xt7stq5rc59t https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7stq5rc59t/data/mets.xml Michigan Historical Records Survey District of Columbia Historical Records Survey United States. Work Projects Administration. Division of Professional and Service Projects Michigan Michigan Historical Records Survey District of Columbia Historical Records Survey United States. Work Projects Administration. Division of Professional and Service Projects 1940 vi, 64 l. 28 cm. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call Number: FW 4.14:M 582c books  English Detroit, Mich., Michigan Historical records survey project,  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Michigan Works Progress Administration Publications Jews-- Michigan Synagogues -- Michigan Registers of births, etc-- Michigan Inventory of the Church and Synagogue Archives of Michigan. Jewish bodies, 1940 text Inventory of the Church and Synagogue Archives of Michigan. Jewish bodies, 1940 1940 1940 2020 true xt7stq5rc59t section xt7stq5rc59t , "WIN

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Prepared by

The Michigan Historical Records Survey Project
Division of Professional and Service Projects
Work Projects Administration

Michigan state Administrative Board - Sponsor
Michigan Historical Collection - Co—sponsor


Detroit, Michigan
The Michigan Historical Records Survey Project







The Historical Records Survey Projects

Sargent B. Child, Director
George W. Hubley, Jr., Regional Supervisor
Stuart Portner, State Supervisor

Division of Professional and Service Projects

Florence Kerr, Assistant Commissioner
Alma Kerr, Chief Regional Supervisor
Besse M. Garner, State Director

Work Projects Administration

F. C. Harrington, Commissioner
George Field, Regional Director
Abner E. Larned, State Administrator







The inventory of records of the Jewish Congre-
gations in the state of Michigan is a laudable project.

Jewish communities of old have always kept accurate
records of their history and membership. Almost every
synagogue and locality had its own "Pinkas" (minute book).
Data pertaining to the Jewish religious institutions in
Michigan should have been preserved by the Jewish organi—
zations long ago. It seems that either the absence of a
coordinating body or the lack of funds, or both, may have
been responsible for the failure to do so. The Federal
and State governments should therefore be highly commended
for this undertaking.

The Jewish clergy and lay public of the State, un-
doubtedly will recognize the importance of this work and
will find it useful in their religious activities for
years to come.

The Michigan Synagogue Conference has gladly co-
operated with the staff of the Historical Records Survey
in obtaining materials, and has secured much valuable
historical information from them in return.

Michigan Synagogue Conference





The inventory of the Church and Synagogue Archives 9:
Michigan: Jewish Bodies is one of a nation—wide series of
inventories of ecclesiastical archives being compiled by the
Historical Records Survey Program. This inventory has been
undertaken as a service to the clergy and officers of religious
bodies and also for the student of social and religious history
and the laymen interested in the growth and development of
religious bodies in this country.

The inventory of the archives of the Jewish congregations in
Michigan is a compilation establishing the identity and location
of congregations, institutions, and organizations affiliated with
Jewish religious bodies in Michigan. In determining the identity
of the congregations we have accepted the status and affiliations
claimed by the responsible officials in charge. The framework of
presentation is that of the United States Census of Religious
Bodies. To this we have added local history of sufficient im—
portance to warrant inclusion in this study.

Acknowledgement of our appreciation is made to the many Jewish
congregation officials who have given. ustheir COOperation and
assistance but whom, for lack of spaCe, we are unable to mention
personally. We are especially indebted to the following gentlemen
for extending to us the facilities of their denomination organi—
zations, for their courtesy and consideration in meeting our re-
quests, for advice and information and also for their good offices
in qualifying and authenticating the material herein published:

r. lee M. Franklin, Rabbi Leon Fram, Dr. Abraham M. Hershman, Rabbi
Max Wohlgelernter, Rabbi Moses Fischer, Rabbi Joshua S. Sperka,
Mr. Philip Slomovitz, editor of the Jewish Chronicle, and William I.
Boxerman, Executive Director of the Jewish Community Council.

Collection of data in the field was accomplished by project
workers of the Michigan Historical Records Survey, and was
collated by Edgar Sipe and Adolph Maurice, under the supervision
of Basil Ayres, Assistant Project Supervisor. Editorial consultation
was given by Dr. Bernhard A. Uhlendorf, Assistant Project Supervisor.

