xt7t1g0hxm9c https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt7t1g0hxm9c/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1947-05 Bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Getting the Health and Physical Education Program Under Way in the Elementary School", vol. XV, no. 3, May 1947 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Getting the Health and Physical Education Program Under Way in the Elementary School", vol. XV, no. 3, May 1947 1947 1947-05 2021 true xt7t1g0hxm9c section xt7t1g0hxm9c    
  
  
  
   
  
     

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.1. gammonwealfh of Kentucky 0

EDUCATIONAL BULLETIN

 

I GETTING THE HEALTH AND PHYSICAL
EDUCATION PROGRAM UNDER WAY
k IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

This bulletin was developed under the
leadership of Morehead State Teachers
College, Morehead, Kentucky

 

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,3 2.: DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
5 0M

Q} g 3 JOHN FRED WILLIAMS

Superintendent of Public Instruction

 

ISSUED MONTHLY

Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

May, 1947

.VVM.XV No.3

     

 

  

 

 

 Getting the Health and

Physical Education Program

Under Way in

the Elementary School

 

This bulletin was developed under the
leadership of Morehead State Teachers

College, Morehead, Kentucky

 

 

 

  

FOREWORD

Healthful living in home, school, and community has been the
goal of those who teach in the schools. It is especially important
that children in the elementary grades be guided in living health-
fully as they grow and learn. Teachers in the elementary grades
need guidance in providing a healthful learning environment and in
helping children to develop habits of healthful living.

In order that stimulating guides and helpful materials might
be available for the elementary teachers, I asked the Morehead State
Teachers College to appoint a committee to develop, in cooperation
with members of the State Department of Education, suitable ma-
terials. The committee has done an excellent piece of work in pre-
paring this bulletin. The material was developed by the staff of
Morehcad with members of the Department of Education as consult—
ants. A number of teachers, supervisors, and principals from the serv—
ice arca. of Morehead furnished data and other material for use in the
bulletin. The following persons deserve praise for their achievement,
and I congratulate them upon the high quality of work they have
done:

Miss Thelma Evans, Morehead State Teachers College

Miss Margaret Findley, Morehead State Teachers College

Mrs. Octavia Graves, Morehead State Teachers College

Mrs. Margaret Howard, Morehead State Teachers College

Chiles Van Antwerp, Morehead State Teachers College .

Thomas D. Young, Morehead State Teachers College, Bulletin

Illustrator

Mrs. Norbeth Coleman, Carter County Schools

Mrs. Jewell Horton, Carter County Schools .

Miss Nona Burress, State Department of Education

Miss Louise Combs, State Department of Education

Hambleton Tapp, State Department of Education

hflkm Jane Lends Shfie Deparflnentcfi Educafion

Dr. Hugh M. Shafer, Morehead State Teachers College, Chairman

This is the first of five bulletins now being developed by college
staffs in cooperation with the State Department of Education. These
cuiriculum projects are under the general direction of R. E. Jag-
gers ol‘ the Bureau of lnstruction. State Department of EducatiOU-

JOHN FRED \VJLLIAMs
Superinte77(lent of Public Instruction

May :2. 1947

 

CHAT

II.

III. ]
APPE

 

  

11 the
)rtant
ealth~
grades
.nd in

might
State
ration
e ma-
] pre-
iff of
msult—
3 serv—
in the
ament,
V have

11

.‘man
college
These
1. J ag-
cation.

