xt7t7659db9h https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt7t7659db9h/data/mets.xml Norwood, Charles Joseph, b. 1853. 1878  books b96-13-34908729 English Stereotyped for the Survey by Major, Johnston & Barrett, Yeoman Press, : Franfort, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Coal Kentucky. Report of a reconnoissance of a part of the Breckinridge cannel coal district  / by Charles J. Norwood. text Report of a reconnoissance of a part of the Breckinridge cannel coal district  / by Charles J. Norwood. 1878 2002 true xt7t7659db9h section xt7t7659db9h 


           N. S. SHALER, DIRECTOR.


                 OF A PART OF THE



                                        339 & 34

This page in the original text is blank.



Professor N. S. SHALER, Director Kentucky Geological Survey:
  DEAR SIR: In accordance with your instructions, I herewith
present a report of a reconnaissance, made in 1875, on that
part of the " Breckinridge Cannel Coal" district (lying partly
in Breckinridge county and partly in Hancock county) which
is known as the property of the "' Cloverport Coal and Oil
  This report is largely a rearrangement of one made, by
your direction, to Col. J. C. Johnston, of Louisville, Ken-
tucky. As that report was partly written in the field, how-
ever, and within a limited time, some of the facts were not
so carefully weighed as otherwise would have been done. A
more careful study of my notes has shown the necessity of
modifying some parts of that report, and some new matter
has been added, so that, although largely a rearrangement of
the one furnished Col. Johnston for his immediate informa-
tion, this report may be regarded as more accurate and
complete. The changes made, however, are comparatively
few, and, under the circumstances, do not materially alter
the value of the former estimates. Some new computations
(based on a more recent determination of the specific gravity
of the coal) have been made for the estimated amount in tons
of the coal underlying the lands. This, to a certain degree,
affects the estimate for the possible total income which may
be derived from the property; but the effect would be appa-
rent only in the future.
  The work of computing the probable income which may be
derived from mineral lands is always subject to revision, and,
as in the present instance, serves rather for illustration than
as a strict mathematical fact.


4                  INTRODUCTORY LETMER.

  The yearly income is necessarily dependent on the price
that the coal will fetch in the various markets. These prices
fluctuate, and, as a consequence, an estimate made now for
the probable income, using the present market value of the
coal as a basis for computation, would be subject to revision
at any time.
  This, however, does not alter the value of the estimates for
the use of those having experience in such matters.
  The estimate for the cost of mining, etc., is subject to little
change on account of fluctuations, and remains as given when
the report was originally prepared.
                                     C. J. NORWOOD.



  According to the data furnished me, it appears that the vari-
ous boundaries of the property of the Cloverport Coal and Oil
Company inclose about 7,224 acres, lying southwardly from
Cloverport, as represented in the following statement:
In fee-simple....... . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . ..   .  4,744 acres.
Mineral rights in perpetuity.... . .. . .... .... ... ..       1,970
Cloverport town and river property, on which stand the old factories and
accessory buildings, the Superintendent's cottage, and "I Cairn's Castle,"  6o
The "Crawford" farm....... . .. . . .. . . .. .. . . .  .    436
Alot ontherailroad.... .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .  2
Railroad rights of way..............              ....     .    12
Total... .. . . .. . .7..2.2.4.. . .. . .. . .. . . .. .  7,224

  "The   'Crawford' farm     is detached, lying    about one mile
and a half east of the principal body of the estate, which in-
cludes about 6,500 acres."
  The especial value of the section examined lies in the de-
posit of cannel coal which    is found on   it.  Several " entries "
were driven by the - Breckinridge Cannel Coal Company," a
number of years ago, for working the coal.t If the report is
correct, these mines were at one time operated by their former
owners solely for the manufacture of illuminating oil from the

ICloverport is on the Ohio river, 260 miles below Cincinnati. It is Hio miles below
Louisville, 190 miles above Cairo (which is at the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio
rivers), and 1,182 miles above New Orleans.
tThe amount of coal removed by that company was, so far as can be learned, compar-
atively little. A report has been circulated somewhat to the effect that the deposit has
been practically exhausted; but I have been unable to verify it in any way. There is in
Col. J. C. Johnston's possession a map, said to be authentic, exhibiting the area of coal
removed up to the time that the mining was suspended. Their condition was such that
the old entries could not be surveyed when I visited them.