This inventory was edited by the Library of Congress Histori-
cal Records Survey Project in the District of Columbia and the
Librarian of Congress recommended that it be approved for publicationZ
We have profited greatly by the criticism and advice of Donald A.
Thompson, Assistant Archivist.


State Project Supervisor

Michigan Historical Records Survey
March 25, 1940



The Federal and State governments are to be com—
mended for this comprehensive compilation of Jewish
congregational history within the state; it will not
only help to preserve the scattered records of the con-
gregations, but to a great extent will add to the know—
ledge and facilities of all those who are interested in
the history and development of the Jewish religious
institutions in Michigan.

Many of the organizations and individuals connected
with Jewish religious activities have felt the need for
such an inventory for some time. They will undoubtedly
appreciate the efforts of the government to make all
these accumulated facts available for public use.

It is gratifying to note how painstakingly this
work has been done. It should add to the efficiency
of the ecclesiastical workers throughout the State.

Dr. Leo M. Franklin

Congregation Beth El

The Jewish congregational history published by the
Historical Records Survey, a department sponsored by the
Federal and State Governments, is a very useful work. It
contains an exhaustive listing of the Jewish religious insti—
tutions, congregations and cemeteries in Michigan, and furnishes
much valuable information and data on the Jewish religious history
of the State. I feel certain that all who are interested in the
progress of the Synagogue will appreciate this important work.

Dr. a. M. Hershman

Congregation Shaarey Zedek



Foreword ............ ..... ... ..... .......................
Preface ................................................
Comments .,,,............................................
Historical Introduction .................................
National Reform Organizations ...........................
Reform Congregations ....................................
National Conservative Organizations .....................
Conservative Congregations ..............................
National Orthodox Organizations .........................
State Orthodox Organizations ............................
Orthodox Congregations ..................................
Defunct Congregations (with no information available) ...
Institutions ............................................
Cemeteries ..............................................
Bibliography ............................................
Alphabetical Index ......................................
Geographical Index ......................................

Chronological Index .....................................




















(First entry, p. 10)


Jewish religious history in Michigan is closely associ—
ated with the general history of the Jews within the State.
Whereas the first emigration of Jews to the Few"World began
immediately after their expulsion from Spain and Portugal
about the middle of the sixteenth century, the earliest extant
records of a Jewish settler in the State of Michigan date back
no farther than 1765.1 However, these records are of a non—
religious nature only. The first beginnings of Jewish religious
activities manifest themselves in connection with a later im-
migration which began about 1848.

Most of the early Jewish settlers in Michigan came from
Bavaria, Germany. As had been their custom, these Jews or—
ganized religious communities, known as "Minyanim" (assemblies
for prayer), as soon as they could bring together ten or more
adult male members. The Minyanim served as nuclei from which
organized congregations later developed.2

These early religious assemblies were the racial and cultural
centers of all the Jews within a community. The meetings in—
spired the little groups toacling to their faith under new and
sometimes difficult conditions and to sanctify the Sabbath and
Jewish holidays.3

The first organized congregations, which had sprung up from
the Minyanim, were either Orthodox or Conservative. They
followed in every detail one or the other of the rituals prac—
ticed by the adherents of the Old World synagogues. The Reform
temples (Minhag America) are either directly or indirectly off—
springs of these congregations, which gradually changed the
rituals and thus caused a rift between the leaders of the new
movement and the faithful upholders of the old Ceremonials.
While the latter considered these ceremonials as "indespensable
to a true fealty of Judaism,"4 the former adopted more liberal
forms of services, compatible with their new environment.



l. A Jew, Ezekiel Solomon, is listed in General Haldimand's
manuscripts in the Dominion Archives, Ottawa, Canada, as a
proprietor and resident of Mackinac and Montreal from 1765
to 1816. Lee M. Franklin, A;Histqry of Congregation Beth.§l
(Detroit, 1900), p. 7.