“notion

CHAPTER Page
I. GOing to Dry Branch School .................................................................. 71
11. Planning a Program of Healthful Living for School and
Community ................................................................................................ 76
III. Putting the School Health Program into Action .............................. 80
APPENDIX:
Exhibit A—Code for Health and Physical Education .............. 97
Exhibit B—The Objectives of Education ...................................... 98
Exhibit C~—Check Sheet of Community Helpers ........................ 99
Exhibit D—Pre-School Health Inventory of Physical Plant
and Equipment .............................................................. 103
Exhibit E—Individual Pupil’s Personal History Form ............ 104
Exhibit F—Games and Rules .......................................................... 110
Exhibit G—List of Activities Recommended for Indoor Use
by Grades and Bibliography of Books for Phys—
ical Education Activities .............................................. 112
Exhibit H—Chlorination of Water, Ventilation Standards,
and Illumination of Specifications ........................ 114
Exhibit I w~Health Songs ................................................................ 116
Exhibit J —Health Wheel Diagram ................................................ 118
Exhibit K—Long Term Plan in Health Education .................... 118
Exhibit L—Free and Inexpensive Materials .............................. 135
Exhibit M—Safety Code .................................................................. 138
Exhibit N—Recommended Contents of First Aid Kit .............. 138 .
Exhibit O—Description and Sketches of Home Made Equip-
» ment and Apparatus .................................................... 139
Exhibit P—Photograph of School Playground Equipment
in Actual Use ................................................................ 147
Exhibit Q—Layout of Model Play Space .................................... 148
Exhibit R—Sample School Lunch Budget .................................. 151
Exhibit S—Federal Aid Plan for Reimbursement—School
Lunches .......................................................................... 163
Exhibit T—Typical Hot Lunch Menu .......................................... 165

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

  

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_

 CHAPTER I
Going to Dry Branch School

The first term of summer school had just ended and I was back
home helping with the canning. The country side seemed more
beautiful than ever and the early spring air especially invigorating".
Breakfast was soon finished and Mother and I busied ourselves with
the morning chores, While Father and my younger brother finished
picking the first four rows of white corn beans. By nine o’clock the
pressure cooker was filled with quart jars and put on the stove.

«“23
(L 74w
,1
4/”! \/

While the beans were being processed, I walked down the lane
to the mail box. I11 addition to the daily paper and a farm journal,
I found a business envelope addressed to inc—Pamela Miller. With
eager fingers I tore it open and read that I had been appointed to
teach the Dry Branch School, starting; in September. When I told
Mother the news, she was pleased, although, not as enthusiastic as I.
However, as the second canner was being lifted from the stove,
Mother suggested that the bumper crop of beans might make my
desire for a school lunch program possible.

By Friday I had made several plans and had assembled the
materials which I expected to use as teaching aids during the year.
In addition, I had begun to think about the new Health Code1 which
”the State Department of Education had recently adopted in coopera-
tion with the State Board of Health.

1.713011 my arrival at the County Superintendent’s office the next
Inomnng, I discovered several other teachers waiting to confer with,
111111, and that I could see him immediately after lunch. With time
011 my hands before eating, I re-read my letter and found that the
annual health examination was now mandatory for every teacher.
Therefore, I went to Dr. Black’s office across the street for my
Physmal examination. He promised to mail me the completed forms
When the laboratory reports were returned to him.

1Awendix. Exhibit A—Code for Health and Physical Education

71

 

 

 

  

It was almost two o’clock before Superintendent Smith was
ready to see me. It was easy to talk with him about the school pro-
gram, because he was an open—minded, progressive citizen and school
leader. He was apologetic for ofi'ering me Dry Branch School as late
as the middle of July, but felt from his knowledge of my work the
previous year at Blue Bank School that I could make the adjust-
ment easier than most teachers. He told me that the helping teachers
wanted to see me try some of the ideas which I had dsicussed with
them in regard to a hot lunch program, PTA activities, health edu-
cation, and what had sometimes been called a connnunity-centcrcd
school.

Mr. Smith seemed already aware of my point of view and that
made it easy for me to summarize my philosophy and to add some
of the basic general objectives on which I believe an elementary
school should be built. I mentioned the four objectives of Educa-
tion—Se]f—Realization, Human Relationship, Civic Responsibility,
and Economic Efficiency.2 Then I commented on my interest in the
newer methods of teaching and stressed the importance of activity
programs in which pupils participate in the doing of meaningful
things, projects, and problems.

Having just come from the doctor’s office7 I emphasized the
need for healthful living in the elementary school. Superintendent
Smith agreed with my idea that only when the body works as 21
complete unit to produce a happy, energetic, enthusiastic, and vigor—
ous individual, do we have good health. In other words, health is
a by-product of a way of living. He assured me that Dry Eranch
would challenge all my ingenuity from the standpoint of health
education, and that his office would support me in any attempt to
put into practice this suggested philosophy of healthful living.