  From a report of the directors, issued in pamphlet form, it
is learned that the erection of the oil works was commenced
by the Breckinridge Coal and Oil Company in the autumn of
1855, and that in April, of the following year, twelve retorts
were in operation, producing from 6oo to 700 gallons of crude
oil daily. In June, i856, that company and the " Breckinridge
Cannel Coal Company" consolidated; following which, an ex-
tension of the works was undertaken, and, in the succeeding
year, eighteen additional retorts were put in place.
  All of the apparatus about the works was the best of its
kind; and, had not the discovery of natural oils been made,
there is little reason to doubt that a prosperous business
would have followed.
  Disastrous fires, the discovery of petroleum, and the com-
mencement of the war between the States, all happening near
together, however, caused the abandonment of the works till
now, when, if the matter is correctly understood, it is desired
to establish a colliery at the old mines, and mine the coal for
general exportation.
  Some knowledge of the extent of the cannel coal bed, in-
cidentally taking into consideration the general worth of the
property, and the estimated cost of placing the mines in work-
ing order once more, was accordingly desired.
  Having a pressure of work in another direction, the time
that could be given to this matter was limited, and was not
sufficient for me to enter into such detailed explorations as
would be desired for the preparation of a complete statement.
So far as they were extended, however, the observations were
such as would impress the observer with a high sense of the
worth of the lands.
  The surface of the region is naturally varied, according to
the character of the underlying beds. Towards the Ohio
river a sandstone is usually the first bed below the surface,
and, as a consequence, there is a considerable proportion of
comparatively flat or undulating surface in that direction; the
same conditions are also found along some of the streams in
the interior. The larger part of the property, however, is



hilly, the hills frequently rising rather sharply from the low-
  The tops of the hills are frequently "rolling," and furnish a
few admirable localities for farms. A large proportion of the
land, however-especially where, in the immediate vicinity of
streams, the shale beds of the Sub-carboniferous Group are
the first ones below the surface-is too broken to be desirable
for farming purposes.
  The most prominent feature in the geography of the region
is a long, irregularly trending ridge, which passes southwardly
through the property. It is said to vary from one quarter of
a mile to two miles in width.
  This ridge forms the water-shed for the region near it, and
has a distinct value, not only topographically but geologically,
as within its structure the bed of cannel coal is contained.
Accordingly, to know the true form of the ridge becomes very
necessary in order to determine with accuracy the extent of
any of the beds contained within it. Until this shall be done,
all work in that direction is, of necessity, estimative.

  The agricultural aspects of the property are fair, certain
portions of the land being fairly well adapted for the growth
of small grain, while some parts serve admirably for the pro-
duction of tobacco.  It may be said that, as a whole, this
region will compare favorably with the general class of lands,
with like geological conditions, in the southwestern portion
of the State, for the growth of corn and tobacco-the staple
products of Western Kentucky.
  There are two sorts of soil to be distinguished within the
limits of this property: that on the hills has, usually, a sandy
composition, while that in the lowlands is, in a large measure,
  Although it is somewhat in advance of the regular order of
the report, it seems proper at this place to call attention to
the green and reddish marly shales, which are found on certain




parts of the estate or in the vicinity, overlying the great sand-
stone which occurs first above the massive limestone of the
Sub-carboniferous series. These shales or marls are valu-
able, and are worthy of much consideration, as they bid fair
to prove most admirable fertilizers for some of our impover-
ished tobacco lands. Their geological position is in the Ches-
ter Group, and they are found, wherever it is well developed,
over a large portion of the western part of the State. They
are undoubtedly destined to become quite valuable to Ken-
tucky farmers, especially to tobacco-growers; and it is possi-
ble that they may form the basis for a large manufacturing
  The marls are wonderfully rich in potash and soda, and for
that reason they possess properties which, when their proper
treatment shall be determined upon, should render them unex-
celled for fertilizing worn-out tobacco lands. Tobacco extracts
proportionately more potash than any other material from the
soil; so that, in order to restore its former vigor to the soil, it
becomes necessary to supply it with the substance in one of
two ways: either with the potash in an uncombined condition,
or with some mixture holding a large proportion of that mate-
  These marls may be used with benefit by simply spreading
them thinly over the surface in the form that they are found
in the bank, allowing the coating to remain on the ground
throughout a winter, and then turning it in with the soil in
the spring. It has also been suggested that they may be
roasted in a kiln with lime. The advantage to be derived
from such treatment would lie in the increased amount of
potash, etc., that might then be taken from the mixture,with-
in a certain time, by the simple atmospheric agencies, and
mingled with the earth.
  Especial attention has been directed to these marls by Prof.
Shaler and the chemists of the Survey. Should the experi-
ments undertaken by Mr. Talbutt, for the purpose of testing

