xt7stq5rc473 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7stq5rc473/data/mets.xml Kentucky Negro Education Association Kentucky Kentucky Negro Education Association 1943 The most complete set of originals are at Kentucky State University Library. Call Number 370.62 K4198k journals  English Kentucky Negro Educational Association: Louisville, Kentucky  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal African Americans -- Education -- Kentucky -- Periodicals The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.13 n.2, January-February, 1943 text The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.13 n.2, January-February, 1943 1943 1943 2020 true xt7stq5rc473 section xt7stq5rc473  


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The Kentucky
State College



Special War Emergency Program designed for than mm- {he
denim to finish the standard four year college work in
two and two- thirds yam

Throo Summer Seniom: Beginning May 10. June ll. July ll ‘



Arts and Sciences ‘
Agriculture — Home Economics
Business Administration — Engineering


'Well Trained Faculty
Adequate Library and Laboratory Facilities
Comfortable. Modern Dormitories
Full Program of Student Activities


Standard Class A Four Year College
Accredited by the
Southern Msociation of Colléges
and Secondary Schools


B. B. ATWOOD. President ,



 The K. N. E. A. Journal

ofliclal Organ o! the Kentucky Negro Education Assodatlon
Vol. Km January-February, 1943 No. 2




Published by the Kentucky Negro Edueation Association
Editorial Office at 2230 West Chestnut Sheet

Louisville, Kentucky

W. H. Perry, Jin, Executive Secretary, Louisville, Managing Editor
H. E. Goadlae, Danville, President of K. N. E. A.
A. F. Gibson, Pinevflle I W. W. Maddox, Paducah
Victor K. Perry, Louisville Whitney M. Young, Lincoln Ridge
Published bimonthly during the school year: October, December,
February and April
Membership in the K, N. E. A. includes subscription to the Jamal
Rates for Advertising space mailed on request
Bresent Circulation, 2,00!) copies. 1942 K. N. E. A. Membership, 1380


KN. E. A. Ofiicers ..................... 2
Editorial Comment ...................... .......... 3
Doyle Heads Municipal Coilege..... .......... 5
Joint Meeting; Program Planning Conference ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Symposium: Juvenile Delinquency .............. ...... . . . . . . . .. 8
some Inxmvstiohs in Guidance (vW. H. Craig) .............. . . . . . . 16
George Washington: Carver (Lucy Earth Smith). . A . . . . . . . . . . . . . l 19
K. N. 'E. A, Announcements ........................ ............. 24

Proposed Constitution ......... .....
K. N. E, A. Kuliings.
N. Y. A. Employment Opportunities
1943 haner 11:11.


 K. N. E. A. OFFICERS FOR 1942-1343

H, E. Goodloe, President ..............
Grace S. Morton, First Vice-President .
'1‘. J. Long, Second Vice-President .,
W. H. Perry, Jn, Secretary~Treasurer
L. V Ranels, Assistant Secretary
'Elizabeth G, Clark, Historian . ..




H. E. Goodloe, President
W. W. Maddox (Term Expires 1943) . . .
Whitney M. Young (Term Expires 1943) ..
A. F, Gibson (Term Expires 1944) ......
Victor K, Perry (Term Expires 1944)


. i . .lmiisville
. .[nuisvillo



Edward T. Buford, High School 8; College Dept ....... Bowling Green
Mayme Morris, Elementary Education Department ”lnuisville
M. Li Copeland, Rural School Department...“ ifiopkinsville


R. L. Carpenter, Music Department ...... ....i..Louisville
Whitney M. Young, Vocational Education Dept .....Lim1n Ridge
W. O. Nuckuils, Principals‘ Conference ............ Providence

Beatrice Willis, Primary Teachers’ Department.
Anorma Basrd, Youfii Council ...... . . . . . . .
Ouida Evans, Art Teachers‘ Conference.
G. W, Jackson, Social Science Teachexs’ Conference“ . . .,
Gertrude Siedd, Science Teachers‘ Conference.
Jewell R. Jackson, English Teachers’ Conference
A. C. Randall, Librarians’ Conference ..........
F. L. Baker, Physical Education Depantment i
W. H. Craig, Guidance Workers‘ ConfereIICe .
A. J. Richards, Foreign Language Teachers’ Conference
William D. Johnson, Adult Education Department.


