fromn.      .823 in 2,014 in Grant  to .013 in 1,968 in Allen
Potash extracted by acids varies from  1.778 in 2,022 in Grant  to .o35 in 2,041 in Hardin
Soda extracted by acids varies from  . 6,7 in 2,0)9 in Grant  to traces in several
Sand and insoluble silicates vary from  . .  59-94o in 2,015 in Grant  to g2.98o in 3,967 in Allen
Water, expelled at 38o" F., vanes from . . .  2.715 in 2.037 in Hardin to .483 in 2,030 in Grayson.
Water, expclled at 212  F., varies from  . .  6.575 in 2.033 in Grant  o .950 in 1,967 in Alien
Potash, in the insoluble silicates, varies from  2.910 in 2,037 inHardin to .72  in z9  in Barre
Soda, in the nsoluble silicates, varies from.  1.214 in 2,oc9 In Grant  to .o22 in ao  in Oldham

  In the sample of cretaceous soil from Collins county, Texas,
called "black waxy" soil, there were 17.085 per cent. of lime
carbonate, 0.497 of potash extracted by acids, while the 6i.840
per cent. of sand and insoluble silicates contained only 0.443
per cent. of potash in the insoluble silicates.
   The specimens from Grant county, which appear to such
advantage in this comparative table, are of heavy, tough
under-clays, excavated from some of the cuts on the Cincin-
nati Southern Railroad, some of which were called by the
doubtful name of "hard pan" by the contractors.             From   the
too large proportion of clay which they contain, as well as
their resulting physical constitution, they would by no means
prove as productive, under culture, as might be inferred from


their chemical composition alone. The fact that favorable
physical conditions are as necessary to the fertility of the soil
as the chemical conditions, has long been known; but both the
chemical and physical are equally indispensable.
  These heavy under-clays, which are so rich in some of the
mineral elements of plant nourishment, might doubtless be
used with advantage, in the manner of marl, as a top-dressing
on light or sandy, poor or exhausted soils. They would also
answer for common pottery or bricks.
  The five samples of coals examined, from Butler, Greenup,
and Madison counties, presented the usual characteristics of
our good Kentucky coals, some of them being better than the
average, because of their small proportions of ash and sul-
phur, especially the sample from Big Hill, in Madison county.
  The limonizzte iron ores, from Lyon and Trigg counties,
proved to be rich, containing from 46.320 to 50.195 per cent.
of iron; they are also remarkably free from sulphur, and
contain less than the average of phosphorus, which latter
ingredient was found in them only in the proportions of from
0.079 to 0.220 per cent. of the ore. The pig irons smelted
from these ores were found also to be generally of very good
  Amongst the clays which were analyzed, that from Bald
Knob Church, Ohio county-No. 2076-was found to be quite
refractory, and it may very probably be made available for
fire-clay if in sufficient abundance.
  Seventeen different samples of limestone were examined,
many of which were from the phosphatic layers in the blue
limestone of Fayette county, mentioned in the preceding
Report. In fourteen samples, mostly from the same quarry,
and all from the same neighborhood, the proportions of phos-
phoric acid were found to vary from 1.462 per cent. in No.
2002 Up to 21.940 per cent. in sample four of No. 2004.
(See Fayette county.)
  While these interesting phosphatic layers, in the Lower
Silurian limestone of this county, have not as yet been found
regular and continuous enough, perhaps, to justify working for



the manufacture of superphosphate, they are yet quite inter-
esting, as throwing much light on the superior fertility of our
Lower Silurian, or so-called 6 Blue-grass soil."  As will be
seen, the analyses of some of the most abundant of the fossils
of this limestone did not develop in these any unusual pro-
portion of phosphoric acid.
  One of the lillestolles analyzed-No. 2073-a ferruginous
limestone from Rough creek, Ohio county, was found, when
calcined, to possess the properties of hydraulic cement.
  The lead ore found ini our limestone, usually associated-
with zinc sulphide in veins of baryta sulphate, examined for
silver, was found to give the usual negative result. Indeed,
general experience, hitherto, se-mns to show that very little
silver is associated with the galena found in undisturbed lime-
stone layers; that ore being most generally argentiferous
which is in veins in the rocks which have been much dis-
turbed by volcanic action.
  The re-examination of the mineral waters of the Olympian
Springs, in Bath county, and of the Lower Blue Lick Springs,
in Nicholas county, has developed several interesting facts.
Not only is it shown that the general coniposition of these
celebrated waters has not been altered, or the waters wveak-
ened sensibly, during the considerable period intervening be-
tween the analyses, but also several new ingredients, in small
quantities, hlave been discovered in their.  Not the least
interesting of these are boracic acid and lithium compounds.
Compounds of barium and strotium  found ill these, also in
minute proportions, are believed to be, like the above sub-
stances, more generally prevalent than was formerly supposed.
  Several other mineral wvaters. deserving of a more complete
examination, were qualitatively examined. Kentucky is quite
rich in these waters, and a more systematic study of them
than has, as yet, been possible, is desirable.
  '[he chemical analyses of the ashes of the HIzzgarianz grass,
Ger-mai miillet, &c.. together with the microscopic photographs
of parts of their silicious skeletons by Mr. Alex. r. Parker and
Mr. J. Mullen, and the experimrntns to discover the nature of



