xt7t1g0hvx8q https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7t1g0hvx8q/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1921 journals kaes_circulars_001_1_092 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 092 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 092 1921 2014 true xt7t1g0hvx8q section xt7t1g0hvx8q fi:
V
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Dlrector
CIRCULAR NO. 92
Pruning Fruit Trees
ur
H. R. NISWONCER and A. J. OLNEY
Lexington. Ky.
March. 1921
Published in cnnnectinii with the agricultural extension work carried
0n by cn0pe·mti·»n of the C0!lc;.:c¤ of .·\2I`i(`\1i(l1I't‘, I‘niv<~rsity of Kentucky.
with the I`. S. Ih~r»:irtni•·r1t of .·\:rivu1tur»~, nm] tiisrrihutmi in furth<~r—
Hm`? 0f the work prm·itir·ti fm- in mp .-\r·t of L`¤m;;ross nf Nay S. li‘N»

 §
I
C()N'l`l·]N'l`S
P I’ag»: P
· P Pruning the apple ....,... .. A,.,.,     H 3;
. Prineiples of pruningn. . J}
Pruning young trees ..,,,,   .. .7 1
\ Pruning negleeted hearing trees . ll  
Pruning the pear. .,...,   H r .,,.A r. . T-1
Pruning the peaoh       p...Ap ,. .. r to , , li
Training the young tree ..e.. . , ,_,..   _ , 13
Pruning the second and third years .rrrV M . 1*
Pruning the fourth and subsequent years l'*
Pruning iiegleoted trees of hearing age"., V. 2*]
Pruning the pluinu. _.......,,.V. .. . r P,   _...,.V,, .,   if
Pruning the sour ('i1Cl'l`_\'..H .. . .   , ., ee,. , . . fi

 { )
 
I CIRCULAR NO. 92
  Pruning Fruit Trees
By H. R. NI5\N()NGIiR and A. ji OLNILY
PRUNING THE APPLE.
l’:ig·: I )lm·h hu~ l·····i1 >ui·l uml wi·iil<·n i‘z1iie·vwn thui ihi· luit··i· im·Zli·»·l~ gin- IiIl'{;'¤‘l' ll'•‘<‘< uml
ll ` ·ui·Ii··:· i·i··»·li1··li·»ii.
_ $im··]»1··»·lm·li·»n i~ whzil w~· ui··· Ell.i•‘I`. ih·· i¤l·~ul ii·l·i· >h··uhl
lll l~ ·r!i*‘ wifi u u····¤l i'i·:11m·w»·i·l< ul` \\l·llrl>ului1·~i··l liinhs. iii l»1‘·li·i·
_ 13 :·» h·»l·l ih»· l`i·1xii. uml <»m· wiih ih·· liuiiing l>l'ilIll'lll'S uml fruit
~;·i1:~ ·l-~Tl'll¤Illm·¤l ilirmnuz ihw li·<···.
l` 'l`h·· l`:uZ‘ gi··»w··i· whn ]ll'lIII<‘~ li¤·.i\‘il_x` ··w1·_x· _x·i·li:· wil pru-
]r» ·lxi··· uri 11ml~·1·~ix···l iiww wiih h·ul'_x· l>I'llIl"l|l‘< uml l`¤·w lrui; »]»i1i·—.
A ll·· v.i`l l·· ·li<:¤i»i»·»iiii···l :il~.» in im? liuving ll1<· Iruw ]»i··r.l1i·l·
'U limi: u‘ ih·· ll¤¤l'lllill ll<‘Ill'lllQ` eign. lin <»i‘lli·1· in <¤l l`i·¤·in
ihi· >··il uml this i< l·ui‘1·i¤·l¤»i·cll in vurinus parts of tho
7l‘¤··. 'l`hi< >i·»i·i~.l l`m>il is nsnll tho l`·»llnwi1igy0ui· in llvvvlwpiiig
l¤1’2ui··li~< uml i·¤»l»ls_ 'l`lu·i·i—l`l»i·¤·_ ihv imwo loaves tlivro ure im
&l}'Ul1Ilg' treo iluriug thv gi·l>w·in;; sousuii, tho in >i·l· {null will lil-

 l
C 
. ~ *
‘ b
I
\ ,
`  2
, \ \\ . —,
{ = x` A
1 \     ,·// `
\ ` xx 1 } `
i   ]   VA
\ L Cx xj V
_ { x i » \,’ 4
xx { I f (
` X »' ~ » P
§`V ,’V
\\ ;;·/
•‘._.
\~  
‘€i
ri
· ».»’,;~ .r  
  . `7=•··1{ . ` v ·=  - » ··
.) » w __ .. 2 . W ;’_ _ _ _• ._ I
·,`$_ ‘ Q`! =f‘:?z£>·>» "’—"·       -  ·-  *2 ,ygg;;_¤w.»·-.. `
. ,·.·. ·’ ‘   JQ A »,-*’ ·
Y-;;’;}T‘%·R¥?{rT§wé??".     -· }`· ‘ “   , IV —*i`t"·’ 6 - *3*
. / I   M ·· .`.`-;#.§;';?·'A—. — .   _ ·i I.  
I . ywfijv   I Y   _ , !..
  . .g-..&,J_'§;3·_5¢;;,';;?7` j  ;A.: .._·, gl, v_     3 , .
» ‘r·¢.¢>¤i» ·a ·     '   ' 25  ‘ `   ‘»    
“ ..=;· ___f;r5é*¢ .‘ . Q;   ·;)   · z . . V - *' `·
i w_;p' 1,€',Q§,;;t,£. P     . I   A ./ ,{ · l   . .
  ~‘-~¢l·*f"- ‘   · —V‘` . ·.`· V  — ~i 
[·`iQ`- I. I.I·Z.\I*Z·]Ii '|"1'l'Ij'l`Ii!·II`I.
Crntcln .\ u<>1·r‘·<·L···1 by vuiiing hm-}; !»r;m» ix h m.»1··- >»x¤·1‘vly l}k·lI1L'»