 For further discussion of the question, see the biennial report of the Director of the



the practicability of making the marl an article of commerce,
prove successful, this point would be a desirable one from
which to make shipments, being, as it is, within easy reach
of water transportation. The marl beds are not distant more
than two miles from the Ohio river, and may be found even
nearer. At "1 Buffalo Lick," which, however, is not on this
property, the marls are especially thick.
  These marts are wonderfully alike in their composition, so
far as yet known, wherever they are found in Western Ken-
tucky.  Unfortunately a sample of the marl in this region,
although collected, was lost; but the following analysis, made
by the chemists of the Survey, of a sample collected from
Haycraft's Lick, Grayson county, will serve to show      what
may be expected from    the marl in this region :

Alumina, iron, etc., oxides .................. .           27.811
Lime carbonate. .       .       ..... .. .88o
Magnesia... .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . . ..   .  .824
Phosphoric acid............................                   . log
Potash... . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. ..     5554
Soda.  . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. ..  ..  . . .      . 657
Water and loss.   .  .     ..... .....                      4.245
Silica and insoluble silicates.......................    59.920
Total... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .   00.000

  According to the statement made by Captain William H.
Pitts, there are already fifteen or twenty farms on the prop-
erty of the company, each farm being provided with dwelling-
houses and the necessary farm-yard buildings. The number
of acres under cultivation was not learned.
  The larger portion of the property (that not under culti-
vation), is covered with a healthy growth of timber, including
white oak, black oak, red oak, pin oak, and chestnut oak,
poplar, ash, elm, sugar-tree, maple, linn, cherry. sweet gum,
 Samples of the marl were placed on exhibition in the Kentucky Department of the
International Exhibition at Philadelphia.
tThe partial results of Mr. Talbutt's investigations have been made public through
the columns of the Kenwuky Yemn-, Frankfort, Kentucky.




  This forest supply is an item of much importance, and
should be duly regarded, as our forests of oaks (especially
of the white and chestnut varieties) are yearly becoming
more valuable. Considering the demand there is for timber
at Evansville, Indiana, and at other points on the Ohio river,
it seems remarkable that so little has been removed from this

                          THE COAL, Frc.
  As previously stated, the chief value of the property is
derived from the bed of cannel coal which underlies certain
parts of it. The cannel bed is not the only coal found on
it, however; on the contrary. there is certainly one distinct
bed of bituminous coal above the cannel bed-possibly more.
There seem to be possibilities, also, that an iron ore of good
quality is to be obtained on the land, or within a short dis-
tance of its limits.     In examining a collection made by Major
Atkinson, said to have been collected entirely on this prop-
erty, samples of very admirable limonite, similar to the Sub-
carboniferous limonite worked in Trigg county, this State,
were   observed.     No   evidence, however, more       trustworthy
than this was obtained indicating the existence of any val-
uable ore deposits on the estate.           It is not at all improbable
that the specimen in Major Atkinson's collection was obtained
in the ore region bordering the Cumberland river, and was
present in the collection by a mistake.
  As originally written, an attempt was made in this report to
give an approximate section of the more important beds in

Since this report was written, this region has been examined by Mr. P. N. Moore-
having come within the limits of his nrc-y ,f the section along the eastern face of the
coal field. It has accordingly been more th-roughly studied by him than by me; and the
questions concerning the existence fo ore, in the region; of the form, teight, and extent
of the ridge, which has been mentioned on a preceding page, and the details of the
structure of the ridge, are properly ones to be treated of in his report. It is to be hoped,
also, that Mr. Moore's exanination, being more final il, their nature than -ere mine,
may have served to determine swith accuracy the general character of the cannel bed;
whether it preserves its condition as a cannel throughout its extent in this region, or
merges into bituminous coal at some point beyond that reached by those openings that
have been made in it at the mines; it may also have been possible for him to determine
more definitely the extent of the bed, and hence the acreage of the coal. (April, 1877.)