the peculiar -root action " of these plants in their decompo-
sition of the silicates of the soil, as well as to determine the
nature of the special acid solvents exuded from the plants for
this purpose, detailed in the Appendix, throw some light on
the mysterious selective power of vegetables, by which ma-
terials, very different in kind and quantity, are appropriated
by different plants from a soil common to all. Some, because
probably of superior decomposing power which they exert
over the silicates of the soil, being able to extract essential
mineral ingredients and thrive, where others die of inanition,.
for want of the proper solvent or digestive agent.
  To produce the silicious cell-casts and skeleton of the Hun-
garian grass and German millet, the silicious material must
have been dissolved in water, in unusually large proportion, in
the vicinity of the roots of these plants. Unless in solution,
it could not penetrate the cell walls.
  It is well known to chemists that when silicates are decom-
posed, by acids or other agents, in the presence of water,
that the silicic acid thus produced is soluble to a large amount
in that fluid; but that it may again be easily brought to an
insoluble condition, as it exists in flint or sand, by the subse-
quent separation of the water; and this fact, with the demon-
stration of the exudation from the rootlets of these plants of
an acid fluid containing oxalic, phosphoric, and other acids,
probably in greater quantity than is produced by many other
vegetables, enables us to guess how these may decompose
more of the silicates of the soil than other plants and absorb
more dissolved silicic acid.
  Plants, like animals, vary greatly in their natural power
of appropriating essential elements of food. Some live and
thrive on food of most difficult digestion; others, like the
young of most animals, require nourishment in the most sol-
uble and available condition. Some, like the Hungarian grass.
and other plants which grow on sterile soils, can extract their-
essential mineral food from the hardest stony particles; others,
like our ordinary grain-producing plants, depend more on the
natural soil solution, which brings their food to their roots.



already in a condition to be most readily absorbed. Peculiar
root action on the soil is no doubt common, in a greater or
less degree, to all plants; yet, that the common soil solution,
produced by the solvent action of the atmospheric waters
upon the soil ingredients, is also a common source of plant
food, is equally demonstrable.
                       ALLEN COUNTY.
No. 1967-SOIL, labeled " Virgin soil, from the surface of the-
  tract of land of about fifty square miles in extent, in 1the
  eastern part of Allen county, called the 'Buncombe tract.' A
  very poor district. Forest growth. scrub oak, black oak, pop-
  lar, chestnut, hickory, &c. Produces about three to five barrels
  of corn to the acre (equal to fificen to twenty-five bushels).
  Sub-stratum arenaceous, clayey, and calcareo-silicious rocks;
  decayed to the depth of fifteen feet." Collected by Rev. Ifer-
  man Hertzer.
  The dried soil is of a light dirty-buff color. The coarse
sieve removed from it only a few small ferruginous concre-
tions. The silicious residue, after digestion in acids, all passed
through fine bolting-cloth, except a small proportion of small
rounded grains of quartz and undecomposed silicates, and a
few very small silicified entrochi.

No. i968-" SUBSOIL of thenextprecedingsoil," &c., &c.  Col-
  lected by Rev. Herman Hertzer.
  Of a lighter and more yellowish buff color than the pre-
ceding; containing fewer small ferruginous concretions. The
fine bolting-cloth separated from the silicious residue only a
few small rounded grains of quartz and of undecomposed
silicates of various tints.

No. i969- -SURFACE SOIL, one year in cultivation.   Upland.
  Land of William H. H. Mitchell, one mile west of Scottsville,
  Allen county. Forest gro'wth . a maple grove. Product. fifty
  to sixty bushels of corn to the acre."  Collected by Rev. Her-
  man Hertzer.
  The dried soil is of a light greyish-umber color. The coarse



-sieve removed from it a few angular fragments of ferruginous
quartzose rock. The fine bolting-cloth separated from silicious
residue a small quantity of fine rounded particles of quartz and
undecomposed silicates of a reddish-grey color.