  
 
I'r11111`11g ['lI‘Illi[ Trocs 5
1
11l111l11l.&|l*i11l'l'11 :11111 Nll)1.(`(1 l`111· l'111111·1e uso; 1f11l|s1·111l1‘1|1l}', 21 g1‘c111c1‘
g1-1111111 111 1111111 l>1'21l1<'l1<‘# 11111.1 1'11<11s will 1€1l{(‘ 11l111·1: 1111· 1,ll)11lJ\\vi1]g
}'1*i11`.
/'1·1`111·1'[1{1 ,2. 'l`w11 l11*11111·l11·.s 11l`11·11 will 111: {11111111 g1·11wi11g
l.]'|I111 il 1·111111111111 11111111, 111ill(l1|g 1111· #:11111; 11110 111 g'1'<)\\'1l1 11111.1
1111111111;; il »l1111·11, w1·11lc 1·1·1111·l1. 1:(.(11ll'11l:I 1111: 1111111111:1· 111 lcuvcs
1·11 111111 (P1. 1111*NC 111·:1111·l11·s |1_1· 1·1111i11;; 11 11:11·I< l11·z11‘i1_1· will result
111 11111·1111:1l g·1·11w1l1; 1111· 11111- 112l\'1Il;j 1l1·· ]ll(}F1 11‘il\'<'S will 1l12I1{C
1]11· 11111~1 ;I1'11\\'1ll :11111 l11‘1‘*1lll1‘ 11111 l··:11l1·1· 111· lllillll 111·11111·11, while
1llU 11111· \\'l1l1‘ll is 1-111 1.1£I1‘1( l1l'il\'ll_\’ will 111:1111; 1111; lcust gI‘U\\`l11
:11111 111·1·11111·· :1 si111· I11·;1111·l1.
/'I`Il//1'1'IIII I1'. ll1·:11’_v 1'1111ll|yl`11&l1'l{ 111' l£11•‘1'iLlS111'Sl1.1C1)1'ii11*JllCi
  1'1'\1111 111 1>111'111' 1I|<1l'1‘ \'l!1¤1'11l1\ >l11·111S 1|<'i11`1l11‘111'1111C(1 CIIQ17
111111 1`1·w 1.1`1l11 ~]>ll1’*. 111;:111 1*11111llQ l1:11·l< will 1'('<1111 i11 11101`111·11111—
:i·111 111` 1.l'1l11 »11111·s 111111 >111:1ll1·1· l:111·1·111s 111- 51111* 1l1l1111('11‘rl$.
I'1·1'111/[1/1 1. \\'111·111·x·1·1· il 11l1'g*' 1}1'i111(.l11 is 1‘11l 11111:1; 1110
g1.'*\\-111 1···~111111~1· 1111<1·s 111111·1· 111·:11· 1l11· 111'l11l1‘11 1*1111. 1·1·s1111i11g 111
il 1·1·111·w1·1l \\`1|l1l1 {I1'11\\`11l i11 1l11· 1'111·111 111` \\`ill1'1` >111·11111s. '1`11 get
il Q•‘111‘1`£l1 1'<.‘1l1'\\`&I1 (I1. g1`l}\\‘111 1111· 1·1111i11g I11\1<1 1111 l1l*l1`11.l11i(l{1
1l11'11*11l1 1111· 11·1·1·.
].I`!·l11'l~[!/I .7. 1)111(°1l111;I 11:11·1< 1111* 1\°1.11ll11111 g1`l!\\'111 111 1110
l11·:1111·l11·~ (1l11·i1lg 1111- 1111111111 111` ·111l1(` will 1'1‘~11l1 i11 111C f111·11111-
:11111 111` l'I'l11I ~1>ll1`S 111· >1lli111 51111* 1l1'111l1'11ll< 111 llllx uxils 11f 1110
11·111·1·` 111.·;11· 1110 11i111·111·1l (11111. :11111 :11<11 :1 >1·1·111111111·y lL‘1`1l1111il1
;1·11w111,
/‘1·1`111·1'A1171 1/. '1`11l\ 1·1.·11111\'111 111. ~111:111 111·:1111·111*s 1121* 21 111111·k011
i111111··11111~ 1111 1l11· I'1‘1l1‘\\'iL1 (11. 11111 <]11l1`S 1111 11111 f1‘1l1I111§I` 11‘1·1‘s.
l'1·1`1111`_11/1 Q`. .\ 11<*2l\`_\' 1·111 111111112 1·111<1· 111 slllilll 111101·111s 01·
~111:1l1 l.1'll11 ~11111·< will 1‘1‘Nl111 i11 21 1111‘g‘1· 1l111lll11‘1' 1111 \\`;l11‘1'S111`11111$.
1 11111 if E1 is 111111111 111‘211' 21 1:11·g1· 1{1l(l1`111 l11·z1111‘·11 1i111·.· Q'l'O\\`111 0f
  1\‘:111·1‘ $]11`11111S will 1·1>s1111. '1`111< is 111 111- 1·1111inQ}1··1I hrwk; Ii :11111 (` 11i11<·}11·rl l1:1<·k II11- l:1:g·..’$°  
·   Zinn- ’°•‘*° " . =——· .  
‘P_ _ 'J, ·`_ U'; la; il" .
I     v_ ¢ · I "~T   T " ;., »
I           ’— /   _;j _ :I?-e__:_   _ .  
I " 
I I`;;_   _, ____   __
_JJ III "*I)_H;·§II~NI_I-I··1·· I»1··I··**~1·· I·`i:. lv, <·Ni·;Ig{]§§§`;1j1;I»:1·: Ax;"1`i1;
viilll-
··]IIp-