l—M. O. Strauss, Paducah ................ 'First District Association
2—Helen Nuclwlls, Providence . . . Second District Association
3—A. L. Poole, Bowling Green. . .Third District Association
d—Russell Stone, Bloomfield. Founth District Association
5—l‘llayme Morris, Louisville. . . . . . . .Fifth District Association
6—Whiiney M. Young, Lincoln Ridge . ”Bluegrass District Ass’n.
7—H. R. Merry, Covington . . . . . . . . Nomi-ism District Association
'S—William Gilbert, Wheelwright Eastern District Association
9—A. F. Gibson, Pinevilie...... pper Cumberland Dist. Ass'n.







Editorial Comment


The delinquency of juveniles is claiming the attention of the pub-
lic, particularly of parents, teachers and social workers. Educational
journals, periodicals and newspapers areigiving space to discussion
of its causes and possible remedies. All too frequently one agency
passes responsibility for the condition to another. The homes blame
the schools or the gang for the child’s truancy and delinquency; the
schools say the comm should take more vigorous action, particularly
against parenfi; the courts feel the real solutions of the prublans do
not lie in their hands. Social workers have no panacea for the ills.

'llhzis suggsts hhat juvenile delinquency, like]! a serious problem,
should be considered an aspect of a further problem, and that it]
mots may lie in economic conditions and broken and unhappy horns,
producing poorly adjusted juvenile personalities. Three articles in
this issue, representing the careful thought of educational and social
workers. approach the situation from this angle. Although the ska-tis-
tics given deal with Louisville, the principle illustrated and dia-
eussed doubtless find application in every school and comm-unity.



At the 1943 KN.E.‘A. Convention, 132 teachers and principals en-
rolled as honorary members of the association This meant the vol-
untary paying 01 a membership fee of $1.50, instead of the constitu-
tional fee of $1110.13 showed the personal and professional interest
of these persons in making it financially possible for the K,N.E.A. to
expand its program

ll‘hrongh the years our organization has done well on limited in-
come. It has met its overhead expenses, brought outstanding speak~
ers to its sessions, published the Journal regularly, contributed fi-
nancially to mov‘ements planned to improve the status of teachers,
and occasionally granted scholarships to worthy applicants.

The Board of Directors voted that funds raised through the pay-
ment of the additional fifty cents he used to foster the equalization of
salaries in the state. There are other needs that justify an increased
membership fee. Speakers’ expensx have increased, due to incl-as-
ed travel rates; cost of place of meeting has increased 33% in two
Years; our scholarship fund should be increased to make it more
serviceable; cost of publication of the Journal has increased; con-
tinued development of the program is dependent on the availability
of reasonable funds.

The substantial revenue that formerly came from the annual ex.
hibitions sponsored by Louisville teachers at the armory no longer
comes to us. Our only source of revenue now, except for advertise-


 ments, is membership fees. It is heartening to realize that ten par
cent of our membership vohmtarily paid the $1.50 fee last year. This
year many are sending in their fees on that basis. All teachers are
asked to consider seriously the advantage to the association of their
voluntary enrollment as honorary members, and to act to the ad—
vantage of the association.


It will he a policy of the KNJEA. this year to continue the devel-
opment of its departments. The programs of the departmental and
general sessions at the 1943 Convention will be the result of the
united efiotts of departmental and group leaders. KNEA. ofiicials
have for a long time faced the problem of trying to pmvide, with
limited funds, speakers suitable to each of the seventeen departments
of the association. With the endorsement of the Board of Directors
and District Presidents of the Association, the Departmental Chair-
men met in Louisville to plan details of their April programs.

By unanimous agreement, the departments repraented, organized
themselves into four groups, each with a common interest. Through
such arrangement, it became possible for each group to expect the
services of a well selected speaker. During the convention, after a
group has listened to and discussed a general problem with the
speaker, departmental sessions will he held, making pussible applica-
tion of the general ideas in the separate departments. Each depart-
ment will thus continue its identity and develop its individual pro-

The next issue of the KNlEA. Journal will contain detailed pro-
grams of all departmental and general sessions.