2. Peter Wiernik, History 9f the Jews in America (New York, 1912),
p. 156,

5. Ibid., p. 20.

4. Franklin, 2p, £13., pp. 8—9.




 Historical Introduction (First entry, p. 10)

The first Minyan, from which later developed the Congre—
gation Beth El, one of the first Jewish congregations of the
Northwest Territory and the first in Michigan, was organized
through the initiative of Isaac and Sophie Cozens. They arrived
in Detroit early in the year 1850 and established their residence
near the corner of Congress and St. Antoine streets. There, a
few months later, the first Hebrew religious services were held.1
Later the congregation met in a rented room above the store of
Silberman and Hirsh, on Jefferson Avenue.

As a result of these gatherings, the Beth El Society was
organized on September 22, 1850, with Joseph Newman as tempo—
rary chairman. Shortly afterwards a regular election was held,
in which Jacob Silberman was chosen president and Solomon Bendit
vice—president of the new congregation.2 They invited the Reverend
Samuel Marcus of New York City to become the spiritual leader of
the congregation. Mr. Marcus served the congregation until his
death from cholera in 1854. He was buried in the Champlain Street
(now Lafayette Avenue) Cemetery5 which had been acquired by the
Society in 1851 and was the first Jewish burial ground in Michigan.

After the death of Reverend Mr. Marcus, Rabbi Dr. Liebman
Adler, a native of Germany who had just come to this country, was
invited to take his place. In addition to performing his duties
as a rabbi, Dr. Adler was also the official Shochet (killer of fowls
according to Jewish rites) and Mohel (performer of circumcisions).

In April 1851 the Beth El Society filed articles of incor—
poration with the County Clerk of Wayne County. According to
these articles the Society was organized for the purpose of pro—
viding a place of worship, of securing teachers of Jewish culture,
and of acquiring a burial ground for its members. The congregation
was to be "Conservative" in form and bear the name of Congregation
Beth E1. The signatures attached to the petition for incorporation
are those of Jacob Silberman, Solomon Bendit, Joseph Friedman, Max
Cohen, Adam Hirsh, Alex Hein, Jacob Tang, Aaron Joel Friedlander,
Louis Bresler, C.E. Bresler and L. Bressler.4


1. Franklin, 9p, cit., pp. 8-9.

2. "Minutes of Congregation Beth El," vol. 1, p. 3.

3. See bronze tablet, grave of Reverend Mr. Marcus, Beth El
Cemetery; entry 85.

4. "Articles of Incorporation of Congregation Beth El," Wayne
County Clerk's Office, Detroit, Vol. A-B—C, pp. 55, 130;
Wiernick, HistOry 2f the Jews in America, pp. 154—55.




Historical Introduction (First entry, p. 10)

Although the congregation was organized as a Conservative
institution with provisions that "the services shall be held
according to the German Ritual (Minhag) and this shall not be
changed as long as the Congregation exists under the name of
58th El,"l it was not long before a spirit of reform began to
make itself felt. Under the leadership of its president, Emanuel
Schloss, a new set of articles of association was agreed upon in
April 1859, and reaffirmed in March 1860. Article II stipulates
that "the object of this society shall be to worship Almighty God
according to the Israelitish or Jewish faith."2 Since such
reforms were becoming more evident, a schism developed between
the Reform and the Conservative groups, finally causing the
secession of the Conservatives in 1861. On December 6, 1862,
nine members of this group succeeded in organizing the Congrega-
tion Shaarey Zedek.

After the departure of the Conservative—Orthodox group and
the engagement in 1869 of Rabbi Dr. Kaufman Kohler of Bavaria and
in 1884 of Rabbi Dr. Louis Grossman, a graduate of the Hebrew Union
College of Cincinnati, as spiritual leaders, the Congregation Beth
El assumed "a new and progressive spirit . . . where previously it
had passively tolerated reform, now it became aggressively in—
sistent upon it."4

With the arrival in 1899 of Dr. Leo M. Franklin as successor
to Dr. Grossman and with the erection of the new and spacious
Temple in 1904, the program of the congregation was expanded to
include a wider range of educational and cultural activities. Thus
a standard was set which served as a pattern to be followed by other
congregations. The educational activities of Beth El are at present
under the directorship of Rabbi Ieon Fram.