 t
I S Ct`rt·ttItn· N0. 1},2.
tttp tttttl rttttt. lf this is ttttt tlttttt-, tht- lt-ttvt-s will ggivt- ttll` tttttisttttw;
tlttrittg tt tlt·_v st-ttstttt l`:tstt-t· thtttt tltt- tlt-t·t·t-ttst-tl t·ttttt s_\·stt·ttt t·_t;K
sttttttly it, tttttl tht- tt·t-t- ttttt_x· tlt·_t· ttttt tttttl tlit-.
()llt—l.t`(/l` Trtt; 'l`ht- ttttt--_t·t-ttt· tt·t-t-, wltit·It is ttl`tt-tt tt ttt··2··· ,
whip, is t·ttt httt·l< ttt tthttttt tht·t·t- l`t·t-t. 'l`ltis t·ttttittg· httt·lt l~\tst1.t;~ t
i ly tlttttt- ttl`tt-t‘ tht- tt‘t-t- lttts ht-t-tt st-t ttttt, itt tht- spring, ltt·t`ttt-.-
gtxtwth stttrts. llttrittg tltt- lirst st-:tstttt`s gttttwtlt. tht- htttls tttt ti_~
ttttt--yt-ttt· tt·t-t- will tlt-vt-ltttt ittttt ttttttt_t· ltttt-rttls ttt· sith- l·t·tttt··l.·-t
* tttttl ttttt- t·t· twtt lt-tttlt-rs ttt· tttttitt ltt·;tttt·ltt-s, tht- latttt-t· t···tttE:.;
· 1`t·tt1tt tltt- htttls jttst, ltt-lttw tltt- t·ttt t-tttl, 'l`ht- st-t·tttttl sttritt; ttl t.»~ ;·
th1·t-t- ttt tivt- ttl` tltt- ltttt-t·;tls tttttl ttttt· ttl` tltt- lt·;ttlt-t·s :tt·t· s··l···-wl t
. l`ttt· tltt- t`tttttt·t- l`t·tttttt-wttt·l< ttl` tltt- tt·t·t-. 'l`ht·st- ltttt·t·ttl ltt·tttt··E_-~  
shttttltl ht- spttt·t-tl :tt·tttttttl tltt- tt·t-t- tts t`:tt· :1]¤;|l'I tts tt·t~sihl··. tt: tK·· l
stttttvtiittt-l;t-t-pit1;;’tltt-tt‘t-t-syttttttt-tt‘it·ttl.'l`ht·tttttt‘t·witlt-l_x·tltt·jt‘;tI‘·,
t tlistt·ihttt·-tl tht- stt·ttttg·t-t· attttl ltt·ttt-t· tltt- tt·t·t- tltttt will tl·~x‘··Y~;~.
i Sllllllx lil'llll Q`l.ll\\'{‘l'$ [>l'\‘l·l‘l' lll llil\'t‘ tltt- ltl\\`t‘$l lll`illll'l] illlttlll ii}.
‘ l`t-t-t ttltttvt- tltt- g·t·tttttttl. 'l`his tlt·ttt·tttls stttttt·wlt:tt tttt tltt- x·;tt·i··‘_x
A s]tt‘t-ettlittgtyttt-ttl`tt·t-t- ltkt-tht- \\'ittt·s:tttsltttt1ltl ltttx·t-tltt·l·t·tt-·~i
st·ttt`l'ttltl littth hig·ltt·t· ttltttvt- tltt- grtttttttl thtttt tltt- lttwt·st st·;ttiY·l·i
litttlt ttf tttt ttttrigltt tt·t-t· lilt·li·$·—t;~
l;Lxl.\*l`l’ Q`l`U\\'lll $l[ll'l< lllll lllll'(l }`(`Ell'. llll‘ lill|'l`{ll\ ttlltl ifi
l(`il(`llll·< 2ll'•t‘ l’lll l}Zll'l{. lllll illlltllllll l'CllIU\'l`ll (ll’Il!`ll|llll§.{` ll[lt*ll  
\‘ig·ttt· ttf t-ttt·lt ht·ttttt·h; tt ltt1lg‘>tt¤t·l(_\‘ ltt·ttttt·h shttttltl ltt- t·ttt l·.t··ii
1ttt=t·t- tlttttt tt wt-ttl;. sttitttllittg ttttt- tl’t·ittt·ittlt- 2 . l·`ttt· t·xtttttttI·.
if ttll ltttt-rttls tttttl tltt- lt-tttlt-t· httvt- ttttttlt- tt vigttrtttts g·t·t·wtlt ··f ,1
25 ttt· 30 ittt·ht-s. zthttttt at thirtl ttt` t-ttt·lt ltttt-t·ztl tttttl ttttt·-l`··ttt·iY.  
ttf tltt- lt-tttlt-1· is t·t-tttttvt-tl. ll' ttttl_x‘ li ttt· 20 ittt·ht-s ttl` g·t·ttwth lttt- t‘·l· E
· ht-t-tt ttttttlt-. ttttl_x· tt l`t·w ittt·ht-s ;tt·t- t·t-tttttvt-tl. .\lwtt_x·s t·ttt ttt  
l tttttsitlt- htttl. zttttl t·ttt tht- lt-attlt-t· lt-ss st-vt·t·t-l_t· thtttt tht- ltttt·t‘tti~
itt ttt·tlt-t· ttt tttztitttttitt its lt-tttl itt tltt- l`tttttt·t-. 'l`his. ltttwt-\‘t·1‘. i-
tttt html tttttl st-t t·ttl··. l‘lill‘ll l1·t-·- is tt st-ltttt·;ttt- tttwtltlt-ttt. attttl it All
tlt-pt-tttls tttttttt tltt- vlggttr ttl` t-ttt·h ltt·ttttt·h tttttl tltt- gtttwtlt t·l` tlp-
tt·t-t- tts tt whttlt·. ltt l`ztt·t. tt ti‘t-t- tltttt is ttttt tttttltittg tt vi;-ttt··tt:~
` grttwtlt shttttltl ht- ttrttttt-tl vt-t·_x· littlt- tttttl 1ttttt·t- ttttt-tttitttt ~lt=-till
ht- tli1·t-t·tt-tl ttt stttttt- s_x·stt·m ttl' sttil tttttttttgt-tttt·ttt thttt will ltttswit
its tlt-vt-ltttttttt-ttf.
)ltttt_v smttll ltt·ttttt·ltt·s tttttl shttrt, sttthhy g·t·ttwtlts will ttttw l~‘
tlcvt-lttpittg‘ tltrttttttt the ecttlcr ttf the tt·t-t-, stttttc ttl' tltt- lt·¤¤¥*`l