No. 1970-" SUBSOIL of the next preceding," &c., &c.   Co/-
  ic/ed byj, Rcv. Herman Her/zer.
  The dried subsoil is very much in color like the surface
soil, being only slightly lighter. The coarse sieve and bolt-
ing-cloth removed similar fragments and particles from the
soil and the siliciouls residue. The rounded particles of unde-
composed silicates and quartz amounted to about four and a
half per cent. of the subsoil.

No. 197 I-  SURFACE SOIL.   Upland, fron the farm of Wm.
  H. HI. Mlitchiell (sameC locality as (lie preceding), which has
  beei ic crultivation for sixty years.  Yields twenty-five bushels
  of ce0n par acre; ezrht to ten bushels of wheat; or fifteen to
  twentyf of 0(7s. Original forest growtli: chestnut, maple, oaks,
  poplar, &c. Geological formatioon. the Keokuk Group-cal-
  careo-silicious and argillaceous rocks and shiales; decayed to
  the depth of twienty feet below the soil."  Collected by Rev.
  Herm an Hertz: er.
  The dried soil is of a buff color. The coarse sieve sepa-
rated from it some small quartzose concretions, silicified entro-
chi, and iron gravel. The silicious residue, from the digestion
in acid, all passed the fine bolting-cloth except a few rounded
grains of milky quartz and of dark-colored undecomposed sili-
cates, with some minute silicified entrochi.

No. 1972-" SUBSOIL of the next preredinry," &'c.  Collected by
  Rev. Herman Herizer.
  The subsoil is lighter and brighter colored than the surface
soil. The coarse sieve removed from it fewer quartzose and
ferruginous concretions than from that, and the bolting-cloth
separated fewer silicious particles.





Organic and volatile matters ........
Alumina and iron and manganese oxides.
Lime carbonaten.a............
Phosphoric acid.  .... .......
Sulphuric acid ...............
Sand and insoluble silicates .........
Water, expelled at 3800 F..........

No. 1967. No s968 1 No. 1969. No. 1970.    No. 1971. No    1972.

. 2.235   2.045  5 475 40     2. 745  2.4S0
   3.616 5.872  5.629  7-394  5 452  8. oo
   .    .030   .520   .470   .070   .o8o
   ..o6  .097   .124   .097   .079   .140
 . o0l9 -13    x56   .14E o  83     -4S
 .   Not esti iated.
 .   .44    160   .148   .380    221    219
    .489          22.20 .175   .143    s.15
92.98090. 8   ; 40 -874085.9090.440 88.04
. .65.     .615  2.2i00 .625   .865   .85 o
. 100329 99 984100 202 99.3721a O.981 100.X29

Hygroscopic moisture . ..........0.950  1.250  2 425  2.215   ' x175  i .550
Potash in the insoluble silicates . . 992  958  .958  .853   toS,  1. 1S8
Soda in the insoluble silicates..253 .2. ..31  .242 _3 54  .258

Character of the soil .........  .  .  .  .. Virgin soil SAL.il.  New soil  Subsoil ; Old field.  Subsoil.

   The unproductiveness of the soils Nos. I967 and 1968,
from the so-called Buncombe tract, finds an explanation iII
their chemical composition as detailed above. Both surface
soil and subsoil show a very marked deficiency of phosphoric
acid, the proportions of wvhich, 0.019 and 0.013 per cent. only,
are smaller than have been found in any other Kentucky soils.
This deficiency alone would cause sterility; but it fortunately
can be remedied quite easily by means of top-dressings of
fertilizers containing phosphates, such as commercial super-
phosphate of lime, bone-dust, or good guano.  These soils
are also somewhat deficient in organic matters (humus), lime,
&c., and may no doubt be greatly improved by the cultivation
of clover, with top-dressings of plaster of Paris or slaked
lime, and the plowing under of the green crop after one
year's grazing with hogs or cattle. The relative small pro-
portion of alumina, &c., to the sand and silicates, which
makes them what are called a "hungry soil," may be meas-
urably remedied by the judicious use of such clay marls as
may be accessible. The alkalies, potash, and soda are not
greatly deficient in these soils, yet the use of wood ashes, or
some other alkaline fertilizer, would doubtless increase their
   The soils Nos. I969-i970 and 1971-1972, differing so
greatly in productiveness-soil I969 producing fifty to sixty