Upon the suggestion of Rabbi Isaac M. Wise of Cincinnati at the
sessions of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations which were
held in Temple Beth E1 on July 9, 1889, the Central Conference of
American Rabbis was founded.5 The congregation was instrumental in
founding the Jewish Student Congregation at the University of


1. '"Articles of Incorporation of Congregation Beth El."

2. Ibid.

5. "70 Years of Shaarey Zedek History," in Shaarey Zedek Year
Book, 19531Q4, Detroit, 1954, pp. 15—17.

4. "Historical Sketch of Beth El." Ms. Congregation Beth El.

5. Jewish Ency010p0dia, New York, Funk & Wagnalls Co., 1912,
Vol. 4, p. 215.






Historical Introduction (First entry, p. 10)

Michigan, commonly believed to be the first organization of this
kind in America, and brought about the organization of Reform
Congregations in Grand Rapids, Jackson, Bay City, Pontiac, and
Flint. It also organized the College of Jewish Studies which
is an affiliate of Beth El.

When Shaarey Zedek was organized, it began to grow considera-
bly. It became, in short period of time, the second important
congre'ation in the State. As an orthodox synagogue it attracted
all those who did not adhere to the Reform ritual. Nevertheless
this congragation, too, gradually changed its ritual to one that
is known as Conservative, to which it still adheres.

Being one of the first Conservative congragations in the
United States, Shaarey Zedek encouraged the establishment of
Conservative congragations in other cities. It was instrumental
in organizing and is a constituent member of the national body,
"United Synagogue of America."

From the very beginning Shaarey Zedek was active in pro—
mulgating an extensive religious-educational program. But,
because of the removal of its place of worship, necessitated by
the constant shifting of the Jewish population from one section
of the city to another, Shaarey Zedek was compelled to limit its
educational activities from time to time. The congregation
finally erected its present edifice at West Chicago Boulevard
and Lawton Avenue, Detroit, in 1932. Shaarey Zedek's present
educational and social activities include day classes for children,
adult educational instruction, free lectures, and a variety of
social entertainments. The congregation also maintains a free
library for the public. The educational activities of the congrega-
tion are in charge of Rabbi Morris Adler, under the supervision of
Rabbi Dr. Abraham M. Hershman.

Since the turn of the century, Michigan's Jewish population,
like most of that in the entire United States, has been coming
mostly from Eastern Europe. This fact accounts for the predomi-


1. "Historical Sketch of Beth El."

2. Temple Israel (Jackson), entry 4; Temple Emanuel (Grand Rapids),
entry 6; Anshe Chesed (Bay City), entry 7; Temple Beth Jacob
(Pontiac), entry 10; Temple Beth El (Flint), entry 11.

3. Letter from Ella Lichtman, secretary to Rabbi Samuel M. Cohen,
Executive Director of the United Synagogue of America, to Basil
Ayres, November 17, 1959, HRS. (Historical Records Survey) files,
370 Federal Building, Detroit.



 , -5-
Historical Introduction (First entry, p. 10)
nance of the Orthodox type of synagogue today.

Jewish ecclesiastical history in the State of Michigan is
more than the history of Detroit's oldest Jewish congregations.

. It goes without saying that rural life attracted few Jews. In

the cities, however, they settled and acquired places of worship
comparatively early. Within nine years after the establishment
of the first congregation in Detroit, one had been established
in Jackson, and within fifteen years one in Kalamazoo. The
1870's brought congregations to Grand Ragidss and Bay City,

and in 1884 one was organized in Alpena, in the northern part
of the lower Peninsula. The three last named cities flourished
at this time because of lumbering enterprises; their congrega-
tions, all of them Reform in faith and ritual, are still in
existence today.

Of the four Conservative congregations in the State, three
are located outside Detroit. Of these the one at Benton Harbor
is the oldest, having been organized in 1882, in the boom days
of the lumbering business.

The larger influx of Orthodox Jews from Eastern Europe did
not begin until about 1900, but already in 1883 the Russian and
Polish Jews formed a numerical majority of the Jewish population
in Michigan. An Orthodox congregatiOn was organized as early as


1. Charles Heuman, "History of Congregation (Beth Israel),
1859-1955," typescript, Detroit Public Library, Burton
Historical Collection.