the ridge which forms the central point of interest in the
region. Subsequent considerations, however, have rendered
it inexpedient to make the attempt a matter of record; ac-
cordingly, the following statement is an approximate section
of only those beds underlying, and including, the cannel coal:

X Cannel Coal....................          . 22 inches to 3 feet 2 inches.
2. Sandstone and Shale, about . ..... ........ ... .. 40
3. Limestone and Shales ("Chester" beds), about . . . . . . . . . lo,
4. Massive Sandstone (base of Chester Group), about . . . . 6o
5. Massive Limestone (St. Louis Group).

  For want of an accurate map, it is impossible to locate the
various coal outcrops. Bituminous coal has been found at
several localities on the estate.     At present, however, the
bituminous coal has little commercial value; but seems to
serve more especially to indicate the probable presence of
the cannel bed.
  It is probable that no cannel, the "' Boghead" of Scotland
(which, in fact, is not a true cannel) excepted, has received
more general attention than that which has been bestowed onl
the bed found in this region; its remarkable general character
and its quality as a gas enricher have already been discussed
in some detail in former geological reports on Kentucky, and
in kindred works.
  The coal is remarkably dense in structure and tenacious;
vigorously resisting cross-fracture, although cleaving with tol-
erable facility in the direction of the laminae.  Its character is
such, in fact, that the coal stands handling and weathering
more than ordinarily well, sustaining thereby little loss in bulk
either in mining or transportation.
  In Gesner's work on coal oilst attention is drawn to the
curious fact that, although analysis proves the Boghead can-
nel to have the largest per centage of volatile matters, the

'A map, prepared by a gentleman who had formerly examined these lands, was fur-
nished me when in the region, and an attempt wras made to use it when this report was
originally prepared. Its imperfections are so apparent, however, that it has proved
to be of little service. A correct map of the region has been made by Mr. Wm. Byrd
Page, Topographical Assistant to the State Survey, in the course of the later investiga.
tions in the section, and may be issued at an early date. (April, 1877.)
MNew York: Bailliere Brothers, 1865.




coal actually produces less oil than does the Breckinridge arti-
  The following is a comparison made by Gesner of the two
coals: The Boghead cannel yields I20 gallons of crude oil
to the ton, from which are obtained 65 gallons of illuminating
oil, 7 gallons of paraffin oil, I2 pounds of paraffin-equal to
about 84 gallons of marketable oils.
  The Breckinridge coal yields 130 gallons of crude oil to
the ton, from which are obtained 8o gallons of illuminating
oil and 12 gallons of paraffin oil-making 92 gallons of mar-
ketable oils. Other products, such as aniline, benzole, etc.,
not uncommon to coals, are to be obtained from the cannel.
  The extraordinary value of the coal for the manufacture of
illuminating oil may be appreciated, when the fact is remem-
bered that a coal which will yield 6o gallons of crude oil, or
4o gallons of refined oil to the ton, is regarded as an excel-
lent article.
  In fact, excepting the natural reservoirs of petroleum, the
Breckinridge cannel undoubtedly offers one of the most pro-
ductive sources yet known for the distillation of illuminating
oils, and should it be necessary in the future to again manu-
facture our oil from coal, this article will be of very great
  For the present, however, the especial and decided value
of the coal depends upon its quality as a steam fuel and
gas producer. This value is fairly indicated by the following
analyses :
-The differences between the analyses are probably, in a large degree, due to a differ-
ence in the samplings. The quality of any coal bed is variable according to the condi-
tions existing in its various parts; to equalize this, by making an average -of its quality
as found at different parts of the bed, should be the aim of the one who takes the sam-
ples; this is very difficult to do in the case of cannel coal. Everything considered, the
analyses do not compare unfavorably with each other.



             COMPOSITION.             No. I.  No. 2. No. 3.

Moisture                                   0...         ..         3      1.44     .64
Volatile combustible matter...44                62.40    61.30
Fixed carbon...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .   32.00   28.20   30.00
Ash. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .   12.30    7.96    8. o
Total.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .  100.      .      9999

Specific gravity.1............     1e318 1.339 .
Analyst   .    .........                Peter. Owen.   Gesner.