 ii'
[)7`l(}li7l[j Fruit Trccs fl
 
llUlS[llI'U l i
rm l'il}l ` °` "
il 1ll·‘l`··   , lx
N ll\lllli· l i `·,_
l¤<·lA~l‘~,· i it
~ ·»l1 ll.··   l l
l'4lll<·l_··~ ‘  
<‘¤¤lllll,Q   \ · `
! :ll»·»ll· l _ —\
_,.l,,`_.y_`€  
l \
r;l11··l.~~ l \_ l `\__  
.slt ii.·· l V _ I ,‘ ll   l ji
l1¤·_\‘ ;l!‘·; \ f I \‘ I ‘
lu‘\’¤·l—»l¤.   ` ii I,  i l
rlll lull , \\ X. ` ”
r;lri··‘_r \   l · 'I l
it \.,.` t [ A i g
~··;lli`»·l·i [ `
·lil·i·~i;~ I
ll<¤ll `l.·‘ ` ‘  
ll l»;l·-L; · {
iilllllll".   hi,   Y '
l`Y‘h TY *1/-i `-—- < `‘i·   l
ilinliiiii i tu  * ~»·` · ¥¤c*"·T‘» ¤TT     _ *
. In iw I·`iu. \‘. i:l·:l·`·»l:1·: i·l:l‘xlN<:. l·`i:. vi. i\1·‘Tlil: i·i:i‘N1x<:.
_ ,_ .\n i.g·ri4?.z in- ··l` :l;»;·l· ll`a·•‘_ ]»l.lm··l u*.··n ·»l¤·- y·;lr ·»l·l uml l·l`llll·‘¤ <···ii·l )`1;Jll`.
·ror_ i<
ll it gill ··m·s llt*<*<¤llll|lQ` ¤·r·»~s l»r;im·l1¤·s. 'l`li¤m· slllilll grmrills wry svltloin
Ur ily zlllzlin miirln lvllyflll uml ¤»l`lt~1i ]»i·¤·llu··o >¤»ilie of llic first, fruit.
¥·l.rllll— Nlllllllll mllllv ull ll!t‘S1‘ 1·l‘<2<< l>l'zlll<·llm‘N gl`l'¢>\\` lim fzlxi, IllQ}' lllily
`l1·»i1l·_l l>¤‘ rut lmrlt lluring llw lll»rm;mt St‘2lS\lll or llillvllvnl lml·l< Llll1‘ll],Q`
ll;l>1·~:i {lm mlmlli ul` ·lllllm‘. ra111sillg‘ tllvm to lwwliiio stwvliy zliul fruitful.
Tho l'1“lll¤l\'ill ut` m:11n_x· ill` lllrsv lll`&lll&‘llk‘s will often (‘lll‘Olll'ilg`€
~mwl·¤ W·»<¤l gmwtli uml llrleiy tho l`m·mzitim1 of fruit spurs.
(mgm

 i
10 C’l—I'(‘1lI(U‘ N0. 92.
1
‘r
\ / 1‘1
11 1 ` \-
i \ i i ie
1 V. _
1`N 4* i ii
l \\ ' i ii ii
`x_ , i`
I \   ‘ { * 1 / » ·‘
I .1 x 1 , r1
. _ x\ \ \ _   yl
‘   x A 1 1 _, 1 ‘
' \\ K f , A i 5 ' / Z1
\ . ,/ » W
i‘...  1 1  i . J A
1 , ` l` I   1 I.
1 ~· t;
1- `
`~* »: 
..  ;!"' »T=· ‘r·· ‘   ` ‘ .
,9 ·     , ··— .   ‘ ~1
;: _ A ,·   A
‘   - . I A , _A1`*4` ~   *:1: ,`·, _ 0-;* U
r,(._   >•    . r,9_r)Y";‘~§;7· 1
P- '  -:1 M  ‘t."~"—¤. 
I .·3‘¤·_'¥ _  5  y·.r_   . Q"`   11
  __   ._ » - J   ll" i·2~·•~`    i
    ,.1 ,16;.  "1`&1_=,;,:_·:§,`$·*e:, ·• ,; _ , U re?
( _ _ ,_ _ :__'*·§'·, — ;.·e€‘__-` -1 Y J .,__,  l .y’,*,.._ 
»¢‘TZ* ‘“1*`,· ~"¥;¥=1L’* .;€‘F;§j$?&‘*?$*’am§..*T'?·.  .·1g *§ +11 * $1  ·’~
` I? {{7. 5-*   3-   WW? _ _§ V '    IQZ"4, `
2‘.:¥3$¢€l;$   ami 'x”;:§j¤1§.§.·.§§`&·£;£2`a*}Z:·.`.AQ 1- YE ° . ·.1· · *· 1
i Fi:. VII. S'l`1\Y)l.\N \\`1N1·ZS.\1"1`1i1·Z1·I, 1·`¤_»1`1i Y1·l.\1iS 111.11.  
IIIuS1I`2`1l11];§ 1111· 11·;ve111111111-111 111 111111111;; 111‘:1111·11·> 11s il 11·>111: 1·1` 11;l.i
1»1·1111i11:’_ I
1
I)11l'111g 1110 1'1»1111\1‘111g _\`(‘ZlI'S7 1111 111 1h1· Il1‘£ll'11lg` ;1g1·, 1‘1·1‘5‘
  1)I`1II1i1]g IN 111)1l(‘. CX1'(`1)t. 111 1*111'1‘1‘1‘1 iII1' 1.<11'lI1;l1i1ll1 U1. \\-khih .1
c1‘11t1·111·s *I.)I'I11(‘11)iC 21, 111111 111 1·111~1·k the 1‘1l1l ;j`l'l1\\'I|\ 111`1l11·111··1‘G 1
\'Ig(’II()1l$ g`l'1,1‘.\`I1]Q` 1)1`il1l<‘l1(‘S. \\`i1iI 1111* vi1·11· 111` {I1‘i11l1y!` :1 11*1-11-b;11— 1
HI1C(‘(1 11·c1·. This 1111111 of ])1‘11llI1lQ` is 1111111* hy $111111- 1·11111111··1·1·i111 1
g1·0wc1·s dL11`II1g thc 111011111 0f JIIIIC by 1>i111·11i11g 11:1111 the 111·11·. 1