2. Dan Aach, "Historical Sketch (of Congregation B'nai
Israel)," MS. I

5. "Minutes (of Temple Emanuel)," vol. 1, p. l.

4. Letters from Henry F. Anthony, secretary, Anshe Chesed
Congregation, to Basil Ayres, February 6, 1959 and.00tober
25, 1939, HRS. file. '

5. Letter from Sanuel Isackson, treasurer and acting rabbi,
Temple Beth El, Alpena, to Basil Ayres, October 16,
1959, HRS. file.

6. Letter from Moses A. Schwab, rabbi, B'nai Israel, Benton
Harbor, to Basil Ayres, October 15, 17, 1959, HRS. file.

7. Jewish Encyclopedia, vol. S, p. 542.


Historical Introduction (First entry, p. 10)

1883, however, in Traverse City,1 another lumbering center, only
five years after the establishment of Beth Jacob in Detroit.2
Another Orthodox congregation still in existence was organized in
-Kalamazoo in 1886.5 During the 1890's four more Orthodox
congregations were formed beyond Detroit, one of them in Pctoskey,4
almost at the northern tip of the Lower Peninsula.

There are only two Hebrew congregations in the Upper
_Peninsula, one in Iron Mountain, organized in 1908,5 and the
other in Hancock, organized in 1915,6 both of them in Orthodox
denomination. Out of a total of 64 active congregations, there
are 51 Orthodox, 4 Conservative, and 9 Reform, 57 of the total
being situated in Wayne County and the remainder throughout the

Of the eleven congregations now defunct only four were
located outside of metropolitan Detroit. The one to be
established first (the third congregation, active or defunct,
to be established,outside of Detroit) was located at Au Sable,7
on Lake Huron in the upper part of the LOWer Peninsula. It
existed from 1874 to 1911.

All eleven of the congregations no longer in existence were
Orthodox in denomination. These congregations became defunct due
to the fact that some of them merged with other congregations
and others had to close on account of the shifting of the Jewish
population to other places of residence.


1. Letter from Mendel Rubinovitch, president, Congregation
Beth El, Traverse City, to Basil Ayros, October 21, 1959,
HRS. file.

2. Letter from Barney Barnett, treasurer, Beth Jacob,
Detroit, to Basil Ayres, October 12, 1959,

HRS. file.

5. Letter from Herman Price, rabbi, Congregation of Moses,
Kalamazoo, to Basil Ayres, October 20, 1959,

HRS. file.

'4. "Minutes and Register (B'nai Israel, Pctoskey),"

vol. 1, pp. 1-5.
5. "Register (Anshai Knesseth, Iron Mountain)," pgssim.
6. "Minutes and Register (First Congregation of Israel,
Hancock)," v01. 1, pp. 1—3.
7. First Hebrew Congregation, entry 20.



Historical Introduction (First entry, p. 10)

In localities where there are no organized Jewish congrega—
tions, attempts are constantly being made to conduct Sabbath or
holiday services Whenever possible. Mainly is this the caSe on
High Holidays, when special services are being conducted in rented
locations even in the larger communities Where there are established


All Jewishrnngregations,vnthout exceptions, maintain their
full autonomous rights in deciding all of their local problems,
not withstanding the fact that they may be affiliated with one or
the other of the National bodies. The functions of the national
organizations, intheir relationship to the local congregations,
is rather of a coordinating and stimulating nature.

In the religious life of the Jews, child education is an
important factor. Following the formation of a congregation,
a Jewish community usually organizes classes for their children,
These classes may be in the form of either Sunday Schools or
Sabbath Schools. The community also furthers other cultural
activities. In Detroit an organized central body known as the
"United Hebrew Schools" maintains ten schools within the City.
Four of these are located in buildings belonging to the central
body, five in public schools, and one in the Jewish Community
Center. Shese schools have a student body of about 1,700
children. They confine their curricula to the teaching of
the Jewish religion, Jewish history, and the Hebrew language.

With the development of Jewish life in the State, a need
was felt for more comprehensive activities, not directly of a
religious nature. Jewish Centers were organized to cover these
needs. These centers attempt to become the rallying points for
the educational, cultural, health, social and, in the smaller
localities, also for religious activities. They attempt to draw
the young Jewish generation closer to Jewish communal life.