Attention is directed to the articles contributed for this issue of the
Journal by individuals .whose interests lie in varied fields. Three edu-
cators and social workers have given points of view an the current
problem of juvenile delinquency; a graduate student in edmation has
made extracts from a recently completed thesis to give interesting
fact concerning the late George Washington Carver; a departmental
chairman has contributed practical suggestions for teachers interest-
ed in guidance.

All these articles should prove interesting to Journal readers. The
Journal columns are open to teachers of the state Who wish to pre—
sent articles which may have interest or value to others.

Put the K.N.E_A. dates, 'A-ptril 14-17, on your calendar. ‘Plan to attend!

 HEADS MUNICIPAL COLLEGE was secretary of the Board 01
Education of the C. M. E.


Dean Doyle was born in Ala-
bama, the son of a Methodist
minister. He Completed his ele<
mentary and high school work in
the state of Texas, and received
his Bachelor of Arts degree at
Ohio Wesleyan, after which he
did further study at the Univer-
sity of Chicago, where he Was
awarded the Master of Arts and
Ph. D. Degrees.

He has taught in the states of
Texas, South Carolina, North
Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee,
and has also sen/ed as minister
in South Camlina and Tennessee.

fle holds membership in the
following organizations: Kappa
Alpha Psi Fraternity, Phi Beta

Di. BERTRAM W. DOYLE Kappa Immunity, American

Local and state educators wel- Sociological Society, American
come to his new post as dean of Statistical Society. Dean Doyle
the Louisville Municipal College, is married and is the father of
Dr. Bertram W. Doyle, who five children—four girls and a
prior to coming to Louisville, boy,


Summary Of Join: Meeting—Departmental Chair-
men With Board Of Directors. K. N. E. A.

A joint meeting of the Departmental Chairmen and Board of Direc-
tors of the K.N.E.A. was held in Louisville on Saturday, December
12, principally to make plans for the program of the April convention
of the organization. Those present were President H. E. Goodloe, Di-
rector Whitney M. Young, Vice-President T. J. Long, Secretary W.
‘H. Perry, J12, and the following departnental chairmen: Mr. E. T.
Buford (High School and College); Mrs. Jewell R. Jackson (English);
Mrs Ouida W. Evans (Art); Mr. A. C. Randall (Library); Mr. W. 0.
Nuckolls (Principals’); Mrs. Gertrude Sledd (Science); Mr. G. W.
Jackson (Social Studies); Mr. W. H. Craig (Guidance); Miss Anorma
Baard. (Youth Council); Mrs, Beatrice Willis (Primary); Mrs. Mayme
Morris (Elementary), Mr. L. J. Harper, chairman of the program com-
mittee of the science department and Mr. Blyden Jackson, president
of the Louisville Association of Teachers in Colored Schools, Were
also present and took part in the discussions.


 President Goodloe made a brief, but timely address, urging alert-
ness to opportunities to advance the educational interests of teachers
and pupils. He then asked the secretary, Mr. W. H. Perry, Jr., to lead
discussion relative to the program of the April sessions. The secretary
stated the policy would be to continue the development of depart-
ments, and expressed the hope that at the end of the meeting, or
shortly thereafter, those present would outline the departmental and
general programs of the April convention, integrating them with the
general theme, EDUCATION FOR VICTORY. Discussion centered
around the following proposals and questions which had been sub-
mitted in advance to those who attended the meeting:

Proposal 1. There are seventeen departments in our association It
is not financially poSi‘ble to provide a desirable speaker 501' each
of them each year. If, however, the several departments were to
assemble themselves together into a few groups with common in-
terests, it might be possible to secure a strong speaker for each
group. Each group might also discuss general problems laced by
the several departments, and .then separate into “departmental
conferences" which already exist, for consideration and applica-
tion of the ideas to their specific teaching fields

A suggested grouping of departments, according to probable conunon

interests, follows:

Group 1

High School and College Department
Principals‘ Conference
Librarians Conference
Adult Education Department
Art Teachers Conference (Section 1)
Music Department (Section I)
Group 2
Elementary Education Department
Primary Teachers’ Department
Art Teachers’ Conference (Section 2)
Music Department (Section 2)
Group 3
Social Science Teachers’ Comference
Science Teachers‘ Conference
English Teachers’ Conference
Foreign Language Teachers’ Conference
Group 4
Guidance Workers‘ Conference
Youth Council
Vocational Education Department
Rural School Department
Group 5
Physical Education Department

Question I. (a) Should the several departments of the K1 .A. Kbe SD

grouped, according to common interests, as to facilitate the pre-



 sentation of outstanding speakers, and the consideration of com-
mon problems, each group retaining its autonomy?
(l1) What grouping is suitable?

Proposal II. The Workshop idea is popular with many educators. lo,
the workshop, thorough consideration is given to some major
educetional problem through the thorough, purposeful, coopera-
tive action of all members of the group. Obviously, the experienae
is valuable to each member as well as to the group. A workshop,
conducted by a qualified educator, and with an interested per-
sonnel, would furnish a splendid opportunity for the functional
approach to some educational problems.

Question 2. Does any group represented here wish to conduct a work-
shop during the April convention?

Proposal :11. The general theme of the April convention is, EDUCA~

Question: 3. In harmony with this: (a) what subject do you suggest for
deliberation by your department; (lb) by your group; (6) what
speaker do you recommend for your group?

Proposal IV. The addresses at the general sesions should generalize
and integrate as far as is practicable the ideas which will proh-
albly 'be developed in detail in the departmental sessions.

Question A. (a) What broad themes do you suggest for the addresses
on the general programs?

(1'!) What persons do you suggest as Well qualified to make
addresses of the nature indicated?

The above questions are only suggestive. It is hoped that the con-
texenoe will give the secretary a definite conception ol the nature at
the program you desire, and a “skeleton" of the'organization you
plan with your group and department.

Those present gave thoughtful consideration to the questions above,
and be others suggested by them.

The following decisions were made:

1. The grouping of deparhnents as suggested above was approved
unanimously, except that the Physical Education Department
was assigned to Group HI, as most of the Physical Education in<
structors were thought to teach subiects in that group.

2. Emphasis was put on the fact that no department or conference
loses its independence or opportunity to develop its own program
through the grouping. The grouping is intended to strengthen the
Work of the separate departments.

Each group should select a leader, to (1) take the initiative in

contacting the other chairmen within the group, and direct the

selection of a theme for group consideration; and (2) to keep the

K‘N.E.~A. secretary advised of the plans and decisions of the


4. The units of each group should agree among themselves as to

the subject for group discussion, and the related subjects for

consideration by the depaflments and- conferences which con—



 sfibute the group. All subjects should be in harmony with the

5. Two and a half hours should be scheduled for each group discus-
sion, the time to be divided between whole group and unit (de-
partmental or oonfetence) discussions

6‘ The Lima 01 meeting of the various groups should he so sche‘
duled that members of any grown may visit other groups while
fill-3y are in evasion.

Departmental and Conference chairmen should (1) send their sug-
gestions for the you/p program, and (2) the program of their particup
in: department or whietence to the group leader no later than Jan-
uary 15, 1943, in order that he may send it to the KlN.E.Al secretary
shortly thereafter. It is important that the program be planned early,
so desirable speakers may ‘be arranged tori

mgestions and advice to your group leader, or to the K. N E. A.
secretary, as the program develops will -be appreciated.


The three articles which follow, dealing with juvenile delinqumcy
among Negroes, summarize addresses made at an open meeting ar—
mged for consideration of. the subject, and sponsored by the Com-
mittee on Resources and Information, Louisville Urban League, and
Child Welfare Division, Council of Social Agencies. The meeting,
presided over by Mr; C. H. Parrish, chairman of the Committee on
Resources and Information, was an inter-racial galghering, attended
by educators and reprwentativa of active social agencies. The tack
and points of View expressed in the articles will douzbtlss be of in;-
terest to educators of the state.