  
]')`l()lli}ljj I·'r1¢1't Trees 11
gl'·Jl‘Il (‘llll·gl'U\\'lllS hi)l'iI|('iI)l(5 5;. This 21g:1i11 shhuhl hc gov-
1·1·111·d hy the :11111»11111 of S(‘&l>lJll`$ g`I'l»\\“ll| z1l1·1·:11ly hindu und thc
1‘1g1»1‘1»i` the hr:1111-h. This piiwliiiig h;1<·l; of thc t1·1·111i11ul g'l'0\\'ti1
i11·l1111<> slmuhl not he <'1>Ill·llS<‘1T wi1h thc su111111c1· pruiiiiig which
|1:1s h1·1·11 :11lm1·:1t1·1l h_v ¤1»1111·, 111 whi<·h (flll1iI'C hraiiiclics or large
1»;11·1s uf h1·z1111·h1:¤ :11·1· 1·1·111¢»x·1·1l. This kind of SlllIll11U1' pruning
i» $ll'<»Il{!'l)' 1·¤»11¤h·11111¤·1l h1···:111s1- hm 11111<·h 1e:1i's111·i'uccis removed
// l’1‘i111·i]·»h> ·] 1. ;\i.ll‘lZ 1h1· true has 1·<·z1··l1<·¤l its lJh‘ill'i]1g siugc H.
/ liglll llillllllllgf <»1L1 nl ihv (‘l`f>$S h1‘u11¤·l1··s gmwiiig ziiiywhcrc
:l11·11 1h:- <·1·1111·1· 111:1_x· hu 111:1i~1z1l1<*1* ni. ><>1llt‘ gum] S}`SIQ111 of soil
{ 1‘llill11'L’.
l TIFU-)vlrIl' Trw. '|`l11e]»1·1111i11;;··t` 1hc 1\\‘11»y<·z11· 11*00 001*-
l 1·1~>p·»11·ls tw 1h:11 1»l` 1h¢· <>lll*-j'l'iil' ll'm‘1‘ ill its s<···<>11ll season, the
l ii1·<1 }`Qil1`.S l1I`l1llill{_[' hziviiig h<·v11 l•,‘ 11*1-0 ll il (lL*\`1'l<>1i$ 1his lll'&ll'il|‘Lf :11‘0;1 gI'ill'&ill<‘llt‘$. 111:111_x· ·»l' lll<‘l1l llismisud and
  1h·:11l. yi··hlii1g il >111:1ll llllilllliif ·»1' i`I'lliI. while 1hp 111\\`\‘l` ]»:11·t hy 1hc 1¤·111·>v:1l of small
+ l»1·:1111·l11·s. (l\1ll`lliihll-V 1h··<1· 1h;11 1·1»111:1i11 hh]. w·:1·11·»111 fl'lllT:$pU1`S.
- This il(Tlllll$ >1111lig·hi :1111l :1i1· :1111l ]·1·1·111·»11·s thc 1list1·ih111i0u 0f
mi`: hhllll liriml In the 1l1llI'L‘ \`lQ`<>l'llllS hl'211l<·h1*S. This l)`1>C Uf‘1)1'lllIiUg
1·1~~11l1s ill 1}:0 1·1-1111·w:1l 1»l` llhllll spurs hP1'ill(‘i1llL‘ 6).
lull- hlillly lll‘;lll<'lll’S l)1‘¢‘l1lll0 h»11g uml wilhmwy, hc:11‘i11g f1‘11.iT.
lmlll Milly :11 the 1»1111·1· (‘ll 
A"  
Y
'1'Il(»I»I'¢"l`I\'f·Z }·`Yi¥`I'I` SI'I'I{S. I`Nl’IU>|·l'<"I`I\`}#j l·`Iil`l'I‘ SIW}?
Fig. \'IIT.

 1’ruaz`ng Fruit Trees 13
Sll()lll(l he made close to a side branch that grows from the
" · upper part of the li1nb.
Along the main limbs, especially on the inside of the tree,
there are usually additional short branches contaiiiing fruit
spurs capable of producing fruit. The tendency of a good
} many fruit men has been to strip the limbs of these branches,
ia many cases l'or one-third the way up thc trunk. This sort
Q of pruning results in decreased production.
i lleavy pruning b_v cutting out large limbs encourages wood
i growth near the cut end the following season and decreases
  pyotlneiion the second year tl’rin··iplc 4). Again, the removal
` of large limbs on the lower part and in the eenter of the tree
l opens·large holes, admitting too much sunlight, causing sun-
t scald 1ll_]l|l'_\' on branches exposed to the direct rays of the sun.
i Many old trees have gi-own to such a height that spraying
l and harvesting the fruit are hindered. lleading back the main
l limbs by cutting to a side branch which points down and out
5 will tend to lower the tree top and make spraying and harvest-
i ing the fruit much easier. lleading back by completely remov-
  ing large upright branches is to be condemned. because this
l treatment opens the top of the tree. exposing many limbs to
~ the direct rays nl. the sun. Again. an excessive growth of water
Q sprouts will follow. making the top more dense. shuttting out
g light from tbe fruit spurs. lt is better to head back a little
~ each year. leaving some branches to shade the central and
apperinost parts of the tree. until the desired reduction in height
y is reached. \\`ith this method of heading back. there will be
less tendency to water-sprout growth and more development of
  fruit spurs in that part of the tree which has been pruned
l’rinciples Z} and Tl.
l When an oltl tree needs thinning and heading baek. it is
i advisable to thin one year and head back the next. All dead
{ aad diseased branches should be removed and burned the first
( year. ln removing laterals, cut close to the main branch so as
.4 to leave no stubs. lt is good practis to cover all large ents with
grafting wax to prevent the entranee of disease. Pruning may
ms he done during any part of the dormant; season, except fIl`€*(’Zl1lg
Weatlter. giving preferenee to later winter and early spring.