  The amount of sulphur in Nos. I and 2 was undetermined;
in No. 3 there was a trace.
  These analyses (at least Nos. I and 2) were made quite a
number of years ago; and the probabilities are, that in no
case was an attempt made to procure fairly averaged samples
of the coal-as was the case with the larger part of the tests
made in those days to ascertain the quality of coals. The
analyses were probably made from specimens which were col-
lected without due regard being had for possible changes in
the character of the bed at different places.
  It is probable that, of the three analyses, No. 2 may be
considered as the best fitted for general application. It is
an average of four analyses made by Dr. D. D. Owen, and
published in one of the volumes of his geological reports on
Kentucky. Dr. Robert Peter mentions, in the report from
which analysis No. X is taken, that the per centage of sul-
phur obtained in one air-dried sample of the coal was 2.433.
This, however, is undoubtedly too high a per centage for the
average amount of sulphur in the coal.
  When this report was first written, the only available analy-
ses of this coal (within my knowledge) were those which have
been presented. Since then, however, an analysis, made by
the chemists of the Survey, of a sample collected by myself,
has been obtained. It is here presented, with the belief that
it will be found to be a fairer indication of the general quality
of the coal than any of those analyses previously given :

 For the purpose of comparison, a set of analyses of other cannels is appended to this




Specific gravity.................. ..           1.213
Moisture..                                       . 1.30
Volatile combustible matter .............. . .. .. 59.60
Fixed carbon .2700 Ck 39
Ash. ..........................12.10f
  Total...... ...... .......                       100.00
Sulphur, two determinations.......    .   1.890 and 1.903
  The quality of the coal as a gas producer is fully indicated
by the above analysis, although the value of the gas, meas-
ured by its candle power, is yet to be determined. The fact
of its great value as a producer of gas has. also been proved
by a practical test-considerable quantities of the coal having
been at one time shipped to New York, and sold there at
the rate of 15 and upwards the ton for enriching gas.        It is
in view to have photometric tests made of the gas produced
from the coal, which, it is believed, will prove satisfactory.
  An essentially important point to be determined in the in-
quiry concerning this coal is its acreage. The importance of
a good map, showing the details of the topographical features
of the lands, was very apparent when the reconnaissance was
made. With the assistance of such a one as should be pre-
pared, it would have been comparatively easy, it is believed,
to lay down the area of the bed with some accuracy; but
without it, especially since the examinations were not so thor-
ough as would be desirable, all computations as to the acreage
of the coal are necessarily estimative, and are to be regarded
only as such.
  From the testimony of others and from personal observa-
tions, it is believed that about 4,ooo acres may be roughly
assumed as the number which are, in all probability, underlaid
by the coal; which would include an area of about six square
miles.   In making this estimate the "Crawford" farm          and
.It is very important for it to be understood that this estimate is based on the condi-
tion that the deposit is a true bed, and but little more subject to abrupt changes than is
usually the case with coral bedls. That this is true for the bed, as a brd, there is little
doubt, at least so far as concerns this area; but the question concerning its constancy as
a bed of cannel, whether at some places it may or may not merge into bituminous coal,
is not considered. It must be borne in mind that the work was preliminary, and that the
results are to be considered as preliminary to other work, hence on this point (especially),
and kindred ones, the writer does not feel prepared to give his opinion unqualifiedly.




the " town property " (a total of 496 acres) are excluded; no
coal will be found on the latter land, and very little is known
concerning the former.
  Whether this coal is to be found beyond the limits of this
property is a question of much interest in the neighborhood.
,kt present, any views in that connection must necessarily be
lased entirely on conjecture. It may be well to quote, how-
ever, from the impressions recorded when this report was orig-
inally outlined: " Although unprepared with any absolute data
concerning the question, the opinion that it may be found to-
wards the southwest and west for a limited distance, provided
the geographical conditions are favorable, may not be alto-
gether improbable. There is undoubtedly a considerable gap
in the extent of the bed beyond the boundaries of this prop-
erty, and the quality of the coal may deteriorate-the bed
may merge into bituminous coal.       It is not probable that its
quality will improve.   The cannel does not seem       to extend
very far in any direction beyond the boundaries of the partic-
ular section under consideration, as the coal found elsewhere,
which is thought to occupy the same relative position as the
cannel bed in this district, is of the 'bituminous' kind."t
  The thickness of the coal varies from twenty-two inches to
thirty-eight inches, and the bed is reported to have occasion-
ally measured forty-four inches in thickness.     It is, therefore,
a difficult matter to accurately determine the number of tons
of coal to the acre.  It is stated by trustworthy men, that the
thickness of the bed is oftener three feet than two feet; it
seems more prudent, however, to underrate than to overesti-
mate the tonnage; accordingly, the average of the measure-
ments (two and a half feet) is used as the basis for calculation.