Some Facts About School Attendance And Juvenile
Delinquency Among Negroes

Dr. Ernest Greenwood, Statistician, Council of Social Agencies

Dependable figures whereby 170 judge the extent of juvenile mis-
behavior among Negroes in the Louisville area are few. Those that
were readily available to this writer fall into three types.


The Number and Rate of Cases Involving Legal Anxious by the
Louisville Board of Education In Contact Absences, (or the School
Years Barn 1987-58 to 1941-42.

Whites Negroes
Salim! Year: Number 01 Rate per Loan Number of Rama pm 1,000
Home; Served School Population Notice! Served Smaol Population
1937-38 737 18.0 184 26.0
1938-39 798 20.0 423 59.5
1939—40 828 2L3 4Z3 60A
1940-41 1,056 26.9 417 60.0
1941-42 1,156 29"] 457 650

The figures reveal a gradually rising rate over the last five year:

 for both races. The increase was underway years before the outbreak
of the war and the war appears not to have appreciably accelerated
this rise. Hence the growth of chronic absenteeism cannot be attribu-
ted to the world crisis. The figures further show the Negroes to have
a much higher incidence of legal actions for repeated school absences.
During the years 1938 through 1940 the Negro rate was almost three
times and during the years 1940 through 1941 it was slightly more
than double the White rate. These ratios would indicate that the gap
between the racial rates is closing, not because the Negro curve is
declining to meet that of the Whites, but because the White curve
is inclining to meet that of the Negroes.

Communal-m for Dependency and Delinquency to the Louisville

and Jefiersvn Coumy Children's Home from 1535 through 1941.

Total White: Negroes

Your: Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
1935 262 10!] 192 7 3,3 70 26.7
1936 223 100 139 62.3 84 37.7
1937 207 100 1154 74.4 53 25.6
11938 278 100 1175 62.9 103 37.1
1939 225 100 155 68.9 '70 81.1
19410 268 100 <135 69.0 83 3110
1941 287 101) 203 72.5 79 27.5
Total 1,750 104) 1,208 69.0 542 31.0

Over a period of seven years tram 1935 through 1941 commitments
numbered 1750, 01‘ an avenage of 250 annually. The percentage of
Negro commitments to total commihnents varied from year to year
from a low of 26% in 1937 to a high of 38% in 1936. Viewing the en-
tire period as a whole, the percentage of Negro commitments to total
was 31%, In 1-940 the Negro population of Jefferson County was 13%
and of Louisville 15%. Thus Negroes are contributing double their
normal share of commitments.

Commitments to the Home are for two causes, dependency and
delinquency. Over the seven year period the ratio of delinquency
commitments to total commiunents was 24% for Whites and 44% for
Negroes. Thus the delinquency ratio for Negroes was on the whole
Muble that of the Whitfi.


The Number and am of Formal Delinquency Charges Brought to
the Jefletson County Juvenile Court during the Court Year: 153']-
1938 through 1940-41.

Court Number or! Rate per 1,1700 Number of Rate per 1,000

Year: Charges Juveniles Chnrze: JumniI-I
1937-38 737 11.4 400 41.0
1933.39 723 11.4 430 43.6
193940 760 1-2.1 311 32.6
1940—41 636 93 316 82.6

 It is interesting to note that the formal delinquency rates for both
Whites and Negroes are declining and that the decline is relatively
greater for Negroes. Thus for Whites the 1940-41 rate is 87% what the
mate was in 1937-38, while for Negroes the 1940-41 rate is only 80% of
the 1937-38 rave. Here too, as in the case of legal actions for absences,
the gap between the mines is closing; this time because the Negro
curve is declining to meet that of the Whites. But the Negro rate is
still very high. As of the end of the four year period it was three times

that of the Whites.