bushels of corn to the acre, and the others only twenty-five
bushels-also exhibit very significant differences in their chem-
ical composition. Taking the surface soils for comparison, we
find the more productive soil, No. 1969, contains nearly twice
as much organic matters and phosphoric acid as the less fer-
tile one, No. 197 1, and that this latter essential ingredient,
phosphoric acid, is notably deficient in the less productive
soils. Another marked difference is fouLnd in the relative pro-
portions of lime and magnesia, the great deficiency of which
in the old field soils seems to indicate that their present infe-
riority is probably as much owing to an original difference of
composition as to the deteriorating influence of the sixty
years of cultivation. This supposition is strengthened by the
-relatively higher proportion of potash in the old field soil.
  The remarks on the improvement of the soil of the Bun-
combe tract apply also to this old field soil.

                      BARREN COUNTY.
                      SOILS AND SUBSOILS, &C.
No. 1973-"VIRGIN SOIL, from the farm of Major J. S. Barlow,
  in the 'Barrens,' four miezds east of Cave City, Barren county."
  Collected by Rcv. Herman Hertzer.
  "Geological formation: St. Louis limestone, the partly de-
composed rock six feet beneath the surface. Very rich soil
generally in the ' Barrens.' The ' Barrens,' so-called because
of the absence of forest growth in early times, extend from
Hardin county through Barren, Warren, and Simpson coun-
-ties. Formerly 'prairie' land, now overgrown with a young
forest of black oak, scrub oak, walnut, beech, and hickory."
   The dried soil is of a light umber color.  Clods friable.
The coarse sieve removed from it only a small quantity of
small fragments of decomposing chert and iron gravel. The
silicious residue, after digestion in acids, all passed through
fine bolting-cloth, except a small quantity of particles of partly
decomposed silicates, and some few clear quartz grains.
No. 1974- "SOIL, sizdy years in cultivation, from the same
  locality as Mhe last. Avenge roos: of tobacco, one thousand

1 2


  two hundred poundss; wheat, fifteen bushels; corn, forty to
  fifty bushels."  Collected byw Rev. Herman Herzes-.
  The dried soil is of an umber color, slightly darker than
that of the preceding soil. The clods are friable. The coarse
sieve separated from it about forty per cent. ill weight of angu-
lar fragments of decomposing chert. The silicious residue all
passed through the fine bolting-cloth, with the exception of
some small angular particles of partly decomposed silicates.
  [From the comparative color and chemical composition of
these two soils, it is probable that their labels were accident-
ally interchanged.]
NO. I975-' SUhBSOIL of the two prereding soils," &c., &c.
   The dried subsoil is of a light grey-brown color; is
somewhat cloddy, the clods being firm. The coarse sieve
removed from it only a few small fragments of decomposing
chert.  The silicious residue, after digestion in acids, all
passed through fine bolting-cloth, except some small parti-
cles of partly decomposed silicates, and a few small rounded
quartz grains.
No. 1976-" VIRGIN SOIL, from the farm of Daniel Davasher,
  soulthern part of Barren county. Geological formation: sili-
  cious grit, decomposed fifteen feet deep. Forest grow.. beec,
  hickory, oaks, poplar, and chestnut."  Collected by Rev. Her-
  man Her/zer.
  The dried soil is of a light brownish-grey color.  The
coarse sieve removed from it about twenty-two per cent.
of coarse angular fragments of ferruginious sandstone and
silicious concretions. The bolting-cloth separated from the
siliciouls residue some silicious particles, grey, white, and
flesh colored, with a few of partly decomposed silicates.
No. 1977-" SURFACE SOIL; in cultivation for thirty years; from
  the same farm as the next preceding.  Yield.- of corn, forty
  bushels; of wheat, ten to fifteen bushels; of tobacco, eight
  hundred pounds." Collected by Rev. Herman Hertzer.
  The dried soil is of a light dirty-buff color.  The coarse
sieve removed from it about seven per cent. of coarse silicious



fragments, and the silicious residue left on the fine bolting-
cloth a few particles similar in character to those of the virgin

No. 1978-" SUBSOIL of the next preceding," &c., &c.    Col-
  lected b6, Rev. Herman Hertzer.
  The dried subsoil is of a grey-buff color. It contains about
eleven per cent. of coarse angular silicious fragments and
concretions, and its silicious residue gave fewer silicious par-
ticles by the fine bolting-cloth than the preceding.