  Ihe truth of this was particularly impressed upon me by a iourney made from Clover-
  to Hawesville in the spring of 1876. At this time it seems extremely impr-bable
that the bed, as a cannel coal, extends much beyond the west limits of the Closerport
Coal and Oil Company's property. (April, 1877.)
tFor more specific information on this point, the reader is referred to Mr. Moore's
forthcoming report on this region. The more accurate results obtained by him in his
study of the district may have been sufficient to determine the full extent of the bed, and
to solve the questions concerning its general character. (April, 1877.)
    VOL. IV.-23                                               353

1 5



  With a specific gravity of 1.2 13, which is the specific grav.
ity indicated by the analysis of the samples analyzed by the
chemists of the present Survey (see page 14), a thickness of
2 feet would produce 3,685.7 tons to the acre, or 14,742,800
tons for the 4,ooo acres (using the ton of 2,24b pounds), should
that area prove to be underlaid by the cannel. Assuming a
smaller acreage for the coal, however-for instance 3,250 acres
-the result would be 14,374,230 tons, measuring the thick-
ness of the bed at 3 feet; which, under the circumstances,
would seem allowable. According to this computation, the
coal would last for 287 years, with an annual output of 5o,ooo

                    THE COST OF PRODUCTION.
  The present price paid for mining is one (I) dollar the
ton to the miner. To this may be added seventy-five cents
the ton to cover all additional expense incurred in removing
the coal from the mine and placing it on barges on the Ohio
river at Cloverport.
  The towage to New Orleans, so I am informed by coal-
shippers, may be placed with safety at not more than seven-
ty-five cents the ton. Should the mine-owners have their own
barges and tugs, however, the freightage would be less.
  The total cost per ton     of the coal, when     arrived at New
Orleans, may then be represented thus:
Amount paid for mining...........................                     1 oc
Amount paid for removing from mine and placing on barges .7.5.. .  .  .  .  .   .  75
Towage to New Orleans.......................... .                    75
Assumed amount to cover all incidental expenses-insurance, etc ........ .  50
     Total cost, delivered at New Orleans ................. . 3 00
  Without the aid of a large number of determinations of the specific gravity, there is
 always a certain degree of approximation which enters into the calculations for the ton-
 nage of coal-even when a certain thickness of the bed is assured. When this report was
 first prepared, the only analyses to be obtained of this coal were those presented on page
 13, and  1.339 was taken as the specific gravity-that being the result of four determi-
 nations by Dr. D. D. Owen. It is deemed proper, therefore, to present the calculations
 based on that determination, as they were embodied in the original report. With a
 specific gravity of 1.339, a thickness of 24 feet of coal would produce a fraction more
 than 4,023 tons to the acre, or 16,,95,658 tons for 4,ooo acres. Assuming 3 feet as the
 thickness of the bed, 3,250 acres would produce 15,833,250 tons of coal; and, according
 to this calculation, the coal would last 316 years, with a yearly yield of So,0oo tons.



  The cost of handling and selling the coal at New Orleans
was not learned. It may be confidently estimated, however,
that 3.25 the ton will fully cover all manner of expenses
which may be incurred in mining and vending the coal. It is
not improbable, indeed, that it is an overestimate.
  The cost of carriage from New Orleans to Liverpool was
not definitely learned. It is believed, however, judging from
information received from Mr. Wm. Creevy, of New Orleans,
that, at certain seasons of the year, the coal may be landed
at Liverpool, direct from the mines, at a total cost of from
5.25 to 6.25 the ton-possibly less.
  It does not seem at all necessary, however, to look to Eng-
land for the