 i
14 Circular N0. 92.
. `x {
· x   L_`
i` t/ 1 __`
i { `     . `
__   yx ·,.
. _. =·*/"“’* ··~‘ . 1 » r
· __ _ ' 3;,.,) \ ' 4  41 Y"
4 A. _1VV/, }(T,4;`;\ -V   Ly
T TC " ' ‘·   • 1  ,4 Y-
/;1·‘ · /E/1     _/__,. f' { 1.. __
1 / ·   l, »· ’ · . IV
1 . V .V/ _ _ Vi X V _ ,  
'.   ,, ,>»—·~;;` Ji   X ' {   
 Ly.;/gk!- V _  
\ ’,./ / V   JJ: "  
  ~ - R T
*·. 2  
` ‘. \ V · , 1] _
‘—?`g?T;: ` ?.   - 1 F? M-;.   .
l' {/WZ A U Uri" . ‘ `· "ih·);fi· - I  
Y       V, P · ` :3'.·7:;·I?}*·‘1V_`r_ .· i` V
- ‘ l`   1   p   .,;. 4     _,  
" ·*" · `»Q’7`— .‘ ji ; ,·Z ° ` ¥-
  ` .1‘;k.F—€l*s 4饰$"*i- ·`#—·   ili`<4Y`.`:
` r·-  wi? I`f*3;£‘€#’¤£r‘E“}’·     `°*-q.+§;i:*· ‘=....-. L
;- I' ‘ .* bi · " Zi ." ij-., '   "·* A . Z". , *• I "l'>» y.  >‘ 
- T ·· 1-*··,:—·;€ *1.  ;*H".»»· ‘:·?€~" ·¤z. · `··§Y
ill; lg “i—_,_f_ V‘;_V· t Vix?·,l—V  `!‘;;V<._§·`;_‘    
' . ;·. ·,·., ’ ¥‘   ·‘-j;·;, ·1‘_,_  ·~   - `  ~  ,;__‘§F.
;~e=¢-.:= ;i°;.’*:;4·n¤1:¤'e€*;‘¤¤»+;¤?€i» ::€.é?M.;y¤;T€€“  A.: 1 zi ‘  i
_ Fig. IX. Bmixraixc *1*1:1-:1; O\’l·IRl’llL'Nl·Zl).
V 1 Too many limbs I`•xl`ll0\`C(] from center and top of tree. V
` PRUNING THE PEAR.
Tl1e pear reqiiires przietiezilly the same kind of pl`lllllllg
as the apple, witl1 the following exceptions.
Tl1e trees are smaller and usually grow more slowly; ('0ll-
sequently, the p1·1111i11g should be less severe. lleeivy I>l'lllllllL` also
` 0IlC0ll1‘£lgCS excessive twig growth uml $lll’l1 twigs im- more sits-
eeptible to blight than those of slow growth. Pt‘{'ll'S lISll2lll}'
grow upright ill form, pa1·tie11la11·ly \\'l1(}Il young. The tops often

  
1’runing Fruit Trees 15
lieeuiue t·r<>wtlt·tli1i·tirl·;, lle·‘·aiu.s¤; l.;a.r~’E
t`1·et·xes ur lute trusts ¢»l'teu iiitltieiiee the kind amd zi.ri10urlt Cf
pruning thut shuultl he thine; this will be CUl1$ii.lkJI`CLlll.iJlI`°[lC‘;Z` L1
the cliseussiuu uf pruning beuriug trees.
TRAINING THE YOUNG TREE.
Pruning at Planting Time.
-\l`terpl;iuti11g:, tl1t·y<»uug tree shuultl be li·‘a¤»l»r·l YT ;~i;t `;i2;k
t·» l‘~ t·» iii iuehes t`rtuu the gzrtuiutl. Trees tif lll~‘ill`,LLQ eine gre
preferretl lieeuuse they pi·<>tlut·e few l,>1·um·li•;·s     ié
iuirsery. zuntl lieuiliug is prut·tit·ully ull the pruuiug they  
ll·»wt·ver. siuue trees. ])£ll'ltlt'lllill'l_\' thuse nf larger SL:··x_ TQ i;·e
·‘·¤ll>ltl<‘l'ill¤l}' lll`2llI¤·llt‘tl. Smuetiiues the lowest liI`LlZl~"lQ·£‘i ;?~&
uiure them Qt) iuvlies l.l't>lll the gxrtiuutl ziutl. if li·;—;1ele·~.l iii TEE
- height. it muy be tlisetwewtl thut, us at result ef tier Zl`iZ'$·??jV
prin-tis <=t` retmwiiig ull growth uu the lower truulq. un li·1;»,is :.1*%
jug left tu tlevehip luuiueltes. lu suelt trees the hezul may be  
higher by seleetiu;5 three ur l`i>ur l>l'illl<‘llQS whieh ure well plgsed
qu. i`··r iuziiu limbs, euttiug these buel; tu two or three bulls. arid re·
iso uuwiug ull others.
us. It luis been ettsttmtury to go over the tree euee or twiee
ll}, Thru its first suuuuer uml eut out ull uizdcstraizie slieets. This
on iS usually at mistztlce; it is better to remove sueh shmts by rub-