Following this conversation, I stopped at the desk of Miss Gil)-
son, one of the helping teachers, where I received a mimeographed
copy of the plans for a three-day pre-sehool county workshop for
teachers. I also learned that Mr. H. \V. Litts, a farmer who lived
near Dry Branch school, had the keys to the building.

Monday morning I had no difficulty in finding the Litts home
from the description which Miss Gibson had given me. As the car
stopped in front of the house, a big shepherd dog came bounding T0
the gate. He was followed by two round-faced children who said
they were Bill and Connie Litts. They told me that their mother
was in the cellar house finishing a churning and their father was
in the back pasture cleaning out a spring for the cattle. \Ve went

2Appendix, Exhibit B—The Objectives of Education

72

    

around ‘
Mrs. Li?
around.

Jus
nouncing
l)’. homt
utmost i

commun
accompa

Nat
grounds
picture:

The
in front
grew a
tn'ass an
itself
l’Hl‘ently

Ins:
sides of
Mt dowr
in previ

* Joh

 

  

 h was
.1 pro-
school
is late
rk the
rdjust—
achers
l with
h. edu-
ntered

d that
1 some
entar)‘
Educa-
ibility,
in the
Letivity
iiiigful

.ed the
:endent
:s as a
l Vigor—
ralth is
Branch
health
mpt t0
:1g.

SS Gil)-
:raphed
101) for
L0 lived

is home
the 031'
ding T0
ho said
mother
ier was
’9 went

around the house and when I introduced myself as the new teacher,
Mrs. Litts offered to send Bill with 'me to the school to show me
around. '

Just as we were leaving the yard, the dog barked again an-
nouncing the return of his master, Mr. Litts. He was a very friend—
ly, home-spun type of man, for whom the family seemed to have
utmost respect. He expressed pleasure at my coming to the school
community prior to the opening day, and suggested that he would
accompany me to the school building.

Naturally I had pictured the general layout of the school and
grounds and was pleased to see it somewhat in contrast to the poet ’5
picture 5*

Still sits the school—house, by the road,
A ragged beggar sleeping;

Around it still the sumachs grow,
And blackberry Vines are creeping.

Within the master’s desk is seen,
Deep-scarred by raps official;
The warping floors, the battered seats

The jack—knife’s carved initials.

The charcoal frescoes on its walls;
Its door’s worn sill betraying
The feet that creeping slow to school,
Went storming out to playing. . . .
The playground covered about an acre. Two oak trees stood
In front on opposite sides of the building. Around the yard’s edge
grew a heavy crop of tall weeds with occasional clumps of sedge
grass and briars, tapering off to dry, dusty ground near the building
Itself. The schoolhouse stood about thirty feet from the road, ap-
P'drently in a fair state of repair, and not in need of paint.

. Inside the building I found the windows were arranged on both
sides of the room with no panes of glass missing. It seemed Wise to
i0t dowu some of my specific observations. The floor had been oiled
“1 T'I'eVi0us years, which, with normal wear, had left a splintery sur-

* John Greenleaf “Thittier, “In School Days”

73

 

 

       
   
   
  
  
   
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
    

face. Five rows of sin le seats were nailed to the floor. One corner .,
tie 1(

of the room had been used as a library center, with a table and to the
orange crate shelves and chairs. The stove seemed to be in good their v
. condition but it was unjacketed. The blackboard was adequate, but B2
‘ bulletin board space was insufficient for our needs. I felt fortunate ‘ plannii
in finding the school equipped with electric lights. Mr. Litts told ‘ 19111511]
me the lights had been installed the previous year as a. part of the that 1
rural electrification program which the community had sponsored. for the
There were no window shades. The room looked short. This was with H]

due to the partitioning off of a section on either side of the door for
cloakroom space. The cloakroom walls had evidently been painted
by the children. Lunchbox shelves and coat hooks were arranged at

' various heights. In one corner was a worn broom. In another sat a
dented coal bucket and a water cooler.