Some Observations On The Causes Of Juvenile

L. B. Jen. Supervisor

Ridzewood Division. Louisville and

Mr, Chairman:

We are discussing a problem,
the solution to which lies much
deeper than the suppression of
the many anti-social acts of the
children involved. We could put
on a campaign and perhaps cause
90% of these outbreaks to sub-
side, but unless We get at the
roots of the evil, the problem
will still be with us. These out-
breaks are the result of a built-
up potential caused by all the
forces of our social, our econo-
mic, and our educational sys-
tems playing upon the child. It
is not left to the child what
these forces shall be; yet, he is
made a victim of them and must
react to them. Perhaps it would
lbe more nearly correct to refer
to juvenile delinquency as a de-
fect in our social structure, and.
blame ourselves rather than our

Inadequacy and Insiabimy

of Parents

We have on our campus now
88 children sent out by the Juve-
nile Court, ranging in age from
10 to 1'] years; in grade place-


Jefferson County Children's Home

ment from third to ninth; al-
most equally divided as to de:
linquent and dependent commit-
ments. In fact, there are 45 de-
hnquent commitmenm and 43
dependent“ In studying their rec-
ords we find much delinquency
in the records of those committed
as dependents, and so much de-
pendency in the records of Ihose
committed as delinquent that
there is not any appreciable dif-
ference in them. Their deport-
ment on the campus is about the

The parents of these children
seem so completely lacking in
understanding the needs of their
children, and so void of quali-
ties that would develop stability
in them, that I do not wonder at
the delinquencies of the child-
rezL In so many instances the
bad example of the parents so
outweighs the good advice they
attempt to give that their words
fall flat as empty patter, The
average grade level of the
fathers of these 88 children is a
little less than 3rd grade; that of
the mothers, 5 little more than

 3rd grade It is interesting to
note that invariably the dhildren
from the homes of the higher
educational levels ofler more to
build on. Without exception,
they show more readiness to
grasp higher ideals and more
readiness to conform to higher
standard of living, once they
have overcome the con-fusion and
instability which caused their

Out of these 80 odd homas, not
counting those in which both
parents are dead, 64 are broken.
In many instances, one or both
parents are living in munch-
law situations, with the child
or children shuttled back and
forth between these homes. The
parents don’t seem to understand
why the children leave home
and get into trouble. 'llhey saw
they give them everything they
want, nice clothes, mending
money, etc. They don’t seem to
realize that what they are doing,
at mosl, is simply bribing the
child to accept their wrong do—
ing. ’flhay don’t seem to know
that their children have friends
with whom they wish to stand
high; they don’t seem to know
that the Children have pride
which they are wounding every
day. They should, know that
children have a way of asking
most piercing questions about
each other’s parents and homes,
as do also, well-Wishing adults
A case in point occurred on our
campus recently. A mother came
out to visit her son, a boy six-
teen years old, in the 8th grade,
0f good appearance, and very
popular on the campus. While
the mother was being registered,
an uninformed adult asked the


My if the young man with his
mother was his brother. The boy
blushed, dropped his head, and
plainly showing his embarrass-
ment said, “Not" A few days lat-
er his teacher sent him into the
ofiice with the corn'pliaint that
for several days he had been de-
ing poor school work. In the
meantime he had got‘hm into
some other mischief on the cam-
pus. Since the Superintendent
wanted to talk with some other
children, and as I was about to
leave with them, I took the boy
along, He made such a fine im-
pression that the Superintendent
became interested in :him and be-
gan to ask questions about his
ambitions and polibilitiea of Bt-
taining them. When he asked if.
his parents were living, and if
they were together, I noticed the
same confusion and embarrass-
ment in the boy, and he said
“Yes.” The facts are that the
parents were separated several
years ago and the boy has spent
much of his time'living with one
then the other. Our records show
many other instances where
children, in the Juvenile Court
on delinquency charges, are con-
fused and emharrassed when
their parents are contronted 'by
the court on situations like this.
And these parents can’t under-
stand why their children leave
home and get into trouble. I
wouldn’t insult your intelligence
by asking you Why. In a cherub
cal laboratory the chemist can
pretty well predict what the out-
come will be if he mixes chemi<
cals in a definite ‘way. This is
not so with human behavior. We
have not been able to reduce it