 1
. 16 (T'I’}`l'I([4l]' No, _*}l;’_
 
· V! I
V /
/ _ //’ /’
. / . ,
_ 1 V · [   1.
V / //
\ ~ ` [ ’ / '
` // Q /”  
\ .`   // . r  
. X \ I/I ` .
\ · _ /
».   4 *   `\ "
\ z ’ . -   .
¤v I " " ~.\ /./ '
—— ` . . ’ `*~
_¢ fry; .,_ Q _  · 1
>‘¤7:··1§?.?;&§;J   .;  %%"7;T$"!,'!'   A
$5   ` ` €€»i’·;+~‘¤1%»`"·‘5QQ"Q-"‘ if ..=* we.; kw .
rf .»';.»~   - $(°}*fJ递a;2#5‘.‘ Q.   T' ”'·&’*'*?’? »`*¥‘Y;F’
gh'?   "·,_ ;{;1'f"',.'.·`5€(/;;';¤( _     1;}; " 1,;-. f   · _ ·  
£:_é*"}.}?Cif'?."??¢5$£»’£T"Q*:ei’:‘>t&?•" ;~‘*>"*        1»  '  { ·—‘.· A
. :e;* if =é·. .1 g· ~°...~·» »i A
Fig. X. I"I·I;\(`II TI’}·`}·` T\\’() yp Hq \}·r · ~
’   ·- ~· · ‘lI·.Ii I’I..,"`,`Z· 1·]·` IT
I_I:l,NIN(;· \\Il\i, [IIN!}

  
l’runz`11g l*'r11[t Trccs 17
  lling: tln·n1 nll` jnsl ns lln·_v lll'<‘ slnrlingg, or vlse defer cutting
;]n·nl nn! nnril tln·_v l1:nv<· ··<»1n]>ll¤l··¤l llwir gmwtll in the full,
ll|n~ l'<‘lilll|lllQ` nll lln· l¤·2¤\‘<·s ]»·¤¤>ll>l1*n\’l¢l ¤·rll··lnl ]»··1·l]‘111 {lll} f1'£1l11C\\'01'l{
.,1' ;ln· z1····· ~ln»nlll ln- >··l<·<·i¤·¤l wllln ilnls lypré in mind. The
In·;ln··ll··~ ~ll·»11l·y,;=f=f;‘·L.
QJ *·’·3··*'¥·  ‘  
_ fg  2,./ *\.__}` é. ·  l;·a;,,.    
ml     ·  `°   `  . —a—     *
;?»‘¤5¢"%'· *}*2,  4év  ’~¤'·L*‘>?»·>{·¥q‘,ZE€=·(·f-·'P*`¥i€‘¤
'}i'Z?G;Zé!-&ml‘7 I ; JS‘.lli!‘}'f::l {Z2`?   ·S;*€`£h}` ·.·;·,£;%a£l gxlxg}
Fig. X1. YEACII TRLZIC S1lO\\'N IX FIG. X, PRUNED.