! As I turned to follow Mr. Litts to the well, I noticed that an-
other car had stopped and half a dozen people were coming into
the school yard. Mr. Litts introduced them to me as patrons of the «
school, and I found they all would have children enrolled. I was
pleased to meet these people since I hoped to secure their early
cooperation in school improvement projects. They went with us to
examine the coal house, the outdoor toilets and the well. One man
noticed that some shingles were missing from the coal house roof
and volunteered to repair it before school opened. Another, catching
the spirit, offered to put new hinges on the door of the boys’ toilet.
I asked Mr. Litts if we could borrow his scythe, and he assured me
that the weeds would be out before I came again. The former teacher
had evidently sold to these parents the idea of building a good
school. I

Their expressed desire to cooperate in the school activities led
me to ask if a day might not be set aside for getting the school
grounds and building in shape for the beginning of the term. My
question brought forth several suggestions, and it was agreed that

. Thursday, August 27, would be announced as school-community

clean-up day. One of the ladies suggested a picnic lunch and a0-
cepted the responsibility for getting the word around. This idea
appealed to the men folks who would be doing most of the manual
work.

On the way back to the Litts’ farm, we stopped at the cross—
roads general store where I wanted to check the local merchant’s

f stock of school supplies, such as pencils, crayons, and tablet paper.

1‘ i The merchant, who was also the local postmaster, had evidently heard

of my being at the school, and introduced himself, as well as a few

other folks who were in the store. Both he and the merchant across

74

  

    

 

1e corner
able and
in good
uate, but
fortunate
iitts told
rt of the
aonsored.
This was
door for
‘ painted
'anged at
her sat a

that an-
iing' into
as of the

I was
eir earl)“
ith us to
One man
)use roof
catching
3’ toilet.
sured me
1‘ teacher
5 a good

rities 10d
16 school
rm. My
reed that
immunity
and 30'
This idea
3 manual

he cross-
erchant ’5
31; paper.
tly heard
as a few
nt across

the road—at whose pump I stopped for g
to the community and assured me th
their whole-hearted cooperation.

Back at home, late that afternoon,
planning the school program for the ye
lems merited special
that I should try
for the year. As

asoline—welcomed me to
at I could count on them for

I set about systematically
ar. Although many prob-
attention, the superintendent and I had agreed
to keep a diary of healthful living in the school
a result of this agreement, I planned in

accordance
with the material presented in the following chapter.

    
     
  
   
    
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
  
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 

    

‘ tion of
| practic-

   
 
   
   
  
 
  
  
  
 
 
 
 
  
 
  
 
   
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
  
   
  
   
   
  
  
 
 

‘ V
» CHAPTER II “1
t be a we
‘1 l . . . . '
1 i Planning a Program of Healthful L1v1ng for School and 20111:? 1
Community should
leaders]
At the outset I wrote the general objectives of health education f01‘1113'.‘
which I felt. should govern the program. In preparing these. I In
found some help in copies of the NBA and KEA journals. I also all EVHI
looked over some professional bulletins and chapters in college text- dealt W
‘ books. Moreover, I drew from my own past experiences in setting therein
up the following objectives: 01‘ three
2 _ tory of
HEALTH OBJECTIVES Writer E
1. To encourage each child in developing habits of healthful living for eacl
2. To help each child develop an understanding that health is a Ne:
means to an end and not merely an end in itself telling .
3. To help each child develop an understanding that healthful living tl '
is the body working together to produce a happy, energetic, lat 011‘
enthusiastic and vigorous individual to bring
4. To help each child develop correct understandings, attitudes. and Mol'eove
abilities relative to maintaining a safe and sanitary home, school,
and community environment 0f the c
5. To guide each child in developing good mental health habits time.
6. To help the children understand and develop correct attitudes Mot
toward the use of immunizations.
Dry Bra
It was apparent that my part in making the foregoing health ents am-
objectives a reality would involve: arrived
a. Providing a planned and graded program of health instruction 80011 as 1
With some emphasis upon safety education, phySical educa- platOOns
tion, and recreation (liqtribm
. b. Providing each child with the opportunity to realize his full 0;
j and wholesome potentialities of growth and development 5131554111
I c. Providing periodic health examinations and follow—up program
‘ to give special attention to thOse in need of medical and dental
care
d. Assisting the county in its program for the prevention, detec—
tion and control of communicable diseases
e. Promoting the development of an adequate sch001 lunch pl‘O'
gram
f. Screening of the children’s physical limitations
g. Stimulating extensive community cooperation.
i." c Next, I began to catalog in my thinking the names and 1msiti0“s
‘ of people from whom I might expect assistance in building a well'
rounded health program at Dry Branch. Following this line M W
. 6 1 :
thought, I developed a blank form for recording the name and 1"“51‘ E afiliiiiiei
‘luipmelu