No. 1979" VIRGIN SOIL, from the farm of Mrs. M. E. Davis,
  eight miles south of Glasgow, Barren county. Geological for-
  mation: silicious or Kekokuk Group. Forest growth.: black
  walnut, beech, sugar-tree, &c., &c."  Collected by Rev. Her-
  mian Hertzer.
  The dried soil is of a light grey-umber color. The coarse
sieve removed from it less than five per cent. of coarse angu-
lar silicious fragments and concretions. The silicious residue,
from digestion in acids, all passed through the fine bolting-
cloth, except small greyish, reddish, and white particles of
quartz and partly decomposed silicates.

NO. 1980-" SURFACE SOIL, sixty years in cultivation; from the
  same farm as the preceding.  Geological formation. silicious
  or Keokuk Group, rocks decayed to depth of twelve to fifteen
  feet. Average crops.' of tobacco, one thousand to eleven hund-
  red poiunds ; of corn, twenty-five to forty bushels."  Collected
  by Rev. Herman Hertzer.
  The dried soil is a little lighter colored and more yellowish
than the preceding. The coarse sieve removed from it but a
very small proportion of small angular silicious and ferrugi-
nous fragments, and the silicious residue contained fewer small
silicious grains than the preceding.

No. 1981-" SUBSOIL of the next preceding," &c., &c.    Col-
  lected by Rev. Herman Hertzer.
  The dried subsoil is of a brownish-buff color. The coarse



sieve separated from it only a very small proportion of small
silicious, and ferrtiginious gravel. The fine bolting-cloth re-
moved from the silicious residue a considerable proportion
of soft, partly decomposed silicate grains, and but few hard
silicious particles.

No. i982-" SURFACE SOIv, sixty years in cultivation ; from the
  same farm   as the pj-eceding.  Bottom  land.  Znexhaustible
  because of annual inzundation.  Average crop: fifty, bushels-
  of corn." Collected by Rev. Herman Hei-tzer.
  The dried soil is of a light brownish-umber color. The
coarse sieve separated only a very small proportion of small
silicio-ferruginous fragments, and the silicious residue, from
digestion in acids, all passed through the fine bolting-cloth.

No. I983-" SUBSOIL of the next pr-eceding,    &c., &c.    Co-
  lected byt Rev. Herman Heitzer-.
  The dried subsoil is slightly more brownish in tint than the
preceding. The coarse sieve removed from it but a very small
proportion of silicio-ferruginous gravel.   Like that of the
preceding, the silicious residue all passed through the fine
bolting-cloth, leaving upon it no small silicious particles.
   VOL. I.-CHEM. 24.

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  The reasons for believing that the labels of soils Nos. 1973
and 1974 have been accidentally interchanged, is the greater
proportions of organic matters, lime, magnesia, and phosplho-
ric acid, and the smaller quantity of sand and insoluble sili-
cates in 1974 than in 1973. The greater proportion of potash
in the latter is also corroborative of this supposition because
the subsoil is richer in this alkali than the surface soils.
  These Barren county soils are above the average in native
fertility, and would require only skillful management, with a
judicious rotation of crops and the occasional use of special
fertilizers, as may be indicated, to keep them up to a high
degree of productiveness.
                        BATH COUNTY.
  The principal waters of these celebrated springs were qual-
itatively examined by the writer about the year i848-'9, and
the results were published in volume III of the first series of
Reports of the Geological Survey of Kentucky, pages 208-
2io. About ten years thereafter (in 1858-'9) more extended
,quantitative analyses were made by him of samples of these
waters, sent to his laboratory in bottles by Mr. H. Gill, the
proprietor. As such analyses of the waters forwarded in bot-
tles could not include the gases, and, moreover, were liable to
accidental errors, the writer visited these springs in August
last (x877), accompanied by his son, Alfred M. Peter, in order
to quantitatively estimate the gases in the recent waters; to
evaporate a sufficient quantity on the spot to enable him to
estimate their minuter saline ingredients, and to collect with
care, in very clean glass-stoppered bottles, enough of the
waters of the several springs for complete quantitative analy-
ses in his laboratory in Lexington.
  The hydrogen sulphide was estimated in the recent waters
at the springs, by the volumetric process, with the use of a
deci-normal iodine solution, &c., and the carbonic acid, thrown
down in a measured quantity of the waters, by an ammoniacal
solution of barium chloride, was separated and weighed at the



No. I984-"SALT SULPHUR WATER." Well at the saloon, near
  the main house or hotel.  The water is raised by a pump in
  the well, which is eight to ten feet deep.  The spring is said to
  yield about two hundred and seventy gallons per hour.  The
  tem.perature of the water was found to be 560 F., when that of
  the atmosphere was 750 F. The water forms a slight yellowisl
  or ochreous incrustation on the glass tumblers used at the well.
  It exhibits a slightly alkaline reaction.