to formulae like that. We know

 if an individual is subjected to
stress, tension and conlusion; if
he is denied affection and made
to feel insecure in the home or
school, he will rebel, but the
direction in which his rebellion
will lead is unpredictable. He
may go out and steal a car and
kill himself or someone else; he
may rob his school or some other
school, or he may do any of the
hundreds of other thin-gs that
Juveniles do.
Beiardafim in School as a Factor
In the records of every child
committed to Ridgew‘ood as a de-
linquent we find truancy. We
have children committed from
several other states and the
same is true in their cases. The
usual story is: I didn’t like
school, couldn’t get the Work,
got to staying away, fell in with
a group of 'bad boys and got in-
to trouble. By hasty conclusion
We might blame truancy as the
cause of delinquency, but if we
examine the situation more close-
ly we will find that truancy is
the efiect of another cause more
fundamental. The child becomes
truant because he is unable to
get the satisfaction out of his
school work that he has a right
to expect. He is unable to do so
because of one reason or anoth-
er he has become retarded, and
receives only humiliation and em-
barrassment firom his efforts. We
instinctively avoid situations of
this sont. It would be highly de-
isitable to clear our streets of
the scores of children of school
age and force them to attend,
but many of these children are
facing real embaflassing prob-
lems in school, and it would not
be fair to them to force them to


attend without making it possi-
ble for them to achieve satisfac-
tory results. I mean. results satis-
fying and inspiring to the Child
as well as those that will enable
society to perpetuate those finer
qualities of its citizenry and
make progras toward a higher
level. Our children who are al-
lowed to grow up in crime and
ignorance are going to perpetu-
ate the kind of homes, and the
kind of parents who bring child»
ran into the world to perpetuate
the juvenile delinquency prob-
There are fundamental needs
which every individual must
have to make him happy and
stable, aside from 500d, shelter
and clothing One needs to feel
that he is not only a cog in the
machinery, but that 'he is an im-
portant cog. He wants to feel
that he is accomplishing some-
thing worthwhile, and he needs
recognition from his fellows for
his accomplishments. A boy
joins a gang, steals and robs be-
cause he gets the praise and ad-
miration of his fellows, and wins
recognition which he could not
get otherwise. We find children
who have been moved along in
school until they are as much as
two to three grades above their
ability to do satisfactory work.
Here seems to be the reason
children say they “couldn‘t get
the work, didn’t like school and
just stayed away.” Time and
again I have seen distress in the
face of children when I tell them
they will have to attend school
at Ridgewood. 'llhey eagerly of-
rather than go to school. Sever-
a1 years ago We became so mm-

 earned. about this wide gap be-
tween the child’s grade place-
ment and his actual ability to
perform in a satiszactory way,
that our school was reorganized
so that children could be placed
in groups withuut the designa-
tion of grade; in groups where it
was possible for them to achieve

When a child is committed to
Ridgewood he is given a thor-
ough testing by our department
of psychology we determine just
what his general capacity for
learning academic subjects 'm;
his special interest and aptitudes;
his actual achievement lev-
el in the various tool subjects;
and his total grade score. Our
medical departanent gives him
a thorough examination for any
physical defects he may have,
and efforts are made immedi-
ately to correct any found. Our
social service department gala-l-
ers all available delta on the
family background. and causes
for conimitment, and the psy-
chiatrist begins at mice to cor»
rect any emmmm disturbancs
found. With this composite pic—
ture of the child he is placed in
school Where it is felt he is best
suited. With a very few excep-
tions, test results a year later
have been quite gratifying.

Let us take one of the girls on
our campus as an example: We
shall call her Mary. Mary has
been on the campus less than a
Yeah She was a truancy proh-
lem in the public schools and
was classified as 7th grade. She
has several sisters; her mother
is dead. All: first she stamd stay-
ing away from school, then
away from home ovemighrt and


Visiting places of ill repute. She
taught her father and sisters
who insisted on her attending
school and began staying away
from home for several days at a
time She was large for her 14
years of age and made a good ap-
pearance. Mary was committed
tn Ridgewoad as a dependent.
Our psychologist found that she
had a total grade score of 5.1
and in some basic Subjects her
anhievement Was below 5th
grade level, Our medical depart-
ment found that ’she was very
frail and verging closely to
childhood tuberculosis. When
she entered she was bitterly op-
posed to school and used various
ruse: to escape. Finding this u