76

  

 ind

lucation
these. I

I also
age text-
L settmg

ful living
alth is a

Eul living
mergetlcy

ides. and

6, school. .

ibits
attitudes

lg health

istruction
31 educa-

e his full
nent

l program
.nd dental

on, deteC‘

unch pro-

positiol15
g a well-

l

s line "'1 '

all d loca-

tion of possible helpers, as well as a form for describing local health
practices and customs.3

The days passed rapidly now, and I realize that it would only
be a week until Thursday, August 27,-when the community folks were
going to spend a half day at the Dry Branch School. I felt that I
should capitalize on my opportunity to provide some professional
leadership at this first meeting and, therefore, set about to answer
for myself the question, “How?”

In one of my summer school classes we had discussed the over-
all evaluation of elementary schools. One section of this evaluation
dealt with health education and sanitation. Using the ideas included
therein as a starting point, I developed over a period of the next two
or three days what I have chosen to call “A Pre-school Health Inven-
tory of Physical Plant and Equipment.” Using my portable type-
writer and a duplicator, I ran off sufficient copies of this inventory
for each family in the community.

Next day’s mail brought a letter from the school superintendent
telling me that he could not attend the meeting on August 27, but
that one of the helping teachers would be present and would try
to bring along the county health, nurse or the sanitary engineer.
Moreover, I knew the home demonstration agent would be in that end
of the county that week; so I invited her to drop by around lunch
time.

Mother packed a large picnic basket and I left, hoping to get to
Dry Branch early, ahead of the others. However, I found a few par-
ents and several children of school age already there. Having just
arrived, they had not started any of the clean—up or repair work. .As
soon as a few of the others came, I suggested forming separate work
platoons. They proposed the five following groups, and volunteers
distributed themselves accordingly: A repair platoon; a weed and
grass-cutting platoon; a house cleaning group; a well purification

 

\

“Appendix, E; ‘ ' _ ‘ '
Heal}h Customs \lublt C Check Sheet of Community Helpers and Community
Equipmlgetndm’ Exhibit D-—P1e-School Health Inventory of Physical Plant and

77

 

 

    
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
  

l crew; and a lunch platoon. Each group selected its own leader. each

These leaders were given extra copies of the inventory sheet which . the 13‘

3 served as a partial guide in checking health and sanitation stand- ‘

l, 2 ards. . tancy

‘ l, I had about all one person could do to answer the many uni-es- infori

tions raised by individuals and working groups. The men seemed three

to go about their work with considerable “know how” and enthusi- and a

asm. It became my job to aid the children in washing the black- . I real

board while others picked up sample voting ballots, swept the floor, ba 01m

washed the windows, washed some of the fingermarks and footprints If

off the schoolroom walls, and scrubbed the floor. In record time the This ‘

- weeds and trash and bits of litter were burned as willing hands were 2

cleaned up the exterior. While picking up some of the flat rocks Physh

, which were found on the playground, it was suggested that they be . Splend

placed so as to make a temporary walk to the front door. This that it

pleased me, especially, for I had hoped some day we might have that I

concrete walk-ways to lessen the amount of mud brought into the local h

building. A couple of small open drainage ditches were dug to W

prevent surplus water from flowing across the front corner at the 10 go 1

playground. The lower limbs of the oak tree nearest the school of Sep

building were cut off and burned. One of the fathers drove his ‘ eight 1

pick—up truck to bring spike nails, extra boards and other materials ‘ was de

needed for reinforcing the home-made playground swing. parents

Time passed so rapidly that it was eleven—thirty before I realized and we

it. So in good traditional school manner, I pulled the rope and rang Al

the been to announce lunch, which the mothers were unpacking under school 1

the other oak tree. I took a bar of soap and a bucket of water drawn that (13

from the well to one of the small surface ditches, where all the helpers It .

washed their hands by pouring water from the bucket. [ al'ran

\Vhen most of them had finished eating, I turned to a considera- [ con] d

tion of the health inventory and read parts of it through with the 5011001 ‘.