No. I985-" BLACK SULPHUR WATER." From an open well,
  about a quarter of a mile nearly south of the main house, in
  the bottom ground just at the foot of the hill. The water is
  confined in a barrel with1owut heads, sunk into the ground.
  The temperature of the water in the barrel was 570 F.  Its
  sediment is nearly black, and it exhibits a slightly alkaline

No. I986-"WHITE SULPHUR WATER."         Fromt a rather feeble
  spring about three miles from the Olympian Springs.
  This spring was not visited by the writer, but a demijohn of
the water was sent to the "Springs" by John D. Young, Esq.
The hydrogen sulphide, therefore, was not estimated.





                         In zooo parts of the water.

                            No. 1984.  No. 1985.  No. x986.

Hydrogen sulphide gas..0 o.oo 0.0012             not est.
Carbonic acid gas tCO2)....    0.2400    .2781    not est.

Lime carbonate.0. 1975                 0.0158     0.o744 1
Magnesia carbonate....   .  .o506       .oo46      .03o16
Baryta carbonate   ..0128            . ... . .     .... .  Held in solution
Strontia carbonate.... . . . .0045    . . . .   ....       .by the carbon-
Iron carbonate... .. . . ..     .0025    .0024            I    acid.
Alumina.                       .ooo6.i .                      acid.
Manganese carbonate and phos-                      .0021
  phoric acid....... ... traces.       traces.
Lime sulphate.....  ..         .co83    .oo6i      .0039
Potash sulphate.....    . ..  ..        .C031      .0133
Soda sulphate   .     .     .... . .    .0025      .0408
Soda carbonate.... . traces  not est .   3247      .3113
Calcium chloride.  ...... .     .0213 ......     .. . .
Magnesium chloride... . . .    . 1089. .. . . .    .0071
Sodium chloride. ... .    .   4.8997    .1208      .1326
Potassium chloride ...0.. . . 355.
Lithium chloride.  .     ..... .    . ooo8   trace.     trace.
Sodium bromide ..     ..o.o66              .. .....
Sodium iodide and sulphide..   trace.    trace.     trace.
Boracic acid.    ........ .    trace.    trace.     trace.
Silica..     ..... . .. . . .    .0232    .0124      .0115
Traces of organic matter and loss,  0340   .0164
  Total saline matters in 1oo0
    parts.. . .. . . .. .     5.4168   o. 5088    o.6286

Specific gras ity of the wrater . .  1.004  not est.  not est.

   These interesting sulphur waters present considerable dif-
ferences in their chemical composition. The salt sulphur of
the saloon contains greatly more chlorides than the others,
and especially much more sodium chloride (common salt) than
they, while the black and white sulphurs are much more alka-
line from the presence of a considerable quantity of carbonate
of soda. They also contain more alkaline sulphates. All of
them have a notable quantity of iron carbonate, of which
chalybeate ingredient the salt sulphur and the black sulphur
contain the largest proportions. The quantity in the white
sulphur was not separately determined, but is doubtless quite


  These waters, and particularly those of the salt sulphur-
well, are applicable to the treatment of a great variety of
chronic diseases, under judicious medical advice, combining,
as they do, saline, alkaline, and chalybeate properties, with
those of the hydrogen sulphide, and the bromides and
iodides. They are found to be diuretic, diaphoretic, tonic,
and alterative, when used internally, not usually exerting
much aperient action; and when employed in the bath, for
which purpose the salt sulphur is used exclusively, they are
valuable in the treatment of cutaneous affections, &c.
  The very small proportions of barium, strontium, aluminum,
and lithium compounds, together with those of boracic andc
phosphoric acids, which were detected in this recent re-exam-
ination of these waters, interesting as their discovery may be
to the philosopher, cannot be supposed to exert much influ-
ence in their medicinal action, yet, doubtless, they are not
without effect.
  Since the detection of barium and strontium compounds in
these waters containing sulphates, the attention of the writer-
was drawn to a recent communication of M. Dieulafait to the
Academy of Science of Paris, as to the very general presence
of strontium carb