The most outstanding institution of that character is the
Jewish Community Center of Detroit. A similar institution, on a
much smaller scale, is the Jewish Center of Battle Creek. In
other localities the various congregations assume these responsi~
bilities. In the field of philanthropy there are numerous organi—
zations that take care of the various needs of the indigent part

1. United Hebrew Schools, entry 84.
2. Philip Slomovitz, "Michigan Jewish Pioneers," Detroit
Jewish Chronicle, November 15, 1955.




—8- ,
Historical Introduction (First entry, p. 10)

of the Jewish ponulation. The most important of these organi-
zations are: Jewish Welfare Federation; Jewish Social Service
Bureau; Jewish Home for Aged; Jewish Children's Home; House of
Shelter; Hebrew Free Laon Association; and Fresh Air Society,
all of Detroit.1 There are also charitable institutions in the
following cities. Federation of Jewish Charities in Flint;
United Jewish Welfare Society in Grand Raoids; Jewish Federation
in Jackson. There is, in addition, a Jewish Social Service
Bureau in Detroit which maintains a Resettlement Service giving
aid to refugees in settling them in any part of the State.

The further need for a still more inclusive organization
of Jewish life is at present finding expression in a number of
communities in the form of community councils, the most outstanding
of which is the Jewish Community Council of Detroit. This
Council was organized in 1936 as an affiliated central body
comprising, in addition to practically all Jewish congregations
in Detroit, representatives of other religious, philanthropic,
cultural and fraternal organizations. Their purpose is to
coordinate and to stimulate various Jewish activities as part
of the life of the community at large; to promote good will and
cooperation between Jewish and non—Jewish organizafi.ons; to
amicably adjust differences between individuals and organizations
through arbitration courts.

In most instances the Jewish congregations maintain their
own cemeteries. In cities with a large Jewish population like
Detroit, for instance, the various denominational congregations
maintain cemeteries for their members; in smaller localities one
cemetery may be maintained for the entire Jewish population. In
the City of Detroit there is a central cemetery organization,
which affords the opportunity of free burial service to those
who are not in a position to pay for it.

Several attempts were made to organize Jewish agricultural
colonies in the state where the inhabitants would live from
tilling the soil. The first attempt was made in 1891 when the
Palestine Colony, consisting mainly of Russian and Polish Jews


1. Year geek, l957,'Detroit, Jewish Welfare Federation, 1937,
pp. 4, 7, 1‘0‘7‘11, 16, 18,

2. William I. Boxerman, "The Jewish Community Council of Detroit,"
in Reconstructionist, New York, Society for the advancement of
Judaism, November 19, 1937, pp. llvlé,

5. Chesed Shel Emes, entry 105.



Historical Introduction (First entry, P- 10)

was established at Bad Axe. This colony was sponsored by the
Hebrew Relief Society of Detroit and financed by the Baron
Maurice de Hirsh Committee. It also received the financial and
moral support of public spirited Jewish citiZens of Detroit, of
which the late Martin Butzel was an outstanding example.

The fifteen families comprising the average population of
the colony, led a highly religious life, observing all Jewish
holidays. But due to poor selection.of land and other unforeseen
difficulties the colony was finally disbanded after four years
of existeHCe.

A similar attempt was made by a group of New York and
Detroit individuals in 1935. They purchased a track of land
on a farm in the village of Alicia near Saginaw where they
established the Sunrise Colony. But after three years of
struggle with circumstances, they were also compelled to

In fine, it may be said that the religious life of the
Jews in Michigan is closely interwoven in the fabric of Jewish
communal life in general.


l. Philip Slomovitz, "Sunrise in.Michigan," Detroit Jewish
thgnicle, June 21, 1935.