‘ group. “70 then evaluated what we had done in terms of the inven- \IW
tory.

Each participant in the morning’s program seemed to appreciate

the importance of healthful living in school and community life.

They were sure, however, that we were still far short of completeb'

meeting the standards of the new State Health Code. I then raised

the problem of the next. step in a cooperative community health pm

I gram. Much to my pleasure one of the patrons asked me what
i‘ " I thought about making this kind of program an annual affair. I
turned the question back to the group and found many of them “'91"?
quite enthusiastic about the idea, although a few doubted that such
a cooperative endeavor would succeed if limited to a single meeting

78

 ade 1'.
vhich
tand-

ques-
temed
thusi-
Jlack-
floor,
prints
:ie the
hands
rocks
my be
This
: have
to the
lug to
(if the
school
me his
iterials

realized
ul ran?)
3; under

drawn
helpers

uside 1‘21-
vith the
e inven-

preeiate
ity life.
nipletel."
.n raised
11th pl'0'
ne what
ffair. I
10111 were
hat 511911
meeting

each year. This, of course, was a lead pointing to the discussion of
the possible organization of a P—TA.

When I mentioned the word P-TA, I noticed a feeling of hesi-
tancy spreading throughout the group. One parent volunteered the
information that an effort had been made to organize such a group
three years ago, but that it had failed because of poor attendance
and a lack of interest. This was a “little discouraging” to me and
I realized it would be necessary to check more thoroughly into the
background of the previous attempt.

I next approached the subject of a community health council.
This was evidently a new idea to the parents and several questions
were asked. Referring again to the Pre-school Health Inventory of
Physical Plant and Equipment,5 I complimented them on the
splendid work we had done during the morning session, indicating
that it could not have been achieved without their cooperation, and
that I would need continued assistance in the promotion of our
local health program.

While the baskets were being repacked and preparations made
to go home, I thought it wise to set another date for the latter part
of September at which time I would need the assistance of six or
eight persons in further planning activities. Friday, September 7,
was decided upon, and I soon had the names of six representative
parents who asured me they would be glad to assist in the planning
and work.

Although I had thought it a little premature to suggest a pre-
school health clinic, I did feel as the cars pulled away from the school
that day that much had been accomplished.

It was now only a matter of a few days until school opened; so
I arranged for room and board at the Litts’ home, from which

I could drive to and from the county seat while attending the pre—
school work shop.

\

5 Ibid.

 

 

 CHAPTER 111

Putting the School Health Program into Action

/".\

(‘1.

(a
VJ

J]
l 1
On the first day, several of the smaller children; were accom-
panied by their parents, since this had been recommended duringr
the pre-school meeting. After a Short opening exercise, I provided
each of the thirty-four pupils with a mimeographed personal history
form“ to be filled out and to become a part of the school record.#
One section of the blank pertained particularly to health data. With
the help of the mothers and some of the older pupils, fairly complete
information was recorded for each child. Most of the morning was
devoted to getting these blanks completed.

After being invited to visit some of the homes, I dismissed
school at noon. The children were somewhat surprised because books

   

“Appendix, Exhibit E—Individual Pupil’s Personal History Form
*Progressive teachers have long agreed that the school must be concerned
with the development of the whole child. The need for a broad concept of educa-
tion is implied in such guiding principles as the following:
A. Our physical, emotional, and mental natures are bound together.
B. The educative process is conditioned upon the learner‘s capacities, interests.
and emotions.
C. Because no two persons are alike, education needs to provide for individual
differences in learning.
D. Education, desirable or undesirable, goes on as a permanently continuing
process in home, church, school, and community.
The teacher who would attempt to guide the development of her children mUSt
first learn what their needs are. The following principles should serve as gmdes
in planning a program for studying children:
The study of the child should be based on existing truths.
The observer should have standards and means of recognizing the child
and his digressions from the normal pattern.
Child study depends upon discovering, recording and evaluating data
Data recorded should be cumulative and should show typical behaViOT 0f
the individual studied.
Devices for child study should be simple enough to be used easily
interpreted readily and yet comprehensive enough to be of maximum value-
Terms should be clearly defined and simply stated. Qualities to be rate
should indicate varying degrees of excellence.