 i
1 18 Circular N 0. .92.
later. B1*:111ehes closer th:111 (5 llll‘ill‘S il]Hll'[. will semi illl'l`l‘ils1· 1·
111 diil1llCI&‘l` so iililt il t'l`Uil‘il will he t`1»1·111e1l, :111:l the tree will he  
111eel1:111ie:1lly we:1k.
Pruning the Second Year. l
` After 0110 se:1s011`s grnwtli the 111*1111i11;; etmsists l:11·g··l_1·  
111 tl1e f111·the1*seleetimi 11t` se:1tl'11hl ill'£llll‘iIl‘S, :1s this i'1|ll lltvl l»··  
eempletetl with 11111st trees :11 11l:111ti11g time. ,\ll 1»1l1er l1r:1111·l,··.
1 spriiigiiig f1'lll‘~llilif. '1`his is llll[)l>l'1£|lll i11 :»r1l1·r 3..
1 st1*e11gtl1e11 tl10se l11*:111el1es whieh :1re to siippurt 'lilt} t`111111·»_· l
ereps. 4
V N2ll‘1`O\\' eretehes fOllll(l hetween two llt‘ill'l_\' e1l11:1l l>r:111»·l1··~ 1
l1l{l}` be e01*1*eeted l1_\* {‘lli·llllQ' l>:11·lc the less tlesi1*:1l>le lll'(lll4‘li i
\ 1llllL‘i1 more St‘\'Ol‘(‘l_\’ iililll the other. It thus l1e1·1»111es il l»1·:111··E1  
0f the longer OllL‘ {llltl :1 strtnig lllllllll is l`11r111e1l.
_ A lnw-topped tree is desiretl. hut is not ili\\`£l_\`N p1··»1l111···1l  
by st:11*ti11g the l1e:1l|lltl. lt` the s1·:1ll'·»l1l l11·:111»·l.»·~ l
develop 1111 l)t‘2lI'llllQ` w11<>1l :1l<>11g: their lower ]Nll'lS. the tn-ee ll]il‘\`
be :1s l1igl1—t0pped :1s if the he:11l were Siill`i(‘tl llllll‘l] liiglier.
1l:1.11y \\`Cll—]11¢“{llllllQ ]ll'llll(‘l'S e11t £l\\'£l}' :1ll these lower twFu<
whieh, if l'9i{llllQ(i. 1·r>11ld l}(‘£il' the first :·1·11ps, lt is possible ie  
i[1`Hl11 :1 tree h0:1ded hetween 20 to Ill) illt‘il(‘S fI'Ulll the g1··»1111·l. 1
s0 that the be:11·i11g s111*f:1t·e will be 111*:11·ti1·:1ll_v :1s l·»w :1s tlesireil I
by 1*et:1i11111g the lower i)l‘{lll(’ll<‘S illl(i I>l'lllllllg` tl1e111 illlllllilily t·· —
Olli\\'Hl'(l-gl`O\\’lI1g buds, 01* lZ`itCl`iliS.
Pruning the Third Year.
l The p1’llI1lllg emisists l2ll'g`¢“‘l_\' 111 the (i(‘\'(‘l(1pllll‘ll·l of the P
111:1111 b1*:111el10s £ll1(i :1ll others lll'C (‘lli mit. l`.:1ie1·:1ls :1111l ~11l·»
l:11te1*:1ls 111 t111·11 :11*0 allowed to wlevelop. :111d the new w·1·»1l is ll
cut bziek. Ill most ('ilNt‘S 1·<>11si1ler:1l1le thi1111i11;5 1111i ul` l1r:1111·l1¤*< il
011 each se:1f`F0ld li111l1 will he reqiiiretl. '|`hree 111* l'<1111· l:1te1·11ls l`
· should be left 011 (’?lCll SL'll1`i`0i(ii limb, :1111l l:1ter s11l1»l:1ier:1ls i'l'<¤lll 'll
these, so that the tree will have il strtmgt i.l'£lllll‘\\'<>l‘i{ :1111l il l*¥
large be:11*i11g: :11*0:1. ln general, the Pl‘lllllllg' during this pe1*i··\<\ _ N4
r 3 ., é jl- 4 \ . xtg,4
··h·~~  452*.1 W  " - 4   4 1..* $,4  ·--~  * =~ t
{nav l   ,. -   ¤¤;+“ *  “ .`; ,.i‘r y —.·V xw  » _. 
‘  6,;; ,s..`{<'-;`»Z}.,i.,t.·-.--·!¤•s·@¤   ‘?g¢,. ( .· tl__ ,_‘h;¢ `  ’ ’
l1•*1‘. {  " ' { _ J -i'.i{.‘;f?1_§•¤_--?*·= :‘3_.r.* T-'-Z’&'};:f 2; .--g`\—· '<··*'Y Mr, 2* . 
V { t V- - _ _     'vjq T __,',· ___f_ _§_     _ ,.k‘__ ·=·_ Jay:
· ¤ ~    _. _ .,..1. ,. ..•-~   i. ·‘ —‘·`· ,1.;.,.. ‘_;:,»·.r ~f . ‘  . { . _·   N :5;
\         `- ~·    {F · _    ,     _ '·
} Yu  Jf ir.   vii   r'T;;’ *1* ~ - I" · cs "i}—`t)i·· ii .—  V }  
lm]  —;»=‘. . ` »—-‘ . ,     wz, '         " ‘§Z<4-Q·:?"$*i’¥”‘    I
_ {  E: ` ` .1 -{-fl; _· _.~' >·>’;:L‘_ ¤._ ._ t ·•` .` ‘_ `.j ,  .`__>‘:‘< ·vt_%,s`i_;·,_.;?> k
~   ‘< ~ .3; ·`   ··:   1:.  `;· \· ·\,  · ‘ -"l‘"‘·*-`·-:F=·=h’·:¤·r*·`-~3‘ W
i’<‘·l. ~   ·l §=·: ·. »=.~·1 ui ’‘‘; ~·:.-.»; #1; r·¢_··»;¢—·_‘—·;— i   -7 · gis,   ··c 1ls·>»{··
_ {U l -;   wu d  r »; l"lb*£"°Y”"T¢2"    ~E. F   '    j h ~. ··4   · *
me. xii. A wicm,-1···»i:x1i·:1> l’I·I.\<`I1 'I`lll·ZI·Z.
THE BEARING TREE.
{hl, Pruning the Fourth and Subsequent Years.
{lr The tree is now old enough to begin to bear. From now on
gc the severity of the pruning will be eonsiderably decreased.
{M Une of the most iniportant 1‘Cl{Ul1`L‘111(‘lliS in skillful pruning
als is to be able to 1`l"L‘llj;`lllXC bearing wood. Only shoots 0f the preri`-
·m ONS _?/NYIAS growl}: boar fruit. If we cut back severely we may
:1 prune away nearly all tlie bearing wood, a.nd of course no fruit
oil will then be borne. lf we do not cut back the new growth at all.
the fruiting wood gets farther from the trunk each year until

 1
- 20 (wl.)`(il(I([]` N0. .92.
‘ p1-111·ti1-11111 1111 1110 110:10111-s will 110 111111111 :11. 1111- 1*11118 111 11111.  
S1QllL1k‘l‘ 111-11110111-s \\`llU1'L‘ 1ll<‘)' 111-1- 11111 1111l_v 11:11-11 111 11i1·l1 11111 g1.(x1l1‘  
ly 1111-1-011s0 1110 11:1111111)* 111` 111-1-a1l;i11g.-{ 111111-11 1111- 11-1-1-; 111-si1l1-s. 1111- 11
1)C21l'11lg` s111-1`a11·1- is $1111111. Th1- tips 111` 1111- 1l1‘\\' 11111111 s11111111l.  
t11C1‘1‘1‘Ol'L". 111- 0111. 1)&l1·l{ 111 1·;111s1- l11'i1l1(’lI1l1g 11111, s11 111111 lPlLlll1§v \
, of 1)O21l'11lg 11*111111 is pl'111lllL'l‘ll -111 11111 l11\\`t‘1' 11i11'1S (Il. lll(` 11-1-1- 1·111·11 ··  
}'C2111'. Tl10 1111111-1- 1)l'1l1lL'1l0S 11111st 111- 1ll11lllt‘1l 1-111111;:11 s11 111211 1111-
111w01* 11110s 211-0 11111 (lL‘1lS(‘l)' sl111111-11, l1l'1‘ill1$l‘ 1lll‘}' s111111 1111- 1.1.11111  
  121Cli of sunlight.  
T110 L‘(‘ll1.1`i1l 111-11110111-s 111-1- 0111 11111-1; 11l1(1 11l11ll11‘1l 1-111111g11111
I)l‘C‘\'L‘l11 L'l'O\\'(l111g. If so1110 0f 1110 111.1101* 1)1`2l11l'11<‘S 1;-1-011- 1)O}'O11(l L"
1-0111-11 it. is 0111-11 111-sii-111110 111 0111 1111-111 111101; (111111* s1·1-1