54 W. Sixth St., Cincinnati, Ohio.

Organized July 8, 1873. Departments of the Union:
Hebrew Union College, Department of Synagogue and School Ex-
tention, National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods, National
Federation of Temple Brotherhoods, and National Federation of
Temple Youth. Principles and purpose: To encourage and aid
Jewish Reform congregations; provide means of relief; promote
unified religious instructions without interfering with the in—
ternal affairs of the affiliated congregations. Its governing
body consists of a president, honorary president, two vice-
presidents, secretary, treasurer, and an executive body. Officers
in charge: President, Robert P. Goldman; honorary president,
Charles Shohl; vice-presidents, Jacob W. Mack and Harry N. Gottlieb;
secretary, Rabbi George Zepin; treasurer, Herbert G. Oettinger.
Executive offices, 34 W. Sixth St., Cincinnati, Ohio.

The Council of the Union met in Detroit on July 9,
1889, at which sessions Rabbi Isaac M. Wise suggested the
formation of the Central Conference of American Rabbis (see entry
2). (See the forthcoming Inventory 2: the Jewish Congregational
Archives gf_ghig).

204 Mulford Place, Macon, Georgia.

Organized July 9, 1889 through the initiative of
Rabbi Isaac M. Wise at the session of the Union of American
Hebrew Congregations (see entry 1), meeting in Temple Beth El,
Detroit, Michigan. Organization consists of approximately 565
members. Principles and purpose: To issue prayer books and
other religious publications pertaining to Reform Judaism; assist
with the placement of rabbis and co-ordinate their activities.
Officers in charge: President, Max C. Currick, Erie, Pa.; vice-
president, Emil W. Ieipziger, New Orleans, La.; recording secre—
tary, Isaac E. Marcuson, Macon, Ga.; corresponding secretary,
Samuel M. Gup, Columbus, Ohio; treasurer, Harry S. Margolis, St.
Paul, Minn. Executive office, 204 Mulford Place, Macon, Georgia.

(See the forthcoming Inventory 2: the Jewish Congre—
gational Archives 2; Georgia).






Woodward and Gladstone ave., Detroit.

Organized 1850 as a Minyan (a congregation of ten
male adults). Affiliated with the Union of American Hebrew
Congregations since Sept. 28, 1875. Beth El, oldest congregation
in Michigan, first held services in residence of Mr. Isaac Cozens,
Congress and St. Antoine streets. Some months later, congregation
moved to a rented hall on Michigan Grand Avenue. First synagogue,
Rivard Street near Congress Street, dedicated 1861. Second
synagogue, Washington Boulevard and Clifford Street (formerly
First Baptist Church), dedicated 1867. Third synagogue, Woodward
Avenue and Eliot Street, dedicated 1905. In opening this temple
for worship, the congregation, as a step in the democratization
of synagogue organization, introduced the unassigned pew, being
the first Jewish congregation in the world to adopt this system,
which is now in use by approximately 250 congregations throughout
the United States. Present synagogue dedicated 1924; white stone
structure, in Classic style with Biblical inscriptions on frieze.
The three auditoriums have a combined seating capacity of approxi—
mately 4000. Services conducted in the English language. First
settled clergyman, Rabbi Samuel Marcus, 1850—54. Present clergy—
man, Dr. lee M. Franklin. Officers in charge: Director of
Religious Education, Rabbi Leon Fram, Belcrest Hotel; president,
Harry C. Grossman,'1000 Whitman Rd.; executive secretary, Irving
D. Katz, 3016 Calvert Ave.; treasurer, David P. Wilkus, 2435 Boston
Blvd. Membership: 1100 families.

Minutes, 1850-1915, 15 vols.; 1915~-, loose~leaf
files. Register (confirmations, members, and deaths), 1911—50,

19 vols., 1952~—, 2 vols. No permanent register prior to 1911.
Financial records, 1850—1922, 24 vols.; 1923-—, loose—leaf file.

Cemetery records, 1854—-, (see entry 85). Records kept in temple
4.: TEMPLE BETH ISRAEL, 1859——, 219 T/Iesley 53.,

Jackson, Jackson County.

Organized 1859 as Beth Israel (Orthodox); reorgani—
zed as a Reform temple under present name 1909. Affiliated with
the Union of American Hebrew Congregations since April 4, 1906.
Services first held in homes of Jacob Hirsch, 189 Mechanics Street,
and Henry Long, 187 Mechanics Street. First synagogue, Michigan
Avenue and