U9 W?

and

P1

80

 

wei
brii
sess

I to
ities
days
like]

(
They
in pr.
school
thems
at the
matte<
OXpose
my h e:
make ;
the ne
Jody (
given z
Be
and p]
lunch (
Water—1:
charge
hand w
t0 sling
tOwels
The
and I u
I was p]
“'83 asks

 

 3 accom—
1 during
provided
1 history
record?
La. With
complete
ning‘ was

dismissed
use books

concerned
t of educa—

r.
s, interests,

7 individual

continuing
lldren must
e as guides
g the child

g data.
behavior of

easily and
imum va 119-
to be rated

Were not ‘, -' .
bring 1unccllllstiiliuted the. first day. They wer t l
. es tie followh1g morning» b 6 0 d, however, to
Sessmn all day, ‘3’ 60211153 8011001 would be '
That afternoon in
. ' a few stude
I tound it ) “ts Came back to tl v .
ities 311d (1).:E’Siblelto make out the roll, plan the 51:0 13133.9,1'ound, but
da‘grS of ingommelac y :01;3 introducing the students tinfhday’s activ-
7‘ . c W0): Hill: 011 thei* ree or fOur
likely deal Wlth health, and sanitation1 needS, many of Which W0uld

///4

On the mo '
7‘ 1111110. Of th '
1116}, Were f o e second day 13va
r01 v ’ 119W st
in brevious )relzlr: a-yqilp the hOHOW and had attendeduxcvlfilts. app cared,
School and said the lieylwere frank in admitting thei: Briana?)
themselves t] y iac come purely out f . .' 181 e or
le Strange thin . 0 cur10s1ty to gee f .
at the school h gs Which thev had 11 - ‘ , i 01
ouse. ‘Hilda ” e‘nd WeI‘e Q'Olllo‘ 0n
matted hair sail and Jodv stood th . . V D
‘ , 0W complexio ‘ - 619 “'1th dull eves
exposed Part Of t1 ‘ 11, and “71th dll't Cl . 7
‘ , .ieir bodies 0 an grime on ever
my health Drona ' 118 glance was e1 y
0 ‘am was to st ~t . . ' “)th '50 tell me th-t
make attend“ a1 that InOl‘ninn- I - d
, ( ice attl‘aetiv ' o- realized that I .
the next d e Enough SO Hill ' must
ay. I 1 . - , ca and Jod r .
JOdY could be Ch 121M113 real’l‘anged my daihr assin-iinilomd 16mm
given an Opport adrman 0f the lunch shelf commit: ents. SO that
Before 16 uhrty to work with the housekeepi 86. Hflda was
‘ cessrng f 11"" ‘l‘ou .
and Planning for i 19r,1100n’ we took fifteen minutesgin 11)... .
lunch eating 10 L. 11(1V1Clual hand washing. pl'ocel (15011551119;
. ‘ u‘Ine. W 1 7 ‘3 cure and 0th '
“flier—130111.61. e “911 elected H a - 81
to use th 1 eniy as Captain 13'} -
Charge of t] e 011g handled d‘ , ’ 11 as
16 bar of 1 11313917 and Helen 1- -
hand “a . allndry 50a) “7 _ 0 be m
’ Shing at 1‘ 8 also CleCIde '
to sling the Wat :‘SlfDOt on the playgrohn d below th: {CVOJHIme 171p for
t0Wels. 1 10m 0111‘ hands because there not I “e had
‘ " re no )a .
The (33 . ' . 1 p31
Plain SGI‘Ved -
and I watch - as 111513666011 to se th
ed r - e at the .

I was Pleased tlllfll: cODSIdei’able interest to see hodlrajlldl “ere clean,
: 0 110 e that Y1 . 0Cy came t
“as asked to V‘ 1611 the captan . ou '
D'0 th~ 0- - 1 came by to 1
b 1011bh the line a second